top of page

Search Results

78 items found for ""

  • Pryor & Trischman |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Pryor & Trischman - Pryor Stores ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Pryor & Trischman Stores - 1908 to 1953 ​ In the Beginning . . . ​ Anna and Elizabeth Trischman were daughters of Ft. Yellowstone post carpenter George Trischman, who came to work in the park in 1899. Upon Ole Anderson’s retirement in 1908, Anna and husband George Pryor purchased the Specimen House at Mammoth that had opened up in 1896. They continued to employ Andrew Wald , who created beautiful sand bottles, until around 1920 or so. In 1912 George Pryor, husband of Anna Trischman, signed over his interests in the store to Elizabeth Trischman and the business became known as Pryor & Trischman. They soon enlarged the business and called their operation the Park Curio & Coffee Shop. They sold ice cream, curios, souvenirs, newspapers, toiletries, coffee, tea, box lunches, and operated a bakery and soda fountain. Left : Specimen House, as purchased by Anna & George Trischman. Leroy Anderson Collection. Right: Pryor & Trischman store in 1917. The addition on the left was basically a mirror image of the original store. YNP #199718-78 Around 1923, they jointly operated a delicatessen with George Whittaker at the new "free auto camp" at lower Mammoth. In 1925 they purchased Whittaker's share on the auto camp operation and added a cafeteria to the operation a few years later. The business was expanded again in 1924 when the women established a small lunch stand at the Devil's Kitchen on the Mammoth Terraces, calling it the Devil's Kitchenette. The Devil’s Kitchen was the deep and narrow cavern of an extinct hot spring. Ladders were built into the vertical cave as early as 1881, and may have been explored with ropes even earlier. It has been said that entering it made one feel as if descending into the depths of the underworld. It was a very popular tourist attraction until closed by the NPS in 1939 Left : The Devil's Kitchen, undated stereoview. Right : Devil's Kitchenette, operated from 1924-1937 Above Left: Park Curio Shop, ca1940, Kropp postcard 13978N Above Right: Cafeteria at the Mammoth Auto Camp, 1939. YNP #185327-414 The Business Expands . . . ​ In 1932 the women branched out and purchased all of George Whittaker's Yellowstone Park Store operations at Mammoth and Canyon. His holdings included an interest in the service station business and general stores at both locations. They now held a monopoly on the store business in the northern portion of the park, with the exception of the Haynes Photo Shops. Charles Hamilton remained in control of the stores in the southern portion of the park. The Pryor & Trischman stores incorporated in 1946 and became known as Pryor Stores, Inc. Anna Pryor held a 2/3 interest in the business, while her sister owned the other third. Formed on October 1, Pryor was President and Trischman Secretary. Above Left : Canyon General Store, 1940s. YNP #47-84 Above Right : Canyon Service Station, 1940s. YNP #47-834 Time for retirement . . . ​ Six years later, after 45 years in business, the women decided to retire and sold out to Charles Hamilton in 1953 for $333,000. According to an insurance audit in September 1950, the Pryor Stores’ property at Mammoth consisted of the Park Curio Shop itself, with a single-story garage and warehouse located behind it, and the general store, service station and single-story employee dormitory located at the rear. Also at Mammoth were the general store, gas station, cafeteria, and dormitory facilities at the Mammoth Auto Camp. The Canyon properties consisted of the single-story general store and gas station, which housed the post office, soda fountain, residence, storage, and a two-story dormitory building located nearby. The women ended up with a profit of just over $100,000 and retired to their home in Los Angeles. Elizabeth Trishman (left) & Anna Pryor (right) at their home in Los Angeles, 1950s, YNP #122107 Anna Pryor died in Los Angeles in 1973 at age 89, and Elizabeth Trischman followed in 1984 at age 98. The Canyon store and gas station were torn down in the early '60s as part of the Mission 66 plan to create a new Canyon Village. The Pryor Coffee Shop at Mammoth was razed in 1984, supposedly due to potential health and safety concerns. The General Store at Mammoth was run by Hamilton Stores until the end of 2002,when Delaware North won the competitive bid process and took over operation of the park stores. The current Mammoth store is the only remaining building in the park from the Pryor & Trischman operation.

  • Yancey's - Roosevelt Lodge |

    Hotels in the Yellowstone Yancey's - Roosevelt Lodge ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yancey's Hotel in Pleasant Valley 1882-1906 Uncle John F, Yancey ​ This colorful character, the sixth of ten children, was born in Barren County, Kentucky in 1826. Described as the weakly child of the family, he outlived them all. He moved with his family to Missouri while he was still a boy. He journeyed to California in 1849, no doubt following the Gold Rush and later spent time on the Santa Fe Trail. Yancey returned east and fought for the cause of the South in the Civil War. After the war he removed to the Bozeman area and Crow country in 1866 and was employed by the government much of the time. Sensing opportunity in the Yellowstone Park, he made arrangement to settle himself along the road from Mammoth Hot Springs to Cooke City. Jack Baronett built a bridge over the Yellowstone River, that was located near Yancey’s site. John Yancey settled into Pleasant Valley in 1882 and built a cabin and mail station to serve the stages and miners enroute to the mines of Cooke City. The area was located near the junction of the Lamar and Yellowstone Rivers, not too far from Baronett's Bridge. The mail route from Gardiner to Cooke City generally took two days in good weather, and mail carriers used Yancey’s as the overnight stop. Yancey had reportedly received verbal permission from Supt. Patrick Conger to establish the mail station to accommodate traffic to Cooke City. Left: Bridge built by Jack Baronett in 1871 over the Yellowstone River, just above its junction with the East Fork of the Yellowstone (Lamar River). [F. Jay Haynes Stereoview] ​ Right: Sketch of John Yancey made by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1897. [From Recreation Magazin e, "ElkLand," Vol. 7, 1897] Yancey received a 10-year lease on 10 acres of land on which to construct his hotel and mail station. He opened the "Pleasant Valley Hotel" in 1884 with a 1-1/2-story log cabin measuring 30' x 50'. It could supposedly accommodate 20 guests in the upstairs bedrooms at a rate of $2/day or $10/week. Yancey erected a 1-1/2-story saloon nearby in 1887 that measured about 20’x20.’ The story goes that his whiskey glasses were undefiled by the touch of water. Yancey knew all the good fishing holes and had plenty of tall tales to amuse people. His establishment attracted fishermen, hunters, and others interested in this quiet part of the park. ​ By 1885, $25,000 had been spent on the construction of a road from the Yellowstone Falls via the east trail over Mount Washburn to Yancey's on the Mammoth Hot Springs road. This road allowed traffic to and from Yancey’s into the heart of Yellowstone, providing addition business traffic. To deal with the increased business, Yancey enlarged his hotel Above Right : Yancey's Hotel & saloon, ca1896. From Burton Holmes Travelogues Below : Yancey's Hotel, undated stereoview, photographer unknown. One Acting Superintendent described Yancey as a “peculiar and interesting old character . . . popular among a large class of people in this section, and also has a few powerful friends in the east . . .” It was also noted that Yancey’s place had “attractions, for a number of people, probably for the very reason of its roughness, and because it is a typical frontier establishment.” Of course that roughness did not appeal to everyone and superintendent Pitcher commented in 1902 that “it is so wretched as to prevent many people from going to his place who [would] do so if he would furnish [them] with a fairly decent fare." ​ Owen Wister ​ That same year, Owen Wister, who later authored The Virginian , was in Yellowstone on a sheep and goat hunting trip. He stopped by Yancey’s and was treated to one of Uncle John’s special elixirs. Wister described the old man as one, ​ “of that frontier type which is no more to be seen; the goat-bearded, shrewd-eyed, lank Uncle Sam type. He and his cabins had been there a long while. The legend ran that he was once a Confederate soldier, and had struck out from the land of the Lost Cause quite unreconstructed, and would never wear blue jeans because blue reminded him of the Union army. He was known as Uncle John by that whole country . . . And then Uncle John led me across the road to—not his wine, but his whisky cellar. Handsome barrels. I came to know it well. He had some sort of fermented stuff made from oranges, which he obtained from California. Mingled properly with whisky, the like of it I have never elsewhere tasted.” Burton Holmes Travelogues ​ World traveler Burton Holmes expressed a similar opinion in his Yellowstone Travelogue during a visit in 1896: “A visit to “Uncle John Yancey’s” ranch is an experience that will be remembered but which will not be repeated. A comic writer might find food for profitable study in the peculiarities of Uncle John, but the ordinary traveler will find neither palatable food nor decent accommodations while at the old man’s “Hotel.” The tenderfoot should not remark the unwashed condition of the two historic glasses into which the proprietor pours the welcoming libation of “Kentucky tea,” for it is Yancey’s boast that his whisky glasses have never been polluted by the contact of so alien a liquid as water. That water is not held in good repute at Yancey’s is evidenced by the location and condition of the “bathing establishment” maintained for the inconvenience of guests who are so perverted as to require more than a pail that serves the needs of the habitués of the primitive caravansary. On the whole it is wiser to leave the park with the impressions of its glories undimmed by memories of Yancey’s Ranch.” Somehow, despite Holmes' unfavorable review, he did devote a fair bit of space to Yancey in the Yellowstone Travelogue, along with a wealth of photos not found elsewhere. Yancey's "dough-wrangler" and all-around helper cooking "Grub," and John Yancey in his corral ca1896. Yancey maintained a small herd of horses, beef and milk cows to help maintain the operation. [ From Burton Holmes Travelogues] I n 1897 Ernest Thompson Seton, sometimes Ernest Seton Thompson, and his wife traveled to Yellowstone and rented and fixed up one of Yancey’s cabins. They spent the next few months studying wildlife nearby Yancey’s Hotel and then ventured through Yellowstone to see and photograph other wildlife. That visit formed the basis on some of his many books. ​ [Recreation Magazine , December 1898] Uncle John traveled to Gardiner in late April to attend the dedication of the new stone arch near the Northern Pacific RR depot. “Teddy” Roosevelt was on hand, along with numerous other dignitaries, and dedicated the arch on April 24. It came to be known as the Roosevelt Arch and still proudly stands today on the edge of Gardiner. ​ John Burroughs, in his Camping and Tramping with Roosevelt , remarked that during Roosevelt’s trip through Yellowstone in 1903 with Burroughs and others, “We spent two nights in our Tower Falls camp, and on the morning of the third day set out on our return to Fort Yellowstone, pausing at Yancey's on our way, and exchanging greetings with the old frontiersman, ​ Yancey took sick after attending the dedication of the new arch in Gardiner in 1903. The Anaconda newspaper reported on May 6 that, “Word was received late Monday night, first by telegraph and later by telephone, that "Uncle John” Yancey, pioneer in the Yellowstone park, having lived there more than 30 years . . . was dying. Both messages were directed to Assistant County Attorney Daniel Yancey, nephew of the pioneer. The telegram stated that '‘Uncle John" was sick, confined to bed, but the word over the 'phone was urgent and to the effect that the old settler was sinking fast.” Yancey passed away the next day, on May 7th at age 77. Above Right: John F. Yancey Photo taken at the C.E. Finn photographic studio in Livingston, Mt. [YNP #939] ​ Left: Photo of Yancey's headstone in Gardiner's Tinker Hill Cemetery. [Photo by the author] Right: Headline from the Butte Miner, May 8, 1903. The Gardiner Wonderland reported on the 14th, that the funeral procession was the largest ever seen and most of the businesses had closed their doors for the funeral and procession. At the funeral service held at Tinker’s Hill cemetery, where the Rev. E. Smith of Livingston, offered a prayer and eulogy. The minister expressed the generally held opinion that, “The esteem in which “Uncle John” Yancey was held in this community [Gardiner] where he was best known, was shown in the very great concern of people who paid a last tribute to his memory. From everywhere around came those who had known him in life, until the procession was much the largest ever seen here. Nearly all business houses closed and as the procession filed by the government and railroad works, all business was suspended.” Described as among the class of men renowned as “pioneers, first settlers, old timers, etc. . . [they lived a] hardy, rugged, rough and ready life . . . [where] the hardships born; the stalwart purposes developed can not be too extravagantly spoken of. All of this has brought peace, comforts, and prosperity to this present generation and insures the same to succeeding generations.” The End is Near for Yancey's Hotel ​ On April 16, 1906 fire destroyed the hotel building. The Butte Daily Post reported soon after that; “A fire originating in a defective flue is reported to have completely destroyed the old Yancey hotel property in the Yellowstone park Monday night. Uncle John Yancey built and opened the hotel over twenty years ago, and it was a very popular resort for park tourists. The loss is about $5,000. Dan Yancey, who succeeded to the ownership and management of the hotel upon the death of Uncle John, says a new hotel will be built on the site of the old [one] this summer, and tents will be used in the interim for the accommodation of travelers.” The following year Dan applied for permission to continue the business at a location closer to where a new road was being constructed. Permission was denied and the original lease was revoked in November of that year. However, a lease was issued to the Wylie Permanent Camps Co. to establish a camp nearby. The camp was located at the junction of the Mammoth-Cooke City-Mt Washburn/Canyon roads. the camp became the Roosevelt Lodge in the 1920s. The saloon and remaining buildings were razed in the 1960's. Camp Roosevelt & Roosevelt Lodge 1917 - Present Wylie Camping Company ​ Roosevelt Tent Camp was established by the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. in 1906. A bathhouse was built at nearby Nymph Spring, which had been used since at least the 1870s as a bathing/soaking spring by early pioneers and explorers. The guest accommodations were wood-floored tents covered with red and white candy-striped canvas and furnished with simple, rustic furniture. The camp could handle up to 125 guests. A communal dining tent served family-style meals. The area appealed to those who desired a more isolated area and catered to fisherman, wildlife enthusiasts, and horseback riders. Above: Roosevelt Lodge in 1923, surrounded by a combination of tent cabins and wooden cabins. [Yellowstone Park Camps Co brochure, 1923, courtesy Univ of Wyoming Library] Right: Wylie Camping Co., Camp Roosevelt, ca1907. [Underwood & Underwood stereoview] Camp Roosevelt ​ Camp Roosevelt was originally named by the Wylie Camping Co. to honor President Theodore Roosevelt, who was rumored to have camped on the site during his camping trip in 1903. The actual camp site was located at the old Tower Soldier Station, about one and a half miles south of the camp and the Roosevelt Lodge. The rustic log lodge show above was built on the site of the former Wylie Camp in 1919-20 by the Yellowstone Parks Camps Co. and was originally known as Camp Roosevelt. Construction began in the fall of 1919 and was completed the following year. The 1-story building rested on a rubble-stone foundation and utilized unpeeled logs for the walls. It measured 90’ by 50’ with an “L” extension of 29’ by 59’. A covered porch extended across the front of the building and wrapped around the southeast side. In 1924, Vernon Goodwin bought the camp from Howard Hays and Roe Emory in 1924, retaining the same company name. Around 1927 Goodwin renamed the company the Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. The "Camps" at Mammoth Hot Springs, Lake, Canyon, OF and Roosevelt became 'Lodges.' Left: Camp Roosevelt, ca1920, Real-Photo postcard. Right: Camp Roosevelt, 1922. [Haynes PC #22738] The lodge featured two stone fireplaces, a dining room lounge, kitchen and rustic furnishings. Roosevelt Lodge was not a part of the standard tour package and tourists had to pay extra to include that area in their trip. Therefore visitation here was never as great as in other locations, but was a favored location for fishermen and horseback riding. Left: Camp Roosevelt, interior and stone fireplace, 1922. [Haynes PC #22740] During the years 1920-29, 37 cabins and 26 tent cabins were constructed, along with other utility buildings. By 1929, three groups of tourist cabins had been established at Camp Roosevelt. These included: six log cabins and one "rustic-frame” cabin located south southeast of the Lodge; 18 board-and-batten, rustic-frame, tent cabins located southeast of the lodge, and 18 rustic-frame cabins located northeast of the Lodge. In the 1920s, bathroom and shower facilities were added to the Camp Roosevelt complex. Two bathrooms were constructed adjacent to the southeast and northeast cabin groups. These were simple buildings, of frame construction with wood-shingled gable roofs. They also served as a public wash room for transient guests — people who come in only for lunch and did not have a cabin. Left: Log & board rustic cabins at Camp Roosevelt. Facing the lodge, these would have been somewhere to the right side. [Undated Real-Photo postcard] Right: Tent and wooden cabins located to the left of the lodge, 1925. Note the larger bench surrounding the "Roosevelt Tree." [ YNP #36505] Upper Left: The "Roosevelt Lodge" name appears on this Haynes postcard in 1927. [Haynes PC #27468] ​ Lower Left: Roosevelt Lodge ca1930, with the local bear entertaining two young ladies. Note the log bench has again been changed. [ YNP #185328-270] ​ Right: Article from the Anaconda Standard , June 1, 1919, describing the naming of "Camp Roosevelt." This was an official government name now, as opposed to the corporate name from the Wylie days. Click to enlarge. The lodge was closed in 1933-34 due to the Great Depression and the housekeeping cabins at the Tower campground were closed in 1934. A few years later about 70 cabins were moved in to Roosevelt from Mammoth Lodge. By 1939 running water was provided to all of the cabins. World War II again closed the lodge from 1943-46. The southeast section of the lodge building was removed around 1947. ​ All of the tent cabins were removed by 1950 and in 1962 thirteen cabins from Old Faithful Lodge were hauled in. The lodge and about 97 cabins units are still available for guest use and are operated by Xanterra Parks & Lodges. Yellowstone Forest and Trail Camp for Boys and Young Men ​ This camp was established in 1921 at Roosevelt to provide outdoors’ skills to young boys. It opened July 1 for a seven-week term. Alvin G. Whitney of Syracuse University of New York was the Director. The staff was composed of naturalists, foresters, and artists who instructed the students in photographing wild game, studying the fauna and flora, fishing, and mountain climbing. Informative auto tours were conducted to study the many park features and wildlife. The camp was designed for boys 12 to 18 years of age and emphasized character building. Meals were served in the Camp Roosevelt Lodge. There were tent cabins, simple wooden cabins, council house, shower baths, and a swimming pool. The boys were expected to provide for themselves, pocket kodak, flashlight, small sheath-knife, binoculars, knapsack, canteen, hand lens, compass, pocket notebook, fishing tackle, hatchet, and waterproof matches, in addition to a proscribed collection of varied clothing and boots.. A brochure from 1921 made the pitch that, “Every boy should have the opportunity to experience the simple and elemental in wild nature at the most imaginative and plastic age, while life-long interests are being developed. During that golden period of altruism a deepening interest in nature may well serve to mould his character and direct his pleasures permanently in the noblest channels.” Although the project seemed to be a noble venture, it unfortunately was short-lived and after the 1923 season, it closed due to financial losses. Upper Left: Boy's Camp main lodge building. [YNP #31831] ​ Lower Left: Advertisement for the Forest and Trail Camp. Click to enlarge [ Newspaper ad from 1921, author's collection] ​ Upper Right: Boy's Camp lodge building with tent cabins. [YNP #193429-75] Stage Rides & Cookouts The now famous stagecoach rides and steak cookout at Yancey’s Hole n Pleasant Valley began in the summer of 1959. An article from the Spokesman Review of Spokane Wash. proclaimed, “For the first time in many years, old-fashioned stagecoaches and tallyhos (horse-drawn sightseeing carriages) will operate in Yellowstone park from Roosevelt lodge to Pleasant valley. Morning and evening rides to Yancey s Hole will be featured where breakfasts arid barbecue dinners will be served.” A Yellowstone Park Co. brochure from the early 1960s invited guests to, “Clamber aboard a stagecoach for an exciting jaunt into the past . . . The sturdy Concord coaches, luxurious vehicles at their time, [1886-1916] may in the softness of the present seem like Roosevelt rough riders.” At that time, a mere $1.75 allowed one to step back into Yellowstone’s past. By 1966, five bucks would gain one a coach ride with steak, French fries, a vegetable and coffee at the historic Yancey’s Hole. The Boston Globe that year waxed, “Barbecue smoke and the aroma of coffee hang heavy on pine-scented air while the sun falls behind the nearby Rockies. Later the stage rattles home, fording a stream, trailing a cloud of dust that glows red in the dying light of day.” The Concord Tally-Ho ruled the road there for many a year, but in later times rubber-wheeled wagons did most of the hauling of guests. They were safer and easier for less-experienced wranglers to drive. The days when a jehu who knew how to wield the ribbons of four or six horse teams and expertly crack the whip had rapidly faded. Although in recent years a replica Talley Ho was built in the Xanterra garage/shop for use at Roosevelt. ​ One visitor in 1966, who seemed to have enjoyed his journey into the past, related his impressions: ​ At Roosevelt Lodge we climbed aboard a yellow stagecoach for a steak fry in the peaceful surroundings of Pleasant Valley. The 30-minute ride with steak, French fries, vegetable, coffee and dessert comes to $5. Children go for half price. Barbecue smoke and the aroma of coffee hang heavy on pine-scented air while the sun falls behind the nearby Rockies. Later the stage rattles home, fording a stream, trailing a cloud of dust that glows red in the dying light of day. [24Jul1966 Boston Globe ]

  • Cinnabar |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Cinnabar, Mont. & The Northern Pacific RR ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Valley of Cinnabar, ca1883. A Boudoir-Series Cabinet Card by photographer Carleton Watkins. The Early Days . . . . The small community of Cinnabar was located three or four miles north of Gardiner and was the temporary end-of-line station of the first railroad service to Yellowstone National Park. It was the primary gateway to the park from 1883 to 1903. The town’s name derived from nearby Cinnabar Mountain, named during the mid-1860s by miners who originally thought the ‘red streak’ on the mountain was the mercury ore cinnabar. In August 1870, the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition observed the formation and named it The Devil's Slide. ​ . A traveler in 1874 noted that Cinnabar Mountain was, “prominent for its height and isolation from it compeers, and significant from the fact that the Devil took a slide down its Eastern slope when he was apparently red-hot, leaving in his wake a well-defined trail that can be seen for fifty miles, having the appearance of fire-clay.” [Bozeman Avant Courier, 4Sep 1874] Devil's Slide, photographed by Wm. Henry Jackson in 1871. The Bozeman Weekly Chronicle published a Song of Cinnabar Waters on April 18, 1883, based on an unfortunate drunken row, when David Kennedy shot his boon companion James Armstrong. The "Vanderbilt" was a silver watch willed to “Davie” in the event of James’ death. It may have been penned by William Davis, who was deemed "The Poet Laureate of Yellowstone." A portion of the song follows: CINNABAR. Long, long ago, one could easily see, Yellowstone Valley had been on a spree: The mountains were raised, the canyons were sunk, And old Mother Earth got terribly drunk. The devil got as drunk as a devil could be And slid to the bottom of Cln-na-bar-ee! Fill up your demijohn, fill up your can, A health to the devil, damnation to man ! Give Davie my Vanderbllt, let him go free, To slide when he pleases down Cln-na-bar-ee! Not long ago, It was Sunday, and we Sent three of our boys down for Cln-na-bar-ee Mad-day Is moon’s-day, each emptied his cup, Reason ran down, and our passions ran up. Bullets were flying, and two entered me, Perhaps I am dying, from Cln-na-bar-ee. Beginnings of Cinnabar City . . . Abel Bart Henderson, who began prospecting around Yellowstone in 1867, started building a road in 1871 from Bottler’s Ranch near Emigrant to Mammoth Hot Springs. He acquired land around Stevens Creek and he and his brothers established a ranch in 1877. Clarence Stevens, George Huston, and Joe Keeney all owned parts of the land at various times. Huston and Keeney purchased part of the Henderson Ranch at Stephens Creek Nov. 19, 1883, which totaled 116.45 acres. Apparently Keeney retained some land for himself and built a ranch, and they resold the rest later that year to Carroll T. Hobart, a Northern Pacific RR Superintendent and manager of the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. A plat map was created and the site became the town of Cinnabar. Construction on the Northern Pacific's Park Branch Line began in April of 1883 from Livingston to Cinnabar and was open for business on September 1 of that year and in 1884 began in earnest transporting tourists to enjoy the breathtaking beauties of Wonderland. The Cinnabar Town Site Co. was later incorporated in 1895 by J.D. Finn, H.J. Hoppe, and A.J. Campbell. Reportedly, Hugo Hoppe and family moved into the Cinnabar area ca1883, where Hugo created his freighting company to haul goods from the new railhead in Cinnabar to and from the mines at Cooke City, Montana. He also engaged in other enterprises over the years. During 1884-1885 Hugo managed the new National Hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs. He managed the Cinnabar Hotel from Jan.-Jun. of the following year. More of that later. Cinnabar Townsite in 1884. The town is still quite desolate at this point. The building behind the rail car at left may have been the Wakefield-Hoffman stables. The first year or so, the NPRR used two sleeping cars and a dining car for travelers until other accommodations were available. [F. Jay Haynes photo, Montana Historical Society ] Undated photo of the H.J. Hoppe Ranch, just south of Cinnabar. The view is toward the Yellowstone River. [Billings Gazette, 7Sep1958] The Northern Pacific RR Moves in . . . . A land dispute regarding Buckskin Jim Cutler's mining claims between Cinnabar and Gardiner prevented the railroad from extending the line to Gardiner, the desired destination. A small town quickly grew up around the Cinnabar depot and provided basic visitor services. The post office opened in 1882, in anticipation of the railroad's arrival and a small depot was soon built to accommodate travelers to the park. The Butte Miner announced on Aug. 29, 1883 that, "The Yellowstone National Park branch of the Northern Pacific railroad is now completed to Cinnabar, 51 miles south of Livingston, and will be open for business on Sept. 1st, after which time parties can go directly to the park without staging." ​ GARDINER DEFEATS CINNABAR FOR THe YELLOWSTONE LINE Gardiner, located within a few Inches of the line of the Yellowstone park, is to have a railroad within a few weeks, the Northern Pacific having decided to extend Its park branch from Cinnabar to that town at once. These two towns are only four miles apart, but ever since the park branch was built, the Cinnabars have had the best of It. There are only 250 of them when they are all at home, which is not often, but notwithstanding the small number they have been up and doing. Think of a town of 250 persons having its own electric lighting plant and water works! Gardiner has both, and in their possession the place bears the distinction of being the only one of its size in the United States that can afford such high class luxury. Heretofore Cinnibar [sic] has been the jumping-off place for Yellowstone park tourists, but hereafter it will take off its hat and with bland smile and a low courtesy exclaim, “After you, my dear Gardiner! [Butte Daily Post, 13 May1902] Beginnings of the Stagecoach Era . . . George W. Wakefield and Charles W. Hoffman of Bozeman established the Wakefield & Hoffman stage line early in 1883 and provided service from Cinnabar to Mammoth and into the park under an exclusive agreement with Yellowstone Park Association (YPA). The Helena Independent Record announced on July 2, 1884, that, “this week, the coaches, jerkies, and single and double "buckboards, numbering about forty vehicles in all, belonging to Wakefield & Hoffman, were moved from Bozeman to Cinnabar and Mammoth Hot Springs, to be in readiness for the accommodation of park tourists.” They had previously operated from Livingston to Cinnabar until NPRR’s line was open to Cinnabar. Top Right: Wakefield & Hoffman's Stage Line ad. 25Jan1884, Livingston Daily Enterprise . Bottom Right: Geo. W. Wakefield's Bozeman and National Park Stage Line letterhead from Dec. 16, 1883. Top: Northern Pacific RR train at the station in Cinnabar, 1894. The locomotive in number 418. [F.J. Haynes photo, Montana Historical Society ] Bottom: Passengers alighting from train and loading on coaches for a trip to Wonderland, ca1896. The Depot is in the background. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905 version] Top: Passengers unloading from a Northern Pacific RR car Cinnabar, ca1896. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905 version] Bottom: Train passengers loading on coaches for a trip to Yellowstone, ca1896. The building on far left appears to be Wakefield & Ennis office, who conducted camping excursions into Yellowstone 1896-1897. White bldg on far right is the W.A. Hall Store, with the Cinnabar Store to its left. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905 version] Beginning in the 1884 Yellowstone summer season (June to mid-Sept), trains ran daily from Livingston to Cinnabar, in both directions transporting tourists in and out of Yellowstone. (During the off-season trains ran one to three days a week, depending on demand) Wakefield bought out Hoffman at the end of 1885, and was the primary stage operator until he was squeezed out late in 1891. Most visitors utilized the services of the authorized transportation carrier of the Yellowstone National Park Improvement Co. (Yellowstone Park Association in 1886 and Yellowstone Park Transportation Co in 1892). With these companies passengers would ride in Tally-Ho stagecoaches led by a team of six horses from Cinnabar to the National Hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs. From there smaller 4-horse, 8-10 passenger Abbot Downing Concord coaches would carry the guests around the park, staying at different hotels for 5-6 nights before returning to Cinnabar and the train to Livingston. Other transportation/camping companies for the traveling public were also available, including, A.W. Chadbourn in 1884, the Wylie Camping Co. by the 1890s, a number of smaller private coach companies and by the late 1890s, the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Wylie and Shaw & Powell utilized portable tent camps with all the comforts possible, and were located at all the major points of interest, with Lunch Stations along the route. Some tourists opted to hire their own carriage and these “sage brushers” traveled the park on their own accord. These companies all operated out of Cinnabar until 1903. W.W. Wylie Camping Co . Cinnabar ad in the Helena Independent Record , 14Aug1896 A.W. Chadbourn information from the Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 1Jan1900 Shaw & Powell Camping Co. information from the Livingston Enterprise Souvenir, 1Jan1900 With the formation of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co (YPTCo) in 1892, and their pressure to create transportation monopoly in Yellowstone, Chadbourn and many of the other small, private transportation operators were kicked out of the park after the 1893 season, however Wylie managed to continue his operation and Chadbourn and a few others managed to regain their privileges. Freight operations also developed to service the hotels in the park, the Army at Ft. Yellowstone, and the mines at Jardine, Cooke City, and Horr. Hugo and W.M. Hoppe were operating the Cinnabar & Cooke Transportation Co. at least by 1886, hauling freight from the railhead at Cinnabar to the mines in Cooke City and stops in between. They also hauled freight for YPA. National Park Hack & Express Line Frank M. Hobbs and Lawrence Link Livingston Enterprise , 9Sep1884 Cinnabar and Cooke Transportation W.M. Hoppe Livingston Enterprise , 4Dec1886 Cooke Transportation Line A.T. French Livingston Enterprise , 30Nov1889 Geo. Eastman of Rochester, New York, together with his mother, Mr. and Mrs. Walter Scott Hubbell and Dr. E.W.. Mulligan and wife passed through town [Yakima WA] on the west bound overland Saturday morning, The party has been on the road for the past three weeks stopping at all points of interest, but remaining most of the time in Yellowstone Park. Their itinerary for the next three weeks will be via Portland, Vancouver, Bampf Springs [Banff] and St. Paul thence back to Rochester. Eastman has a national reputation derived from the great kodak which he perfected and Walter Scott Hubbell is considered one of the greatest lawyers in Western New York. [Yakima Herald, WA, 22Jul1902] ​ Mr. George Eastman of Kodak fame is now touring the west accompanied by a party of friends. The party is traveling on the private Pullman car Pilgrim. Mr. Eastman was to have come west over the C.P.R. [Canadian Pacific RR], but owing to the recent suspension of traffic he came west from Rochester, New York, over the Northern Pacific. He returns East over the C.P.R., making stops at Banff, Field [Yoho Nat'l Park] and the various other mountain resorts ls on the line of the railway in this province. [The Province, Vancouver, 15Jul1902] Coaches on road between Cinnabar and Gardiner, July 1902. One of the few known images of stages on that section of road. [Courtesy Eastman Museum , 2006.0126.0072] Coaches on road between Cinnabar and Gardiner, July 1902. The carriage at left appears to be from one of the various camping companies. [Courtesy Eastman Museum , 2006.0126.0069 & 0070] Northern Pacific Pullman Cars at Cinnabar, July 1902. The building at right may have been a freight depot at the east end of town. [Courtesy Eastman Museum, 2006.0126.0069] ​ Left: George Eastman and Walter Walter Hubbell along the road from Cinnabar to Gardiner. Hubbell was a close friend and vice-president of the Eastman Kodak Co. [Courtesy Eastman Museum, 2006.0126.0065] Right : Maria Eastman, George Eastman's mother, and her nurse aboard Coach 38, Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., at an undisclosed location in Yellowstone. [Courtesy Eastman Photographic Collection Y119] ​ A Lady's Trip to the Yellowstone Park By O.S.T. Drake ​ A Brief Description of the Cinnabar Hotel in 1887 ". . . Livingstone, on the Northern Pacific Line, is the station whence we took our departure for the National Park, by a short line 57 miles in length, which deposited us at Cinnabar, ten miles from the Mammoth Springs . . . Cinnabar, where the line terminated, consisted of a wayside saloon and a few huts. From here we drove to the Mammoth Springs" "That night [after leaving Canyon on their return] we slept in tents at Norris' Camp, breakfasted early and departed, reaching the Mammoth Springs again at noon ; then on to Cinnabar; the scenery very lovely. High on a sharp rock above the Yellowstone river we spied the eyrie of an eagle, which resembled a mass of sticks on the edge of a perfectly inaccessible rock. There sat the eagle, showing her white throat, sunning herself in her majestic solitude. The hotel at Cinnabar turned out to be a little timber house, consisting of a bar and back parlour, and two or three bed-rooms above. A married couple kept the house ; the wife said she had never had a lady under her roof before. They gave me a very clean bed-room, provided with the only jug and basin in the house. There was no door, but she nailed a sheet over the door-way and unnailed it in the morning ; the food was excellent, and the good woman waxed quite pathetic in her regrets over the fact that we were hardly likely again to meet in this world. Next morning we took the train at Livingstone, and pursued our journey to New York." From: "Every Girl’s Annual" 1887. Edited by Alicia A. Leith Reminisce from Al H. Wilkins, Yellowstone stage driver, as told to Grace Stone Coates Great Falls Tribune, 23 Feb 1933. IN 1885-86 the little town of Cinnabar was a lively place. It was the terminus of the Yellowstone park branch of the Northern Pacific railroad, where tourists transferred to horse-drawn coaches. Just across a little divide four miles away the town of Gardiner was coming into being. At Cinnabar the late Hugo Hoppe was in business. He ran stage lines in the park and on the Cooke City road on the side. Joe Keeney was keeping one of the two or three saloons In the place and running a boarding house. The late Billy Hall was running a store there, as were the Hefferlin brothers. There were a few other business houses and a few private dwellings. It was a lively place. A man could get anything from a black eye to a horse race. These were wild and wooly days, with little law and less order. Horse racing was the common Sunday amusement and sometimes the races resulted In a “drunk” being killed. But no one thought much about it. When an accident happened, the body was burled and the program went on. A man could get quick action on his money in Cinnabar, whether in a stud poker game, a foot race or a horse race, and the sky was the limit. Affairs of Business . . . A number of business operations were conducted in Cinnabar between from 1883 - 1903. Although the community got off to a slow start, businesses increased their presence as tourist crowds increased. Some of these businesses are listed below, in no particular order. Obviously not all operated at the same time, and several are the same but with different owners/managers: ​ Hugo J. Hoppe, among the earliest gold miners at Virginia City Mt., he came to Cinnabar in the mid 1880s and received title to 160 acres of land in the area. He formed the Cinnabar and Cooke Transportation Co. and by 1885 had reportedly established the somewhat crude log Cinnabar Hotel that came under the ownership of several individuals over the years including his son Walter, who had been managing the saloon associated with the hotel. A stable and blacksmith shop was also a part of the hotel operation. Cinnabar Hotel The history of the Cinnabar Hotel(s) is confusing at best, with a multitude of owners/proprietors over the years. Joe Keeney, one of the original land owners in the area, established a hotel with related stables, barns, etc., at least by 1885, also and guided early visitors through Yellowstone. He also maintained a saloon in connection with the hotel. The Livingston Enterprise noted in June 1886 that H.J. Hoppe had been leasing the hotel for the first six months of 1886, and that Keeney was regaining proprietorship at the end of Hoppe's lease. A year later the paper again announced that Keeney was operating the hotel, when the Livingston Enterprise described him as, "the irrepressible proprietor of the Tourists’ Pleasure Resort.". He was again noted as running the hotel in 1887 in conjunction with a saloon and livery stable. In December 1888, the Enterprise disclosed that, "Joe Keeney, of Cinnabar, has sold his hotel and saloon business, at that place, to A T. French. The deal was conciliated in Livingston on Thursday, both parties being here." French later passed it on to M.T Williams in December 1889, who sold it to John F. Work in April 1890. In May 1891, Work "disposed of his interest in the Cinnabar hotel, furniture and fixtures. to William A. Hall for a consideration of $900. Mr. Hall, who has been manager of that hostelry during the past year, will make material improvements in the service to accommodate the increasing business." As noted in a photo below, the author believes Hall made substantial physical changes to the hotel/store, both interior and exterior. In June 1892, H.J Hoppe was listed as 'managing' the hotel. The article also mentioned that Joe Keeney was running a lodging house and eating house that was "liberally patronized." Confused yet?? It has been written that sometime after 1892, the Hoppe family gained control of the Cinnabar Hotel (which one?) and operated it through 1903. Some sources say it was run by the family after that point in time, perhaps to sagebrushers or other travelers not using the railroad. Lee B. Hoppe , Hugo’s son, operated the Cinnabar Store, advertised in 1892 as the only store in town. T.J. Loughlin & F.R. Brazil operated a restaurant and saloon in the mid-1880s. W.A. Hall , Golden Rule Cash Store beginning in 1892 and operated camping outfit with teams, wagons & drivers. The W.A. Hall Co. housed a general store, a beer hall and a restaurant. Hall closed the store down and moved his stock to Gardiner in 1903 He also operated a store at Aldridge. O.M. Hefferlin of Livingston operated the OK Store for time. Larry Link , later of Gardiner fame, ran a saloon and pool hall with Alfred R. Christie. He reportedly also operated the Link & George saloon. ​ Smith & Holem Stage & Transportation , "a specialty of catering to the desires of tourists in furnishing local camps with hacks, carriages and saddle horses for their conveyances. Competent drivers and guides are provided, with headquarters at Cinnabar, Montana." 1903 ​ M.A. Holem , "This general store has had a successful business career, first starting in August, 1897, with a small stock in a room at the corner of Main street and South avenue. By trying to please the public in honest prices and just deal ings, M. A. Holem was forced to establish herself in larger quarters, now occupying the post office building near the Park line depot. ​ Hobbs & Link , National Park Hack & Express Line, 1884 Earley & Holmes , Livery Feed and Sale Horses, ca1883-84 W.W. Wylie , who operated the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. into and around Yellowstone, maintained a barn and livery for his equipment to transport visitors on tours of the park. Shaw & Powell arranged camping trips into the park from the Cinnabar Depot and no doubt had some transportation facilities in the area. A.T. French operated the Cooke Transportation Line in the late 1880s. A.W. Chadbourn provided passenger service to Yellowstone in 1884 and later operated a park camping company in conjunction with his business. Wilbur Williams , Daily Stage & Express, Yellowstone, Gardiner, Cinnabar ​ Wakefield & Hoffman , Yellowstone Park stagecoach operations. ​ Wakefield & Ennis , operated camping tours into Yellowstone for at least 1896-1897. ​ M.T. Williams , ran the Cinnabar Hotel for a time. During 1898 the Report of the Acting Superintendent of Yellowstone listed the following parties from Cinnabar licensed to guide camping parties into the park: AW Chadbourn, CC Chadbourn, EC Sandy, CT Smith, Frank Holem, Adam Gassert, WJ Kupper, Henry George, JW Taylor, HM Gore, RH Menefee and GW Reese. 1900 Census . . . The Census of 1900 listed 94 persons living in Cinnabar. Occupations was were varied, but many falling into the category of Teamsters, Park Guides, and Day Laborers. There were, of course a smattering of bartenders/saloon keepers, store clerks, a couple of blacksmiths, a hotel keeper, carpenter, coal miner, and a barber. Many folks did not list an occupation. Cinnabar Hotel ads from the Livingston Enterprise in Jan 1886, 1889, and 1891 respectively. Left Top: Cinnabar Hotel (center left) and O.K. Store on right, ca1890. [Courtesy Autry Museum] Left Bottom: Cinnabar Hotel, ca1890. [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , iJan1900] Right: W.A. Hall General Merchandise store, ca1895. There is a restaurant in the building and the A-B-C Saloon. The Cinnabar Store is to the right. [Livingston Enterprise , 20Jun1933] Below: Cinnabar townsite, ca1890. The taller building right center is the Cinnabar Hotel. The white building to its right may have become the O.K. Store a few years later. The image has been cropped for better visibility. [Photo courtesy of the Doris Whithorn Collection, Yellowstone Gateway Museum] Upon careful study of the windows and door of the store to the immediate left of the Hotel (above left), and the W.A. Hall store, the author believes that building later became the W.A. Hall General merchandise store (above right). It would have been added on to the left and upper floor and front remodeled. In May of 1891, the Livingston Enterprise noted, "John F. Work has disposed of his interest in the Cinnabar hotel, furniture and fixtures. to William A. Hall for a consideration of $900. Mr. Hall, who has been manager of that hostelry during the past year, will make material improvements in the service to accommodate the increasing business. Left Top: Lawrence Link Saloon and Pool Hall [Livingston Enterprise, 4Jun1892] Left Bottom: Loughlin & Brazil Saloon and Restaurant [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 25Apr1885] Top Left: Earley & Holmes Livery & Stables [Livingston Daily Enterprise , 24Apr1883] Top Right: Frank Holem, Blacksmithing & Horseshoeing. [Livingston Enterprise, 26Mar1903] The Coal Mines . . . Horr (named Electric after 1904) was the site of the coke ovens of the Park Coke and Coal Company. The name was bestowed upon it in honor of either Harry Horr, the discoverer of the coal mines in the vicinity, or Major Jos. L. Horr, who in 1884 opened up, the coal mines. On Oct 22, 1887, The Livingston Enterprise announced the shipment of the first three carloads of coal on the Park train to Livingston and Butte. The village itself came into existence in 1888 as a result of the commencement of operations there by the Park Coal & Coke Co. The coal was mined nearby in a community that acquired the name of Aldridge in 1896. On July 1, 1888 the Horr post office opened with Laura A. Pinkston as postmistress. During the nineties the Montana Coal & Coke company became the owners of the property and by the year 1900 quite rapid advancement was made in the little village owing to the increased activities of the company. [An Illustrated history of the Yellowstone Valley, Western Historical Publishing Co., Spokane WA, 1907] Cinnabar was also an important rail station for the gold mines of Bear Gulch/Jardine and Cooke City areas. Mining supplies were carried to Cinnabar from all over the country and delivered by various freight carriers in Cinnabar for transport to these areas. Gold, silver, and other ores and bullion were likewise transported by rail from Cinnabar, as was travertine from the quarries above Gardiner. Left: Post card view of Electric, formerly Horr, with the coke oven in front. The Yellowstone River is in the far background. Cinnabar was a few miles up the valley to the right. Closing of the mines at Aldridge spelled doom for the town of Electric and by 1915 the post office closed. Right: Post card view of the town of Aldridge, located up in the mountains and situated along a lake. The town of Lake was in existence by 1894. It had also been called Little Horr and The Camp at the Lake, and was later renamed Aldridge. Labor problems closed down the mines in 1910, with the post office closing by the end of the year. The Final Days . . . . In 1902 the land dispute with Jim Cutler was finally settled and the rail line continued on to Gardiner as originally planned. This move rang the death knell of the town of Cinnabar, and the small community quickly faded away after that time and the once bustling town turned into a ghost town. Cinnabar was removed as a station stop on May 3, 1903, and the post office was closed shortly after on June 15. An effort was made by the railroad to change the name of Gardiner to Cinnabar, to maintain the existing 20-year legacy of that station name, but the proud residents of Gardiner soundly defeated that effort. Many of the Cinnabar buildings were moved into Gardiner, while others were transported to Horr. The rail depot was loaded onto a flatcar and hauled into Gardiner where it was used as the freight depot. The only remaining evidences of the site today are some depressions in the ground, a few foundation stones, and broken pieces of glass and ceramics scattered over the flats. Billings Gazette , 10Apr1903 Butte Miner , 30May1903 1920 View of Gardiner. The Cinnabar Depor can be seen at left within the circle. Cinnabar - The Western White House . . . In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt engaged on a grand western tour, taking him to Chicago, north through Wisconsin, Minnesota and North Dakota. Roosevelt and his companion, famed naturalist writer John Burroughs, arrived at Gardiner, Montana by train on April 8, 1903. The two men were greeted by their host, acting-superintendent Major John Pitcher. According to the Livingston Enterprise on Aug. 7, “President Theodore Roosevelt will arrive in Livingston tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock from Billings. He will leave Billings at 5:40 o'clock. The president and his party will remain in Livingston only fifteen minutes and will then proceed to Cinnabar, at which place he will arrive at 12:30 o’clock and vyill be met by Troop C of the Third cavalry, Major Pitcher commanding. All of the party traveling with the president, with the exception of John Burroughs and Dr. P. M. Rixey, surgeon general of the navy, will remain in the private train at Cinnabar.” While the President was making merry on his wanderings in Wonderland, the remainder of the party left stranded in Cinnabar seemed to not be particularly thrilled with their plight and the area. The Butte Daily Post commented on the 10th that, “Cinnabar, near the entrance to the Yellowstone National park, the present seat of the executive offices of the nation, isn't an attractive place. It has no public parks, no theaters, no extensive society, no charming homes, no palatial hotel. In fact, there isn’t much at Cinnabar except a depot, a few houses, a store, a livery stable, two saloons and, at present, a bunch of exceedingly bored gentlemen from Washington. The president's special train stands on a siding near the depot, and in it the aforesaid bunch lives and eats and drinks and smokes and wonders what on earth to do. All hands sit around all day and deplore in fervid language the fate which keeps them tied up at a place like Cinnabar. They look down on the river towards Horr and the Devil's Slide meets their eyes—but the devil refuses to slide for their edification. They look up the river and they see only bare hills, with some snowpeaks rising in the distance, but there no longer is anything interesting in the view. Now and again some miners come over from Horr and whoop things up a little at one of the two saloons, but they refuse to go to the length of fighting or doing anything actually exciting.” Roosevelt and his party, guided by Thomas Elwood Hofer, headed out the next morning for a tour of Yellowstone. On April 16, after a return to Fort Yellowstone, the presidential party again packed up the camp and traveled to the geyser basins in a horse-drawn sleigh, accompanied by Park concessionaire Harry Childs. The sleds eventually reached Norris Geyser Basin, where the party spent the night at the Norris Hotel. Proceeding the next day to the Fountain Hotel, they continued on to the Upper Geyser Basin where he watched the eruption of Old Faithful geyser. After viewing the famous geysers in the Upper Geyser Basin, Roosevelt returned to the Norris Hotel for another night’s stay, working their way from Norris to the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone The President's Western Trip Harper's Weekly, 4Jul1903 Click to enlarge. President Roosevelt's Special Train at Cinnabar, Montana Underwood & Underwood Stereoview Click to enlarge. As the trip ended, Roosevelt returned to Mammoth Hot Springs, where he agreed to speak at the Masonic cornerstone-laying ceremony on the 24th for the future archway located at the northern entrance to Yellowstone, which would later bear his name. In his speech dedicating the arch, Roosevelt praised Yellowstone. “The geysers, the extraordinary hot springs, the lakes, the mountains, the canyons, and cataracts unite to make this region something not wholly to be paralleled elsewhere on the globe,” Roosevelt proclaimed. “It must be kept for the benefit and enjoyment of all of us.” Boarding his train after the ceremony, he headed north to Livingston and east toward Washington D.C., making a multitude of 'whistle-stops' along the route.bound east for Omaha. It had been a proud and exciting few weeks for the folks of Gardiner and Cinnabar Post Script: The Cinnabar & Clark Fork Railroad Late in 1883 efforts were made by the mining interests in Cooke City and the NPRR to extend the Park Branch line beyond Gardiner to the mines in Cooke City. This feat would have required passing through the northern border areas within Yellowstone Park. It became a volatile issue and stirred 10 years of debate in Congress. Cooke City, the greatest mining district of Montana, as described by the Livingston Enterprise , reported on Jan 5, 1884, “... It is believed that Congress will grant the right of way through the park with little opposition, as the road will run along the ... border of the park and interfere with no point of interest. This would be a great boon to Cooke City and would increase the value of her mineral discoveries to an incalculable extent. ... Cinnabar would also have a great accession of prosperity ... even without the ore reduction works the township proprietors propose to erect.” Two weeks later the Enterprise noted incorporation of the line, “The company is to build and operate a railroad from Cinnabar to Cooke City ... and it also has for an incidental object the erection of ore reduction works at Livingston. The names of the incorporators as they appear in the certificate are Col. Geo. O. Eaton and Geo. A. Huston, of Cooke City, D.E. Fogarty and Major F.D. Pease, of Livingston, and George Haldorn, of Billings, and beside those a glittering array of Eastern capitalists, some of them of national fame, are connected with the company.” The Bozeman Daily Chronicle reported on the situation on 23Jan1884, “It was known as the “Bullion Railroad Company” with Capital Stock of $1,000,000 and Articles of Incorporation were filed in Jan 1884 at Helena. By February 1885 a bill was working its way through Congress that is to segregate the northern tier of Yellowstone Park into private lands so that the railroad from Cinnabar to Cooke City could build along that section of land. Many miners, speculators and profiteers in Gardiner were awaiting news that the bill passed so that they could file claims on the most valuable pieces of property for themselves; either as homesteads, mining claims or for speculative purposes to resell to the railroad or other potential businesses. Although the bill had merely passed the House and had not yet been considered by the Senate, through some communication error, word was put out that the bill had passed and rapidly spread through the local community. Dozens rushed out to file location notices, including, George Huston, Joe Keeney, A.L. Love, C.T. Hobart, Hugo Hoppe, Park Supt. R.E. Carpenter and assistant park superintendent S.M. Fitzgerald. Needless to say, none of the property claims were valid as the bill never did pass the hallowed halls of Congress.” Various controversial efforts to build the railroad that were hotly debated continued until 1892. Finally, Thomas F. Oakes, president of the NPRR, finally declared at the end of that year, “his company had thoroughly examined the mines at Cooke City and the various routes to them, and that under no circumstances would his company build a road to them.” Case closed – much to the relief of Yellowstone enthusiasts.

  • Yellowstone Postcards - 2 |

    Yellowstone Post Cards Vol. 2 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my Postcards Page that has been saved at ​ Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Yellowstone Bios C-D |

    Yellowstone Biographies C-D ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Calamity Jane . Calamity Jane was the nickname for Martha Jane Canary, who was skilled with a horse and a rifle. She followed the mining camps and railroad towns in the west during the late 1880’s. She served as a scout for the 7th Cavalry in the Black Hills. Calamity was permitted to sell postcards of herself in the park in 1897 by authorization of Col. S.B.M. Young. She was known to hang out in the park, Gardiner, Livingston, and other towns in Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota. [31;405n32] Calfee, H.B. Henry Bird Calfee was born Jan. 3, 1848 in Arkansas and first settled in Bozeman, but moved to Missoula in 1885. He came to Montana in 1867, engaging in painting and prospecting. He entered the park as early as 1871, and spent time from 1872-81 taking photographs in the park. He set up a crude tent store at Upper Geyser Basin in 1881 to sell photos. He opened up a Photograph Gallery in September of 1875 where he was ". . . prepared to make the latest styles of Pictures, Rembrandt, Victorie, Cabinet, Promenade. . ." He also sold albums and stereo views of Yellowstone and other points of interest in the West. In 1877 he helped Mrs. George Cowan and her injured husband get back to Bozeman following their harrowing escape from the Nez Perce. Calfee accompanied Supt Norris on his 1880 trip through the park, and Norris named Calfee Creek after him. William Wylie used many of Calfee’s photographs in his 1882 guidebook “Yellowstone National Park or the Great American Wonderland. Calfee also toured the country giving lectures illustrated with lantern slides. Calfee was also a member of the 1873 Rosebud gold prospecting expedition. The party of 149 prospectors and trappers traveled from Bozeman along the Yellowstone R. to Rosebud Creek in search of gold. The group had several violent encounters with the Sioux and wound up with no gold for all their efforts. [113] [79u] [25g] [97s;H.B. Calfee Stereograph Collection] [119b] [97p;119] [Bozeman Avant-Courier 5/27/1875] [56m;1301] Cammerer, Arno B . Arno Cammerer was Stephen Mather’s assistant director from 1919 to 1929 after Horace Albright left the position to serve as superintendent of Yellowstone. Cammerer continued in that position when Albright became NPS director following the death of Stephen Mather. Cammerer became National Park Service director from Aug. 10, 1933 to August 9, 1940. He was born in 1883 in Arapahoe, Nebraska and received his law degree in 1911 from Georgetown University Law School. Under his administration the Historic Sites Act was passed, the National Park Foundation was established, and parks visitation increased from 2 million to 16 million per year. He suffered a heart attack in 1939 while under a tremendous work load and resigned in 1940. Newton B. Drury replaced him as Director. Another heart attack April 30, 1941 took the life of Arno B. Cammerer. [25;23] [National Park Service: The First 75 Years - Biographical Vignettes] Cannon, William C . Wm. Cannon, nephew to a powerful House member, was appointed by Secretary Teller in 1883 as one of the 10 first assistant superintendents. He served under Supt. Conger. [10;236] Carpenter, Frank & Ida . Frank Carpenter and sister Ida were members of the Radersburg party of 1877 that were attacked by Nez Perce in Aug. After being held captive for two days, Frank and his sisters Ida and Mrs. Emma Cowan, were released across the river from Mud Geyser and led to safety by Poker Joe. Frank later wrote a book of his experiences during the ordeal, titled “Wonders of Geyser Land,” later republished by McWhorter and Guie as “Adventures in Geyser Land.” [16a;112-19] Carpenter, Robert . Robert Carpenter was the 4th Park Superintendent serving in 1884-85. He was removed from office when he conspired with the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. to privatize certain tracts of the park for private and personal use. He opened up the Shack Hotel at Old Faithful with Carroll Hobart in 1885. Carpenter and Hobart also opened a crude hotel at Lower Geyser Basin, near Marshall’s Hotel. Feuding over financial matters with the Hobart brothers caused Carpenter to leave the scene after 1885. [16a;136] [25L;25] Carson, Christophe r 'Kit' Carson was a famed Rocky Mountain explorer who prospected across the Yellowstone area in 1849. The party included Jim Bridger, Lou Anderson, Soos and about 20 others. [97p;16] Chadbourne, Allen Wright A.W. Chadbourne was born in Ohio in 1843 and later drove cattle on the Chisholm Trail and operated bull and mule teams. He married Dolly Masoner in 1879 and came to Montana around 1880. In 1882 they purchased a ranch in the area that would become the town of Cinnabar. He began hauling tourists into the park from the Northern Pacific railhead at Cinnabar in 1884. He also ran camping and saddle outfits in the park until 1901. His company was known as the “Yellowstone Park Transportation & Camping Outfit.” It was noted in 1893 that he added $2,000 worth of Concord coaches and surreys to his outfit. With the formation of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co in 1892, Chadbourne and many of the other small, private transportation operators lost some of their transportation rights after the 1893 season. In 1901 he traded his business to George Wakefield for his Shields Valley Ranch. The small town of Chadborn was named after him. Dolly died in June of 1943 and A.W. followed soon after in September. [LE; 6/24/1893] [117] [71c] See my Smaller Camps webpage for more info on Chadbourne! ​ Chambers, William . He was appointed one of the first assistant superintendents, serving under Supt. Conger. [10;236] Chestnut, Col. J.D . Col. Chestnut founded a small tent camp at Boiling River in 1871 for invalids to soak in the ‘medicinal waters’. The area became known as Chestnutville. Matthew McGuirk took over the area the following year. Chestnut discovered a vein of coal in 1873 in Rocky Canyon, about 8 miles from Bozeman. [25L;26] [97p;70] Chief Joseph . He was one of the leaders of the Nez Perce who accompanied the Indians on the 1877 raid and journey through Yellowstone during their flight from injustice in their homeland of Oregon. He generally avoided violence with the white men whenever possible. He and many of his followers surrendered to the army on Oct. 4 of that year in the Bear Paw Mountains. It is there that he was reported to have stated “… from where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever,” although the speech is generally credited to an enterprising reporter on the scene. [25L;27] ​ Child, Adelaide . Adelaide Child, nee Adelaide Dean, born in October 1861, became the wife of Harry Child in 1883. She was sister to Anna Dean, who married Silas S. Huntley, Child’s partner. Their children were Ellen dean and Huntley. Adelaide died Oct. 17, 1949. [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004] Child, Ellen Dean . Daughter of H.W. Child, Ellen Dean Child married William Nichols in 1905. Upon his death in 1957, she got involved in company management, becoming Chairman of the Board by 1960. She remained a member of the board until the sale of Yellowstone Park Co. to Goldfield Enterprises/General Baking Co. in 1966. [25L;27] Child, Harry W. Harry Child was born in San Francisco in 1856 and arrived in Montana in 1876. He was considered the “Father” of the lodging and transportation operations in Yellowstone until his death in 1931. Child was a businessman in Helena prior to his arrival in Yellowstone, working in the mining, banking and transportation fields. By 1882 he was managing the Gloster and Gregory silver mines, with his father apparently bankrolling the operations. He married Adelaide Dean in 1883. He formed the Helena, Hot Springs and Smelter Railroad Co. in 1889 with Edmund Bach and two other men. The business was forced into receivership and sold at public auction in 1891. For a time he was also an agent for the Gilmer & Salisbury Stage lines. He began his Yellowstone career in 1892 with the creation of the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. (YNPTCo) with Edmund Bach and Silas Huntley, along with Aaron and L.H. Hershfield. In 1898 Child, Huntley, and Bach formed the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) that took over the operations of the YNPTCo. All of the transportation operations in the park were consolidated into YPTCo under Child’s control after the 1916 season. Child got involved in the hotel business in 1901 when he, along with Bach and Huntley, purchased the YPA. By 1905 Child owned 50% of YPA and the NPRY owned the other half. He formed the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. in 1909, and bought out the camping/lodge operations in 1928. Child purchased a large interest in the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. in 1905, but was forced to give up his holdings with the consolidations of 1916-17. He took over the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. in 1911 and created the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. He ran all of these businesses until his death in 1931 at La Jolla, Calif., at age 75. Son-in-law Wm. Nichols then took over and all of the operations, which were merged together to form the Yellowstone Park Co. in 1936. The family continued to own the operation until 1966 when the company and assets were sold to Goldfield Enterprises. [25g] [YNP Archives, A17, Box YPC153] [62k; Helena, Hot Springs and Smelter RR Co. files] Child, Huntley . Huntley Child, son of H.W. Child, served as vice-president of Yellowstone Park Hotel Co in 1909 and held a 2% share of the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co in 1916. During that time Harry Child became ill and Huntley was trying to manage the business for him. He was an impetuous youth and ran into trouble with NPS Director Mather in 1917. His father soon recuperated and banished him from the park business. He moved to New York, then on to Seattle, eventually dying in La Jolla, Calif. [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004] ​ Child, Huntley Jr. Huntley Child, Jr., son of Huntley Child and grandchild of Harry Child, came to work for the family business in 1938. He became manager of the Lodge Division of Yellowstone Park Co. in 1949 after Ed Moorman retired at the end of the 1948 season. He became a vice-president of YPCo in the 1950’s, along with John Q. Nichols, son of William Nichols. [25L;27] [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004] ​ Chittenden, Hiram . Hiram Chittenden was in charge of road design and construction from 1891-93, and 1899-06. He designed the original Chittenden Bridge at Canyon, the Roosevelt Arch and the original Fishing Bridge. During his tenure the Sylvan Pass and Craig Pass roads were completed, the Tower Bridge constructed, and the road over Washburn was completed with a spur to the top. By the time of his departure, over 100 miles of road were being sprinkled with water for dust control. In 1895 he published “The Yellowstone National Park”, a classic history of the early days of the park that is still in print. [25L;28] Chittenden was born Oct. 25, 1858 in Yorkshire, New York. He graduated from West Point in 1884 and joined the Army Corps of Engineers. He later published a 3-volume tome entitled "The American Fur Trade of the Far West." He also published histories on early steamboat travel on the Missouri River and on the life of Father de Smet. He suffered a stroke in 1910 and retired from the military as a Brigadier-General. He died in Seattle Oct. 9, 1917. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Clark, James A . James Clark constructed a small tent hotel at the base of Capitol Hill in 1885 and was granted a 4-acre lease for 10 years that permitted him to build a hotel and necessary outbuildings. He also established a transportation and guide service that year for his guests. It was a partnership with E.O. Clark and was known as the ‘National Park Hack & Express’. They advertised renting carriages, hacks, and saddle horses, with or without drivers. The Livingston Enterprise noted in 1885 that “Clark’s Town" is located at the foot of Capitol Hill and contains five houses and a number of tents.” By 1886 Clark was operating the ‘Cooke Stage & Express Line’, and received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail and stage contract in 1887. Two years later he was making tri-weekly trips to Cooke, with an overnight stop at the Soda Butte Stage Station. James sold his transportation business in 1889 to A.T. French, who received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail route franchise. Clark was never able to build the hotel as promised in his lease and sold out his hotel interests in 1888 to George Wakefield and the firm of White, Friant & Letellier. Early in 1889 Clark applied for a lease to erect a hotel at Soda Butte, but was turned down by Interior due to his past record. Clark was also involved in several mining ventures at Cooke City. [43m] [LE; 5/15/1886; 6/13/1885; 6/21/1885; 5/28/1887; 6/16/1888; 10/27/1888; 5/29/1889; 12/21/1889] [YNP Army Files Doc. 85] [25g] Clark, John. John Clark was Postmaster at the Firehole PO from 1886-91. [25L;29] Clawson, Calvin C . Calvin Clausen was a member of the Raymond-Clawson tourist party of 1871. He was accompanied by Rossiter W. Raymond, A.F. Thrasher and others, and was guided by Gilman Sawtell of Henry’s Lake. The group has been recognized as the 1st commercial tourist party to enter Yellowstone. [25L;29] Clause, Joe . Joe Clause (Joe Claus) built the first cabin around 1906-07 in the area that would later become West Yellowstone. For a number of years he took camping parties into the park with horses and wagons. In 1918 he offered 5-day trips that included transportation, board, and lodging for $25.00. It was $2.50 extra for each day if a guest wanted to stopover at a given location. Saddle horses were an extra $1.00 per day. [18t] [Ed. Frank Allen, A Guide to the National Parks, 1918] Cody, William. Wm. Cody, also known as Buffalo Bill Cody, helped to found the town of Cody in 1896. He built the Irma Hotel there in 1902 and also established the town’s 1st newspaper. He opened up the Pahaska Tepee Lodge at the east entrance in 1903-04, and the Wapiti Inn about midway from Cody, serving both tourists and hunters in the nearby forest areas. He applied to the park to take over the business of the ailing Holm Transportation Co. in 1915. However, Holm’s business improved and Cody’s request was denied. He died in 1917 on the way to Denver and was buried there, much to the chagrin of the residents of Cody. [25L;29] Colpitts, George . George Colpitts was born in 1855 in New Brunswick, Canada, he and his wife Mary arrived in Coulson Mt. (present day Billings) in 1880. They moved to Livingston in 1882, following the progress of the Northern Pacific RR. Within a few years he had opened a blacksmith shop at Gardiner, and later became employed by the Army at Mammoth. He also opened a blacksmith shop in Castle (NE of Livingston) in 1889. Later that year his shop in Gardiner burned down, along with other businesses. George followed old gold miners to Alaska in 1897-98 to seek his fortune. He returned to Livingston in 1898 and eventually set up a shop with Al Robertson - "Colpitts & Robertson, General Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights." Colpitts received a blacksmith contract in December of 1903 for work on the new Old Faithful Inn, which was under construction. He and his helpers made all the wrought iron work for the Inn, including the massive front door hardware, the fireplace clock, screens, tongs, popcorn maker, iron candelabra, and all the guest room door numbers and locks. The job necessitated his opening a second shop in Livingston and using Frank Holem's shop in Gardiner. [18p] Colter, John . John Colter was born ca1774 near Staunton, Virginia and enlisted with Lewis & Clark's expedition October 15, 1803 and became one of their favorite hunters. He traveled with the Lewis & Clark expedition in 1804-06 and on the return trip, met up with Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock. Lewis & Clark allowed him leave to quit their party and join the two trappers. They returned to the Greater Yellowstone area, probably settling in on the eastern side of the Absaroka Mountains for the winter. Colter later received credit for being the first white man to set foot in Yellowstone. He became a fur trapper and discovered what became Yellowstone Park and Colter’s Hell (near Cody Wyoming, along the Shoshone River) in the winter of 1807-08. A few years later he was forced to `run for his life’ from the Blackfoot after his trapping partner John Potts was killed while traveling near Three Forks, Montana. He is reported to have covered over 300 miles in eleven days – naked and on foot. His only gear was a blanket and broken spear point. In 1810 Blackfoot again attacked him while he was in the company of Andrew Henry and members of the Missouri Fur Co. Eight of the men were killed. He decided afterwards he had enough of the Rocky Mountains and left the country April 22, 1910. He returned to St. Louis, Missouri, taking 30 days for the trip. He married and became a farmer, settling near the famed Daniel Boone. He died in 1813 of jaundice. [25L;30] [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Comfort, N.W . N.W. Comfort and his wife were permitted to graze cattle in the Blacktail Plateau area in 1879. They had driven and team and 400 head of cattle from Oregon via Henry's Lake and through the park. [25L;30] [1879 Supt's Report] Comstock, Theodore Bryant . Theodore Comstock was a geologist for the Capt. W.A. Jones military expedition of 1873. He was born at Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio on July 27, 1847 to Calvin J. and Amelia M. (Hanford) Comstock. He graduated from Cornell in 1870 and accompanied an expedition to Brazil as an assistant geologist. Comstock was a professor at a number of institutions between 1871 and 1889, teaching natural science and history, and geology. He participated in geological surveys in Kentucky, Arkansas and Texas. In 1891 he became the founder and director of the Arizona School of Mines in Tucson and served as president of the University of Arizona in 1893. He was involved in numerous mining operations and was a member of a variety of professional societies. [16a;105] [The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, Johnson, Rossiter & Brown, Howard, eds., 1904] Conger, Patrick A . Patrick Conger was the 3rd Park Superintendent who served from 1882-84. Hiram Chittenden described his administration as weak and inefficient. Conger resigned July 28, 1884. [16a;136] Cook, Charles W . Charles Cook was a member of the Folsom-Cook-Peterson expedition of 1869. He first headed west to the Colorado gold fields in the early 1860s before moving on to Virginia City, Montana in 1864. He moved to Confederate Gulch the following year and began managing the Boulder Ditch Co., which supplied water to the mines in Diamond City. He hired William Peterson to work for him and later hired David Folsom in 1868. After the Yellowstone Expedition he went into ranching and raised a family near what is now White Sulfur, Montana. He lived a long life and was able to attend the Park’s fiftieth anniversary in 1922. He died five years later at age 88. [31] Cooke, Jay. Jay Cooke became head of the Northern Pacific RR in 1868 and led the company until his bankruptcy in 1873. Prior to the Washburn Expedition, Cooke hired Nathaniel Langford as a sort of publicity agent to help spread the word of the wonders of the western lands that the railroad would be passing through. Cooke City was named after him in their attempts to attract a rail line to the gold mines there. [25L;31] Coulter, John Merle. John Coulter, a member of the Hayden Expedition of 1872, became one of the scientific community's greatest botanists. He accompanied geographer Henry Gannett, ethnologist Wm. H. Holmes, zoologist C. Hart Meriam and others. [10;29] Cowan, George . George Cowan and his wife Emma were members of the Radersburg party of 1877 that was attacked by Nez Perce in late Aug. While being forced to travel up Nez Perce Cr. with Indians, George was shot in the thigh, the head and was left for dead. The shot to the head did not penetrate the skull and Cowan came to and tried to crawl to safety. He was again shot in the thigh and left for dead. He later revived and spent four days crawling to one of the party's abandoned camps. There he found matches, coffee and other staples. He was rescued by Gen. Howard's scouts, but not before his campfire spread and burned him. It was a month before Cowan made it back to Bozeman, but not before the wagon carrying him overturned, dumping him down the slope. Upon finally entering the hotel, his bed collapsed, dropping him to the floor. He managed to survive all these incidents. He wife was released unharmed by the Ne Perce several days after George was first shot. George was born Feb. 10, 1842 near Columbus, Ohio and raised near Oshkosh, Wisconsin. In 1865 he moved out to Montana and settled in Last Chance Gulch in Helena where he engaged in mining and legal work. He was admitted to the bar in 1872 and moved to Radersburg, Montana, where he married Emma J. Carpenter in 1875. The family moved to Spokane in 1910 where George Cowan died in the late fall of 1926. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [16a;118-20] [30;220-36] Cowan, Emma J . (Carpenter) Emma J. Carpenter (Emma Cowan) was born in 1854 somewhere in the East and moved to Alder Gulch, Montana with her parents during the Gold Rush and Vigilante era in 1864. She first visited the Yellowstone region and the geysers in 1873, making her among the earliest women to visit Yellowstone. She moved to Spokane in 1910 with her husband George and died there on Dec. 20, 1938 at age 84. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Crandall, Jack . Jack Crandall was a gold prospector who had worked the Crevice Gulch area in 1867-69 with Arch Graham and Findley. Crandall and Findley were killed by Indians in Aug. of 1869 in the Crandall Creek area east of the park. [97p;76] has this to say about Crandall: "Jack Crandall was a roaming prospector, who traveled extensively in the area [Greater Yellowstone]. While in route with a partner to a rendezvous to meet several prospectors’ friends at the headwaters of the Clarks Fork, they were tracked and murdered at their camp while eating by a marauding band of Indians. Their heads were found severed and stuck on one end of their picks with the other end in the ground. The cups belonging to the men had been placed in front of their spitted heads. Their bodies were not found until the following year. This happed near the mouth of Crandall Creek on the east bank. Through the generosity of Caroline Lockhart, a bronze plaque was mounted on a large boulder to mark the graves of these hardy mountaineers." Crissman, Joshua . Joshua Crissman was born in 1883 in Madison Ohio, and came west in the late 1860’s. He was in Bozeman by 1871 and accompanied the Hayden expedition into Yellowstone that year as photographer. He took photos alongside Henry Jackson and had prints made of Yellowstone on his return to Bozeman. His prints were actually produced prior to those of Jackson and became the first publicly viewed photos of Yellowstone. He returned to the park in 1873 and 1874 to take additional photos. By 1879 his photos and stereoviews were being sold by Wm. I. Marshall and others. E.H. Train and C.D. Kirkland also sold Crissman’s views under their own names. Many of his early views were mistakenly attributed to Jackson and he never received the fame or respect due him. He moved to Salt Lake City in the mid-1870’s. By 1880 he had setup a photo shop in Laramie City, Wyoming, but eventually moved to Southern California to do business. He died in 1922. [79u; Joshua Crissman] [119b] Culver, Ellery Channing E.C. Culver was born April 28, 1842 in Shoreham, Addison County, Vermont. He enlisted in the 34th Ohio Volunteer Infantry in 1861 and served in the Civil War for 4 years. Sometime after his discharge, he moved west to Montana seeking gold and was well established in Virginia City by 1871. By 1881 he lived in the areas surrounding Billings and became a businessman in that city in 1884. He married Mattie Gillette (nee Martha Jane Shipley) on April 6, 1886. Mattie was born September 18, 1856 in Lowell Mass. They had a daughter named Theda born in Billings June 22, 1887. Culver came to the park in 1887 with E.C. Waters as ‘Master of Transportation’, holding that position until 1892. He and Mattie spent the summers of 1887-88 at the Firehole Hotel (Marshall Hotel) and Ellery became winterkeeper for the hotel during the winter of 1888-89. Mattie suffered through the winter from tuberculosis and died March 2 of that spring and was buried nearby. Her grave and headstone can still be viewed at the Nez Perce picnic area. She was 30 years old at the time. Daughter Theda was sent to Spokane to live with relatives. In 1892 Culver was appointed US Court Commissioner for Wyoming, with headquarters at Mammoth, serving for 2 years. He was in charge of the Norris Lunch Station in 1893 and went to work for the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) in 1894. Culver served as the train agent for YPTCo riding the rails from Livingston to Gardiner, giving impromptu talks along the way. He later traveled throughout the country for the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) giving promotional lectures. He became postmaster in Gardiner on Oct. 4, 1897 and ran the nearby Post Office Store. He gave up those enterprises early in 1904 because of his health. Later in the year he returned to work as the train 'runner'. Health problems again forced him to retire in July 1908. In 1909 he moved to the Sawtelle National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers in Southern California He died April 17, 1922 and was buried in the National Soldier's Home Cemetery. [LE 4/3/1892] [31;23,65] [15b] [100e;87-122] This story about E.C. Culver comes from the New Zealand Star, April 3, 1897 YELLOWSTONE PARK. Perhaps the most popular man connected with the Yellowstone Park Transportation Company, is Captain E. C. Culver, of Gardner. In addition to the duties of justice of the peace, he makes a daily trip on the park train, and personally interviews every man, boy, woman and child who travels on it. He is a walking encyclopedia of park information. He knows the height of every peak, the altitude of every important location, and can give you Professor Hayden's theory of the park's geological formation. Besides all this he is a prince of good fellows, and has a fund of humor which sometimes carries him away when touching up descriptions and legends of the park. Some time ago the captain had an experience which was too good to keep, and he gave it away to a friend in town. He was going from the Springs to Cinnabar, and there were three very bright young ladies on the coach. One of them asked if it were customary to have so many mosquitoes in so high an altitude. The captain assured her that it was not unusual, that they were increasing year by year; that no mosquitoes were ever known in the park until, about eight years ago, a New Jersey schoolma'am had carelessly enclosed some in her trunk and let them out at Mammoth Hot Springs, when, like rabbits in Australia, they became an increasing pest. All agreed that it was remarkable, but one girl seemed to carry a smile of incredulity. As the conversation continued, Mr. Culver was asked what he considered the most remarkable thing in the park. He said that if beauty and grandeur were to be left out of the count, he thought the most remarkable thing was Alum Creek, a little stream putting into the river between the falls and the lake. Originally, he said, the distance between the hotels at the lake and the falls was twenty-six miles, but when they commenced to sprinkle the road between the two places with water taken from Alum Creek some years ago, they soon found the distance between the hotels shortened by about eight miles. As the hotels were then only about eighteen miles apart and the road still shrinking, the superintendent ordered them to use no more water from Alum Creek. And then the captain told another little legend about the creek that was quite well authenticated. Last year, he said, a party went through the park on a camping tour, and a young lady with them came into the park wearing No. 8 shoes. After camping on Alum Creek two days and bathing her feet, she went home wearing a pair of No. 2 gaiters. At this point the girl with the incredulous smile said to him, "Don't you think it would be a good plan to bathe your head in that creek a time or two?" Curry, David A. David Curry was a teacher who began guiding tourists with his wife into Yellowstone using covered wagons in 1892 out of Ogden, Utah. He conducted two tours that first summer. The first was to leave June 27th for 17 days. The $65 cost included everything. His ads solicited "Teachers, students and anybody of good character." Twenty people was the desired number of travelers for the trip. Apparently business was slow that first summer, as on June 26 an ad appeared cutting the rate to $50 with a scheduled departure of July 4th. In 1895 he led a trip consisting of 37 tourists, transported in five 4-horse wagons, one 2-horse wagon, three 4-horse baggage wagons, along with nine teamsters, a cook and four assistants. An ad in 1897 touted an 18-day trip for $76.40, leaving from Ogden. He conducted tours every summer until he and his wife left Yellowstone in 1899 to found the famous Curry Camp in Yosemite National Park. [25L;33] [98; Ogden Standard Examiner: 6/15/1892; 6/26/1892; 8/3/1895; 7/1/1896;] Check out my Curry Camping Co. page for mor info!! Cutler, Robert Eugene. ‘Buckskin Jim’ Robert Cutler's stubbornness and various mining claims around Gardiner prevented the NPRR from reaching the town of Gardiner for 20 years. The railroad was forced to stop at Cinnabar in 1883 because they were unable to obtain the right-of-way through Cutler’s properties that had been leased from James McCartney. Cutler also sublet parcels of the land to other residents, who later claimed to have purchased them from Cutler. NPRy eventually obtained right-of-way and the line continued to Gardiner in 1902. Cutler also had a homestead in Lamar Valley around 1882 with George Jackson that in later years became the site of the Buffalo Ranch. Representatives of Supt. Carpenter forcibly removed Cutler, Jackson and Jack Rutherford in November of 1884. Cutler drew his gun on the two men, but Rutherford stopped him from shooting. Cutler was arrested and received a $75 fine for his actions from the judge in Evanston, Wyoming. He was later elected Justice of the Peace for Cooke City in 1889. Cutler was also involved in a shooting in Gardiner in 1907. After arguments and a fight with Axel Hill and others regarding contract work for Cutler, Hill left and later returned with a gun and shot at Cutler. He missed but Cutler returned fire hitting Hill in the chest and leg. Hill died and Cutler was later acquitted of a murder charge on grounds of self-defense. [31] [LE; 10/12/1889] [115] Curl, John F. John Curl was among the earliest businessmen in the mining camp of Cooke City in 1883 and later moved to Gardiner to operate a hotel in that burg. Curl was born in 1853 in Pennsylvania and moved to Cooke City in 1883 where he operated the Curl House hotel and was involved in the mining business and was in partnership in various mining properties with George Huston and Adam "Horn" Miller. Curl and his wife Zona sold their properties in Cooke City and moved to Gardiner around 1915 and ran the Cottage Hotel on Main Street. The family moved after 2-3 years to Bozeman so that his children Mary Margaret (born 1898) and Thomas (born 1902) could attend college. John died October 1, 1924 at 71 years of age and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston. His pallbearers included W.A. Hall and Herb French. Mary Margaret Ingram died Feb. 9, 1959 and Thomas died in 1961. ​ Dean, James H. James Dean was one of the assistant superintendents under Supt. Conger in 1883, serving until June of 1885. He spent the summer of 1884 with his family at Norris in a small house built for them by the government. However it was unsuitable to withstand the cold, harsh winters and they moved to Mammoth to live that winter. He became clerk at the Firehole Hotel in 1885, serving there for several years. In 1888 he was hired to manage the Cottage Hotel at Mammoth, the year before the GL Henderson family sold the operation to the Yellowstone Park Association. Dean managed the National Hotel in 1891 and was appointed Superintendent of YPA in 1892, having supervision of all the park hotels. His office was located in the National Hotel. He served as president of YPA from at 1896 (or 1898) until 1901, when Harry Child, Edmund Bach and Silas Huntley bought out the company. Around 1902 he resigned from the company and went to live with a nephew Mr. Charles Picken (or Pickings) near Harmony Grove in Maryland. By 1910 James and Rebecca had moved to California and were living in Coronado Beach, near San Diego. James died October 17, 1919 in Coronado Beach after being in ill health and suffering a stroke the previous year. He was about 75 years of age and was survived by his widow. James H. Dean was born around 1844 in New Market, Frederick County, Maryland. His future wife Rebecca T. Pickings (or Picken) was born in Maryland around 1845. By 1869 Dean was living in the town of Frederick, MD and went to work as a steward at the Maryland school for the Deaf and Dumb. The school had just opened the previous year and served about 60 students, 25 of them that had never received any formal schooling. The school taught sign language, the finger alphabet, writing, speech, lip reading, along with vocational skills such as shoemaking, carpentry, printing, dressmaking, sewing, and housework. He held that position until 1877. At that time he went to work for a hotel and restaurant called the Old Dill House in Frederick. By 1879 the hotel became known as the Carlin House, after proprietor Frank B. Carlin. Around 1898 it was renamed Hotel Burgess, after the new owner. In 1883 he traveled to Yellowstone with Rebecca to work as an assistant superintendent. [LE;7/18/1885;10/10/1891; 4/2/1892;12/19/1896; 4/9/1898] [30;300-02] [10;172] [The News, Frederick, Md; 3/1/1888; 5/3/1890; 10/19/1889; 7/30/1894; 12/12/1898; 1/10/1899; 9/29/1902; [Frederick Post; 10/30/1919] Deckard, Frank. Frank Deckard was born December 6, 1874 at Ranier, Oregon, Frank began freighting in Yellowstone at age 17. He married Susan Elnora Hanson on 11/29/1876, but was later divorced. He owned a ranch near Jardine for 35 years that he sold to the government in 1929, but continued to live in Jardine. He was found dead Sunday, Oct. 26, 1930 in his cabin on Buffalo Flat near Jardine. He had a bullet hole through the head above the right ear. A .38 Colt revolver was found in his hand and it was determined that the death was self-inflicted. Services were held in the Gardiner Eagles Hall with Clarence Scoyen officiating. Burial was in the Gardiner Cemetery. [YNP Vert. Files: Deckard; Park County News, 10/30/1930] DeLacy, Walter W . W.W. DeLacy was the leader of a gold-prospecting expedition in 1863 (he called his companions the ‘Forty Thieves’) that discovered Shoshone Lake and its drainage to the Snake River. He compiled the first accurate map of the park two years later. Unfortunately his findings were not published until 1876, long after other maps and charts had been produced by various other expeditions in the early 1870’s. His historical ‘claim-to-fame’ was thwarted by his delay in publishing his findings. DeLacy Creek is named after him. DeLacy was born Feb. 22, 1819 at Petersburg, Virginia. He graduated from St. Mary's College in Maryland and became a railroad surveyor in 1839. He taught for the Navy and spend much time at sea before retiring and returning to civil engineering in 1846. He participated in the war with Mexico, helped engineer the Mullan Road in Montana, and laid out the site of Fort Benton on the Missouri River. He was in the Sioux War of 1867 and participated in numerous other surveys in Montana and Idaho. He later became a city engineer in Helena and died there May 13, 1892. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [25L;34] DeMaris, Charles. In 1886 Charles DeMaris discovered and developed the hot springs on the western edge of Cody that still bear his name. DeMaris was born in Ottawa, Canada in 1827 and moved to Chicago with his parents at age nine. He became involving in the building contracting trade and lumber business in Chicago and Michigan. He relocated to Louisiana at the close of the Civil War, but dissatisfied with the area, headed north on a steamboat to Fort Benton and pushed on to Leesburg Basin in Idaho to mine for gold. His efforts were successful and in 1871 he bought cattle and entered the stock raising business. DeMaris sold his mining interests in 1879 and drove his cattle to Montana to graze on lands where Billings now stands. He removed to the DeMaris Hot Springs in 1886 and touted the purported healing qualities of those waters. Around 1895 the future town of Cody was plotted around the Springs area, but various problems caused the town to be moved east to its present location in 1896. DeMaris married Nellie Fitzgerald of Cody in 1898, who assisted Charles greatly in the development of the hot springs. The couple had a son named Charles, born around 1901. Charles Sr. died June 26, 1914 at his home at the Springs. He was 87 years of age and was buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Cody. [Park County Enterprise, 6/2/1914] Dewing, Jennie Henderson Jennie Henderson was the daughter of G.L. Henderson and wife of John Dewing, she operated a general store at Mammoth from 1883-1908. (See ‘Ash, Jennie’ and ‘Henderson, Jennie’) Click Here to read the article I wrote on Jennie Henderson Ash and her General Store for the Spring 2005 issue of Yellowstone Science. ​ Dietrich, Richard. Richard Dietrich was a member of the Helena party during the fateful summer of 1877 when the Nez Perce made their forey through the park. Escaping from a skirmish at Otter Creek, Dietrich, along with Andrew Weikert and Leslie Wilkie made it safely back to Mammoth Hot Springs, but their friend Charles Kenck was killed. Weikert and James McCartney went back to Otter Creek to look for Kenck while Dietrich remained at McCartney's cabin at Mammoth. Yellow Wolf, a member of the Nez Perce, later told what happened to Dietrich, a music teacher from Helena: "It was coming towards sundown when we saw a white man standing in the doorway of a house. We stopped not far from him but did not dismount. We sat on our horses, six or seven of us, thinking. Chuslum Hahlap Kanoot (Naked-foot Bull) said to me, 'My two young brothers and next younger brother were not warriors. They and a sister were killed at Big Hole. It was just like this man did that killing of my brothers and sister. He is nothing but a killer to become a soldier sometime. We are going to kill him now. I am a man! I am going to shoot him! When I fire, you shoot after me.' "Dietrich was killed August 28, 1877 and his body was returned to Helena for burial. [Billings Gazette, 8/26/2002, "Wrong Place, Wrong Time for Music Teacher"] Dingee, William A . William Dingee was a member of the ill-fated Cowen-Radersburg party that visited Yellowstone in the summer of 1877 and was attached by the marauding Nez Perce Indians (see George Cowen). Dingee and A.J. Arnold managed to escape when other members of their party were taken captive. He was born Jan. 1, 1834 at Highland Falls, New York and joined the Colorado gold rush in 1859. He left for Montana during its gold rush and arrived in Bannack on May 17, 1863. He eventually moved to Helena and became a merchant. He died in Helena November 13, 1899 at age 65. [Society of Montana Pioneers Register, Vol. 1, 1899; The NY Times, 11/14/1899 ] Doane, Lt. Gustavus C . Gustavus Doane was born May 29, 1840 at Galesburg, Illinois. He traveled with his parents by ox train to Oregon in 1846. He graduated college in California and enlisted in the Army in 1862 and commissioned first lieutenant in 1864. He retired from the military after the war and served briefly as mayor of Yazoo City in Mississippi. He re-joined the Army in 1868 and was appointed 2nd Lt. in the US Regulars and stationed at Ft. Ellis in 1869. Early in 1870 he was a participant in the massacre of a Piegan village on the Marias River in which 173 Indians were killed, only 33 of which were men. He accompanied the Washburn Expedition of 1870 with a small contingent of soldiers (one sergeant and four privates). The following year he guided the Hayden Expedition into the park. Doane was with the first command to reach the devastated Custer battle site in 1876 and assisted with burial duties. Late that year he and a small crew attempted to float the Snake River from its source to the mouth at the Columbia River. The boat capsized early in the trip and the attempt was given up. He volunteered for Arctic duty late in 1877. In 1878 he married the daughter of the founder of Hunter Hot Springs in Springdale, Montana. He became a captain in 1884 and died in Bozeman May 5, 1892. [15b] [25g;19,26] [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Dobson, David. David Dobson and Wm. Ramsdell approached Jennie Henderson in 1883 to have her sell coated specimens in her post office store on a consignment basis. The two men had received permission to coat various articles in the mineral-laden waters of the Mammoth Terraces. By 1888 Dobson was serving as the mail carrier for the Cooke City route. [25j] ​ Douglas, Henry F. Henry Douglas was the post trader at Fort Yates in the Dakota Territory and apparently had political connections in Washington DC. Douglas and Carroll Hobart filed an application in July 1882 for a 10-year lease on 4400 acres of park land for their exclusive use in constructing and operating a hotel and transportation system. In January 1883 the two men formed the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. with Rufus Hatch as financier. In March the Secretary of Interior negated their lease, changing most of the exclusive terms and lowering the lease acreage to 10 acres, divided between seven areas. The company went bankrupt in 1885 and was replaced by YPA. [25L;35] Drury, Newton Bishop Newton B. Drury served as NPS Director from Aug. 20, 1940 to Mar. 31,1951. He was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt due to his uncompromising attitude toward anti-conservationists and commercial interest groups. Earlier on he was with the Save the Redwood League in California and served as a research associate with the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1938-43). He resigned in 1951 over differences with the secretary of Interior under President Truman. Drury returned to the Save the Redwoods League in 1959 and was instrumental in the creation of Redwood National Park in 1968 in California. Drury was an honorary vice president of the Sierra Club. He died December 15, 1978. [25L;35] [Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian naturalists and Environmentalists, ed. by Sterling, Harmond, Cevasco, & Hammond] Ducharme, Baptiste . Baptiste Ducharme was born March 15, 1781 near Montreal and joined Gen. Ashley’s expedition of 1822 as a trapper. He trapped for Bonneville in 1823. He became a free trapper in 1824 and claimed to have gone up to the head of the Yellowstone River. He crossed over to the head of the Snake River and came down the Firehole River past the geysers. Ducharme lived in the Rocky Mountains until the early 1840’s. E.S. Topping talked to Ducharme prior to his writing his book in 1885 and Ducharme was still able to describe the many geysers he saw. [97p;14-15] [2] Duret, Joseph . Joseph "Frenchy" Duret was born in France around 1862. He arrived in Stillwater County in 1885 and in the early 1890s owned property in both Gardiner and Cooke City. For five years he hunted and fished, and operated a butcher shop in Gardiner, providing fresh meat to Fort Yellowstone. He moved to the Slough Creek area, just outside of the park boundary around 1899. He was known to poach park animals and seemed to be in trouble with authorities on a regular basis. His wife claimed he had killed upwards of 200 bears in his 20 years on Slough Creek. Frenchy was killed by a grizzly June 12, 1922 that was caught in one of his traps. He apparently shot the bear to finish him off, but as Frenchy approached, the griz came back to life, broke the chain and mauled Frenchy to death. Rangers discovered his body the next day and buried him on his ranch. An article from the Roundup Record Tribune, dated August 4, 1922, described the events surrounding Duret's demise: "Yellowstone park rangers are trailing a huge grizzly bear that recently killed and partly devoured Joseph Duret, sixty, and old-time Montana trapper. Duret's body was found on Slough Creek, near the park, with an arm and a leg partly chewed off. Signs indicated the bear had been caught in one of Duret's traps, but had broken loose when the trapper came by on his rounds. Horace M. Albright, superintendent of the park, said there were evidences of a terrific battle, and a rifle, clawed and chewed, was found near the broken trap. One shot had been fired from the rifle and a bloody trail showed that the man crept a mile and a half after receiving his injuries." [Doris Whithorn, Twice Told on the Upper Yellowstone, Vol. 2] Dwelle, Harry F . Harry Dwelle moved from Ohio and settled in an area on the south fork of the Madison River about 5 miles from the West entrance in the early 1880’s. In 1884 he established Dwelle’s Stage Stop to service the Bassett Bros. stages that were running to the park from Beaver, Idaho. In 1898 Dwelle’s Inn (also known as Dwelle’s Madison Fork Ranch and the Grayling Inn) became an overnight stop for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. that transported tourists to the park from Monida. Monida & Yellowstone ceased using Dwelle’s Inn after the 1907 season when the Union Pacific RR (UPRR) reached the West entrance of the park. By that time Dwelle was also running a general store. He married Sarah Burnside in 1903. Acting park superintendent S.B.M. Young complained in 1907 that Dwelle’s “. . . place has been a resort of park poachers . . . the principle merchandise he deals in is intoxicants.” [18t]

  • | Yellowstone National Park History

    NEW!! "Geyser Bob Site Search" is live. Located on the Geyer Bob Home link. Search the whole site for your research needs. CLICK HERE to Begin Welcome to . . . ​ Geyser Bob's Greater Yellowstone History Athenaeum ​ Providing a bounty of historical information and archival photographs of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and the surrounding gateway communities in Montana, and Idaho. The most complete source of information on the historic hotels, camps, stores, gateway communities, and early concessionaires in Yellowstone! Heading 6 * athenaeum : (ath·e·ne·um) noun 1) an institution for the promotion of literary or scientific learning. 2) a library or reading room. ​ This new website is a work-in-progress, and will eventually replace my web site. Unfortunately, for the second time in 20 years, I (and others) are essentially being booted off from HostGator. The first time was when Yahoo dis-banded their Geocities web platform. This current issue is due to the Plesk Parallels platform no longer being supported by HostGator. Eventually my .org web site (mine and many others) will be turned off, but no timeline has been made available at this time. ​ So, bear with me as I slowly try to recreate and improve my Yellowstone histories with Luckily this new platform is much simpler and easier to use, and will create a more consistent theme across the many pages. Happy Trails, Robert V. Goss, aka Geyser Bob Email Me [Note: This is not a link, you will have type the address into your email.] About ​ For those of you new to my web site, it has very little (if any) information about Geysers. There are any number of web sites out there that can help you out with that sort of information. This is about Yellowstone's vast history of the tourist industry and those persons and companies that supported it. ​ Geyser Bob was a stagecoach driver for 30 years (1883-1913) in Yellowstone National Park. He was known as a teller of tall tales and a prevaricator extraordinaire, with just enough truth thrown in to cause many greenhorns, pilgrims, etc., new to the West, to actually believe him. ​ A newspaper writer in 1888, once described him: "There was until recently a driver in Yellowstone Park named Geyser Bob, whose reputation as a liar had gained him great renown. He was rocked in the cradle of prevarication, nurtured on distorted facts and arrived at vigorous manhood the champion all-round liar of the Rockies." ​ He seemed a likeable enough sort of fella, so I purloined his moniker as my web nom de plume. I hope he won't find offence. Ole Bob (Robert Edgar officially), once related a story of how he got his name (there are many): "One day a cultured lady from the East, who was receptive to any story told of the park, plied Bob with innumerable questions. She asked Bob if any one had ever fallen into a geyser and lived. ‘I told her that one time I was walking near the Giant geyser at Old Faithful basin and slipped in,’ said Bob. ‘The water carried me through the channel underground so fast that I did not have time to get burned and washed me up into the crater of Old Faithful and then threw me out. The lady believed the story and thought it was so good that she pointed me out as a world’s wonder and the boys christened me ‘Geyser Bob.’”

  • Bears-in-Circles Logo |

    Yellowstone Hotel & Transportation Companies ​ Bear-in-Circle Logo Through the Years Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yellowstone Park Association 1886-1909 Created in 1886 by the Northern Pacific RR to take over the properties and operation of the bankrupt YPIC. The heads of the company included Charles Gibson, Nelson C. Thrall, Frederick Billings, and John C. Bullitt. Harry Child, Edward Bach, and Silas Huntley purchased the company in 1901 with financing from the Northwest Improvement Co. Child acquired full ownership in 1907, and on December 9, 1909, Child had the name of the company changed to the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co . Top Left: This decal is 4" diameter. The photo for these decals was taken by F.J. Haynes in the early 1890's at the Fountain Hotel garbage dump. You can still see the cans in the foreground. In later years the foreground was stylized to represent small trees, logs and ​ Top Center: Paper decal, 1 inch,seen on envelopes, stationary, luggage, etc. ​ Top Right: Paper decal, 1 inch, for use on mailing envelopes. ​ Bottom Left: Paper decals, 1 inch size, perforated like stamps. ​ Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. 1909-1936 Formed Dec. 9, 1909 by H.W. Child to take over the operation of the Yellowstone Park Association, which he also owned. Son Huntley Child was chosen as vice-president and son-in-law William Nichols became secretary. Child remained head of the YPHCo until his death in 1931, when Wm. Nichols took over the helm. At that time Vernon Goodwin became vice-president and Hugh Galusha was retained as controller. The company remained in control of the park hotels until 1936, when the company was merged with the Yellowstone Park Boat Co., Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., and Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. to form the Yellowstone Park Company. Left: Paper decal, 1-1/2 in to 4 inch, used on luggage, envelopes, postcards, stationary, etc. Right: Metal pinback, about 1-1/4 inch diameter. Very prolific, even these days. Left: Paper decal, 1-1/2 in to 4 inch, used on luggage, envelopes, postcards, stationary, etc. Right: Brass watch fob from 1912. Stamped on back: Mid-West Delegation Chicago Special Yellowstone Park Company 1969-1979 Formed in 1936 under the direction of Wm. Nichols, with Vernon Goodwin as vice-president, Mrs. Harry Child was a principle stockholder. The company was formed by the mergers of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., Yellowstone Park Hotel Co., Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co., and the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. The company received a 20-year lease in August. The Child-Nichols family sold the company to Goldfield Enterprises on February 4, 1966 for 6.5 million dollars. Goldfield became a part of General Host, Inc. The Park Service, increasingly frustrated by General Host’s dismal record of service in the park, canceled the contract in October of 1979 and paid 19 million for all of YPCo’s park buildings and assets. TWA Services received the new concession contract later that year and changed the name of the company. Very common paper decal, found in sizes 1-1/2 and 4 inch. 12 inch water-transfer decal were used on the side door panels of company vehicles. Soft cloth patch that could be sewn on to employee uniforms. Linen iron-patch used on employee uniforms TW Services, Amfac, and Xanterra Parks & Resorts. In 1979, the government bought out all the Yellowstone Park Co. assets in the Park, and a new short-term lease was granted to TWA Services, with extensions and renewals based on performance. The name was changed to TW Services in 1984 and TW Recreational Services in 1988. Amfac Parks & Resorts, who had purchased the Ferd Harvey Company in 1968, bought out TWR Services in 1995 and was renamed Xanterra Parks & Resorts in 2002. The top three items are all cloth patches for employee uniforms. To the left was a sew-on patch, about 4 inch size, while the other two were iron-on patches, about 3 inches in length.. ​ Bottom left is Amfac logo, using dark green lettering. To the right is a TWR paper decal about 3 inches long. Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. 1898 - 1936 Formed in 1898 by Harry Child, with brother-in-laws Silas Huntley and Edward Bach to take over the operation of the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co.. They received a 10-year lease on March 31. Huntley died about three years later and his shares reverted to NorthWest Improvement Co. Bach sold his shares to NWIC in 1902, leaving Child in full control. In 1917 the stagecoaches were put out to pasture and White Motor Co. buses took over the roads. William Nichols, who took over the company in 1931 after Child’s death, merged the YPTCo with the YPHC, YP Lodge & Camps Co., and the YP Boat Co. in 1936 to form the Yellowstone Park Co. YPTCo decal, 1-inch and 2-inch are known YPTCo brass badge, or driver's cap emblem. This dates to the 1920s - early 1930s. Yellowstone Park Co brass badge, or driver's cap emblem, about 2-inch in size.. This dates to the post-1936 era. Notice the 'T' missing in the center. Variations on a Theme From the 1890s to 1940s Top Left: Logo of the Lander-Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., who drove tourists from Lander, Wyo. to Moran Jct. near the Tetons. They began business in 1921 when a new highway opened over Togwotee Pass. The image is of Dick Washakie, son of famed Shoshone Chief Washakie. ​ Top Center: Logo for the Summit Hotel in Monida, Mont. It opened in 1898 when the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. began hauling tourists from Monida through the west entrance of Yellowstone, ​ Top Right: Logo for the Monida Line & the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Line. The company operated 1898-1913. ​ Middle Left: Logo for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co., 1898-1913. ​ Middle Right: Logo for the Milwaukee Road RR, and the Gallatin Gateway route to Yellowstone. Service was provided through the west entrance of the park by the YPTCo. beginning in 1928. ​ Bottom Left: W.A. Hall Store in Gardiner, Mont., at the north entrance to Yellowstone, located next to the Roosevelt Arch. ​ Bottom Right: Logo for the Cody Road to Yellowstone, traveling through Wapiti Valley and over Sylvan Pass into Yellowstone. Cody was home to Buffalo Bill. ​

  • Larry's Lunch Stations |

    "Out to Lunch" in the Yellowstone Larry's Lunch Stations ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Larry Mathews (sometimes spelled Larry Matthews) was quite a colorful Irishman who managed establishments in Yellowstone from 1888 to 1904. Larry was born in Drogheda, Ireland in 1854 to parents Patrick and Elizabeth Fredigan McMahon. Larry immigrated to the United States in 1882 and it is assumed that he changed his name to Mathews at that time, to appear less 'Irish.' He moved to Minneapolis and in 1886 married Bridget Clinton. In 1887 Larry went to work in Yellowstone for Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) at Mammoth. Larry was moved to manage the Trout Creek Lunch Station in 1888. That tent operation was established along Trout Creek in Hayden Valley. It served the crowd coming over the Mary Mountain road from the Lower Geyser Basin to visit Yellowstone Lake and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. He married Mary Brennan Slatterly in 1890 and the following year daughter Elizabeth, or "Lizzie," was born. When the new road over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb opened in 1892, Larry moved his business to Thumb to serve visitors traveling from Old faithful, over Craig Pass, and down to the Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. Thumb was about the halfway point between Old Faithful and Lake Hotel and served as the required lunch stop. "The Wild Irishman." F.J. Haynes Cabinet Card The 1st Norris Hotel, Spring of 1887. [F.J. Haynes Stereoview, YNP #345] The new hotel at Norris opened up in the spring of 1887, even though construction was apparently incomplete. A workman started a fire in an unfinished chimney that set the hotel ablaze on July 14. The Livingston Enterprise reported that there were many guests in the hotel, but that all were saved. ​By the end of 1887 a temporary wooden hotel was completed with 20 sleeping rooms. It was long and narrow, built with 1" board siding. It also had a relatively short life of six years. ​ The second hotel at Norris burned down in May of 1892 and Larry moved to Norris the following season to establish his third lunch station. He entertained guests at this new station until the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) opened the second Norris Hotel in 1901. Matthews worked at the hotel the first year, then was sent by YPA to manage the crude Shack Hotel/tent operation at Old Faithful. He spent two years at the Shack, and when the new Old Faithful Inn opened in 1904, Larry became manager there. The Shack Hotel was torn down, probably during construction of the Inn. When YPA refused to increase his pay after 15 years of service, he left the park. Trout Creek Lunch Station - "Hotel de Elk" 1888-1891 Larry Mathews (also Larry Matthews) was an entertaining Irishman who managed establishments in Yellowstone from 1888 to 1904. Trout Creek became the first Larry's Lunch Station in 1888. The operation began in 1888 by YPA under the management of Larry Mathews. The Trout Creek Station, located in Hayden Valley, was the halfway point between the Fountain Hotel and Yellowstone Lake and Grand Canyon. From Fountain Hotel, the road traveled east over Mary Mountain and Mary’s Lake and down into Hayden Valley. Larry’s offered travelers a break in their journey to have lunch and freshen up a bit. The Lunch Station went by many names, including Hotel De Elk, and the Trout Creek Dinner Station. This was the main route of travelers visiting Canyon and Lake until 1892 when a new road was completed over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb. Numerous travelers to this station commented on the flag that Larry flew above his tent. He also had a large stack of elk antlers near the entrance. That year YPA and Mathews moved the operation to West Thumb to provide lunch services along the new road. Map ca1905 showing the hotels in the main part of the loop in Yellowstone. Trout Creek was located to the west of halfway point between Canyon & Lake. Click to enlarge. [NorthWestern RR Brochure, 1907] One group in 1891 had just ascended Mary Mountain, mostly on foot to ease the load on the stage team. The writer speaks of the "Hotel de Elk.". Ready to descend, "All clambered into coaches, we bowled down its opposite side, for the road was now good and less precipitous, at a lively pace, and landed at the Hotel de Elk at the foot in the best of humor and with the most ravenous appetites. The Hotel de Elk is only a tent where a mid-day meal is served, but to its honor be it said, it is the only place in this park . . . that the stars and stripes were floating. A good meal is set here too, and the wit and contagious spirits of rolicking Larry Matthews, a genuine son of the "ould sod," makes it one of the most enjoyable we have eaten" [Vallec Harold, Portsmouth Daily Times, OH, 3Sep1892] May A Haslehurst, in her book Days Forever Flown , published in 1892, describes part of her trip in September, 1891: “We passed over "Mary's Mountain," a very precipitous climb, one bit of road being so narrow and rough, that Jamie and I walked up it, and found afterwards that we had climbed, not " the golden stairs," but the " Devil's Ladder." . . . After driving about sixteen miles, we came to a hollow in between the hills, and there found a little collection of tents, and were informed that it was "Larry's Lunch Station!" It was a most remarkable place, one tent for a dining-room, one for a waiting-room, a kitchen, and all the necessary requirements; and elk-horns, with their great branches, ornamented every available space in front of the entrance to this remarkable abode. On the white canvas were grotesque drawings, two of which we photographed. The owner of this quaint lunch station, was a roaring Irishman, with a fund of ready wit and humor, really remarkable and truly amusing. He acted the part of host to perfection, in his shirtsleeves and little round skull cap, and although "his guests" sat down at his bountiful board as strangers, they arose as friends, for his remarks, as he walked back and forth from one to the other, to see that all were waited upon, produced such an uproar, that we lost all formality and ceremony while in that tent. A long wooden bench stretched down each side of the table, and one either had to go in at the end, or climb over. As one lady climbed to her place at the table, Larry exclaimed, "Please, lady, don't soil the upholstery," and soon perceiving some haste on the part of one person present, he shouted, "You have one hour and a half to eat; this ain't no twenty minute lunch counter." Just as we were all seated and had opened our Japanese napkins, and prepared for our meal, Larry electrified us all, by shouting at the top of his decidedly loud voice, "Let her go, coffee," and to our surprise, from another tent near by, there came a young man, with an earthenware pitcher full of really excellent coffee. It was surprising how good things did taste to us all.” One of the few known images of the Trout Creek Lunch Station. Larry was known for flying a U.S. flag on his main tent. Above the entry reads: "Welcome." [YNP #109730] In July 1890 Edith Alma Ross, accompanied by her father, trekked to Yellowstone National Park. The journey was to collect botanical specimens, in addition to touring the park. Leaving the Firehole Basin, their stage struggled up the Mary Mountain Road: “Having summited the Devil's Stairway, surviving passengers once again climbed aboard the coach and continued westward. About ¾ of the way from the Firehole Hotel to the Hayden Valley road was the midday rest stop called the Trout Creek Lunch Station - Larry Mathews, proprietor. Kipling's group, "pulled up disheveled at Larry's for lunch and an hour's rest. Only "Larry" could have managed that school-feast tent on the lonely hillside. Need I say that he was an Irishman? His supplies were at their lowest ebb, but Larry enveloped us all in the golden glamour of his speech ere we had descended, and the tent with the rude trestle-table became a palace, the rough fare, delicacies of Delmonico, and we, the abashed recipients of Larry's imperial bounty. It was only later that I discovered I had paid eight shillings for tinned beef, biscuits, and beer, but on the other hand Larry had said: "Will I go out an' kill a buffalo?" And I felt that for me and for me alone would he have done it. Everybody else felt that way. Good luck go with Larry" [Edith A. Ross, A Trip to Wonderland: Yellowstone National Park] A party in 1892 described Larry’s: “It was way out in the heart of the Yellowstone National Park. We were traveling through there with an excursion party of newspaper men, and one warm day in July, while passing over from the Upper Geyser Basin to the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone River, our stage slopped for lunch at the “Hotel Elk,” a summer hotel, consisting of two big tents and kept by Larry Mathews, one of the jolliest sons of Erin we ever met. His place received its name from a big pile of elk horns in front of the entrance, built up like a monument. Larry's main circus tent was the sitting and waiting room, with some curtained nooks for dressing rooms, and the other was the dining hall with kitchen attached.” [West Virginia Argus, 16 Feb. 1893] West Thumb Lunch Station - 1892 The Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) was granted a lease in 1886 to operate boats on Yellowstone Lake, but did not exercise that option until 1891. At that time a new road was being built over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb. Ferry service would eliminate the tedious and dusty ride from the Thumb Lunch Station to the Lake Hotel. E.C. Waters, who had been manager of the National Hotel, accepted the offer to manage the ferry service. The Zillah, a 40-ton steamship, began running that route in 1891 and was licensed to carry 125 passengers. Waters would pay the stagecoach drivers fifty cents for each passenger convinced to take the ferry. Larry Mathews managed the tent lunch station in 1892 after the Trout Creek station closed. Larry moved to Norris the following year. "Lunch Station at Thumb, Yellowstone Lake" Stereoview #1300 High Grade Original Views [Thanks to Bob Berry, Cody, Wyo., for sharing this photo.] Larry Mathews and his daughter Elizabeth - "Lizzie." This photo was said to be 1893, however since Lizzie was born June 1891, this would date it to 1892, thus the West Thumb Lunch Station. [Thanks to Pat Perry for sharing this photo!] Carrie Belle Spencer, a young school teacher from Nebraska, Yellowstone National Park in July and August, 1892. She was in the company of her older brother Alvah and his wife Adaline. They were “traveling on their own dime,” as they say, and not with the transportation company. She had this to say about Larry’s: “. . . we were soon on the beautiful waters of the Yellowstone sailing smoothly along toward the Thumb. After a delightful ride of 1 1/2 hr. we landed at the dock on a beautiful beach and saw on a slope not far distant five tents in a row, this is what is known as the Lake Side Lunch station; as we were about ready for lunch and desirous of finding some place to leave our luggage we started in that direction. When not more than half way up the slope a gentleman, with skull cap, white apron, towel etc. started toward us saying "Good morning ladies, good morning", & before we had time to reply he had our luggage in his hands saying "Right this way to the waiting room." & entering this tent, he took me by the arm & pointing out of the tent in an opposite direction he says "Ladies toilet just ahead. . . The waiting room was a tent about 20 ft. sq., dirt floor & contained a few chairs, stove, cigar case & slat benches around the room. The "toilet" was out doors & too cute for particulars, ta ta. After arranging our "twilight" and entering the waiting room this man "Larry" Mathews as he proved to be began asking questions & entertained us in a royal manner until we heard the rattle of approaching hacks, which were of course the expected tourists. "Larry" no longer had time for entertaining individuals as each new comer was greeted in the same manner. It was not long until we heard the call "All register" & "Right this way to hash". Soon 40 ladies & gentlemen were seated on slab benches at long home made tables, and the bill of fare was soon commenced; it was not very extensive but every thing was enjoyed, being season with Larry's Irish wit. "Run in the hens." "Let 'er go pie." It was not long after lunch until the tourists were on the steamer & we were left in our glory with "Larry, wife and baby Lizzie.” Norris Lunch Station - 1893-1901 Larry established a new "Larry’s Lunch Station" at Norris Geyser Basin in 1893 after the second hotel there burned down in 1892. He entertained guests there in tent facilities through the year 1900. The following year, YPA opened a new Norris Hotel, that Larry managed for the first year. The Norris Lunch Station was located southwest of the Gibbon River, across from the Norris Ranger Station (current Museum of the NP Ranger). A small bridge eventually crossed the river around this spot (shown above). The currently road passes through the middle of the old site and a large wildlife viewing pull-out now lines the river. The view to the right shows passengers making the "leap" from the carriage to Larry's porch. Norris Tent Hotel in 1896. Photo by FJ Haynes, courtesy Montana Historical Society Charles Maus Taylor describes his experience at Larry’s in his book, Alaska and the Yellowstone, published in 1901. As the stage stops in front of a spacious tent, we are met and heartily greeted by the famous “Larry,” or more properly Mr. Lawrence Matthews, and his pretty daughter Lizzie. With cordial hospitality, Larry invites us into his tent: but this is no “Will you walk into my parlor act,” for within we find all conveniences, by means of which we may make a respectable appearance at the lunch table. We are introduced to Larry’s wife, a sensible woman, who attends to the comfort of the ladies, while Larry offers to the men, with his ever ready joke, “a wee drop under the rose,” which proves to be only a mild lemonade. Our whole party is soon seated at a long table, abundantly provided with good fare, well cooked; and we ail do justice to the repast. Meanwhile Larry entertains us with Irish and Yankee songs, and comic anecdotes, interspersed with serious reflections and some valuable suggestions. He “mix’d reason with pleasure, and wisdom with mirth.” Larry’s daughter Lizzie collects specimens of the native flowers of the Yellowstone, and arranges them in small albums, with such graceful and pretty effect, that they find a ready sale among the visitors to the Norris Basin. Having made our selections of these, and finished our lunch, we are ready for the tour of the Basin.” Larry Mathews and his daughter 'Lizzie.' [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905] George E. Hardy remarked upon Larry’s Lunch Station in The Rosary Magazine in 1896: “Lunch at Norris Basin can never be a serious matter as long as Larry is its presiding genius. Larry is one of the characters of the Park. He is an auburn-haired Celt, whose mirth-provoking sallies and lavish hospitality have endeared him to every visitor to the Yellowstone. In the absence of any definite information as to his original surname he has been dubbed by the tour ists, Larry ** Norris,” and as such he is known far and wide. “ Welcome to Norris Basin, senator! ” was his salutation to the doctor as with dignified courtesy he grasped the latter’s hand.—"A man of more than ordinary penetration anti intelligence,” remarked the doctor, reflectively, when we were discussing Larry’s merits some time later. “Did your sister enjoy the trip? ” Larry slyly inquired of the boyish groom, as he assisted his wife out of the coach. “This way, your Riverence,— I mane your Grace, was his unblushing greeting to Father Moran, the jovial senior member of a party of three Dominican missionaries, as he ushered them into the tent where a bountiful lunch was being served to the hungry tourists.” The Cheery Irishman A writer for the Burton Homes Travelogues noted in 1896: "What traveler does not remember Larry Matthews and his canvas palace? Who can forget his cheery welcome when lifting the ladies from the coach . . . And who can forget the honest Irish face of landlord Larry Matthews? His ready wit is remarkable. Every day he is expected to be funny from 11 to 2 o'clock, during which hours he must not only delight the inbound tourists, but carefully avoid repeating himself in the presence of those outward bound who lunch here the second time . . . We never know what we are eating at Larry's busy table d' hote. He never gives us time to think about the food. He is able to make the people laugh so much and eat so little that the company should meet all his demands for an increase in salary." Over the years, though, he became a bit haughty when it came to dealing with the independent 'sagebrushers', who traveled through the park on their own, and not with the established transportation companies. He could be become rude or unpleasant with them and try to overcharge them for his services. Aubrey Haines, in his "Yellowstone Place Names", observed that ". . . Larry became over conscious of his importance and less often polite and courteous; also he was more likely to yell at such people . . ." "Larry's Lunch Station at Norris, 1896. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905] Top Left: Real-Photo postcard of Larry's Norris Lunch Station, undated. Top Right: Larry with Calamity Jane in 1896. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905] The Yellowstone Park Association opened a new hotel in 1901 at Norris Geyser Basin, after their previous two hotels had burned in 1887 and 1892. Larry was chosen to manage the new lodgings. It served as a lunch station and also provided 25 sleeping rooms. According to a Rochester, Minn. newspaper, the hotel officially opened Friday evening August 2, 1901. They touted that, "A 5 o'clock dinner will be served, after which a grand ball will be given. Ice cream, lemonade and all kinds of fruit will be served during the evening. This hotel is built on the formation, where all the large geysers of the park can be seen from the front porch, is a large affair costing $150,000. including fixtures. A large silk flag 80x47 feet will be erected over the center of the building. 'Mr. Mathews will have the management of the hotel, and is considered by the park association as the best manager in the park. [Post and Record (Rochester, Minn), 2Aug1901] Postcard from the Wylie Camping Co. Illustration by Charlie Russell BEARS IN YELLOWSTONE PARK Furnish Imaginary Adventures for Larry’s Tenderfoot Guests Colorado Transcript, Nov. 9, 1898 Among the stories which Horace C. Du Val brought back from, his trip to the Pacific coast was one about "Larry," the proprietor of the luncheon station at Norris, in the Yellowstone Park, which everybody will appreciate who knows the witty Irishman, and few people have made the trip in tie last few years to whom he is unknown. ​ "The park is full of bears, cinnamon and silver tips," said Mr. Du Val, "and the after-dinner hour at the hotels is always spent by the guests in watching the big clumsy brutes come lumbering out of the woods to feed at the refuse heaps. Larry's is only a luncheon station, a big tent, at which tourists stop in the middle of their day's journey for rest and refreshment. All Larry's supplies come from the hotels, and one day, a short time before our visit, the luncheon hour had almost arrived, and the bread wagon from the hotel had not made its appearance. There was not a slice of bread in the tent. Larry is proud of the reputation of his table; something has to be done, and done at once. Already he hears the rumbling of the wheels and the hoofbeats of the horses that tell him that his guests are at hand. An inspiration comes to him. He hastily summons his entire force, waiters, cooks, scullions, and all and imparts a few words of instructions. As the coaches draw up at the front of the tent out dashes Larry at the other end, shouting at the top of his lungs, out comes the table and kitchen force at his heels, waving tablecloths, napkins, anything at hand, and scattering in all directions. “There he goes!” yells Larry. “Head him off, kill the murtherin’ beast! O, the thafe of the world. There he is behind the corn, now we’ll run him down by the fence!” and away they all go dashing about in all directions, the amazed guests still sitting in the coaches and wondering what it is all about. One by one Larry’s people return. Larry at their head – hot, crestfallen. “Och, whatever shall I do,” says Larry, “the thievin’ devils; sorra crumb of bread, barrin’ crackers, have I got in the place, the brutes have stolen the whole of it.” The guests assemble around him with words of comfort, but it is long before Larry will be pacified. He’ll have the life of the whole tribe, whether the government protects them or not. Sure, how can he set a decent table if the black marauders steal it all? Little by little the guests calm him down. They “like crackers,” they wouldn’t “eat any bread if they had it.” Larry had gained his point, and material had been furnished for an adventure of no ordinary kind, and many members of the party will doubtless entertain their friends with the story of how the bears stole their bread at Larry’s.” Another Bear Story from the Norris Lunch Station Archives: ​ Larry Matthews at the lunch station had a midnight raid made on him. Larry is one of the most eloquent, polite and persuasive orators of the Great National Reservation. But all his colloquial powers were insufficient to persuade one of Uncle Sam's bears that there is a limit to human endurance. They got on a regular spree one night, upset the stove and cleaned out the larder. It was a regular bread riot. Larry is a law abiding citizen aud of course went in search of the law in such cases made and provided. While in search of the riot act, Uncle Sam’s proteges got away with whole skins and full bellies. Sundance Gazette (Wyo) November 25, 1898, page 1 Shack Tent Hotel & Old Faithful Inn - 1902-1904 After working at the new Norris Hotel in 1901, the YPA sent Matthews to Old Faithful to manage the crude Shack Hotel/tent operation.. He spent two years at the Shack, and when the new Old Faithful Inn opened in 1904, Larry became manager there. The Shack Hotel was torn down, probably at the end of the 1903 season, while during construction of the Inn was going on. Once again, he was a successful and popular manager, and after fifteen years of service, felt his talents and effort deserved an increase in pay. When YPA refused, he left the park for good at the end of the season. During his off-seasons he had been working as an agent in Canada for the Northern Pacific RR. He was also employed by the Gates Touring Co. to lead touring parties to Panama, Cuba, Mexico and Southern California leading and having charge of all arrangements for Gate's Tours. He seems to have retired around 1909. By the late teens he was suffering from cancer, and an operation around 1919 was apparently not completely successful. He had moved in with his daughter for his last years and passed away on Oct. 7, 1922 at age 68. Old Faithful visitor Clifford P. Allen recalled being welcomed by Larry Mathews, first manager of the inn. He recalled the moment when in 1904, church services were held one evening in the Inn’s lobby. After repeatedly checking his timepiece, manager Mathews announced to the assembled worshippers that Old Faithful was about to erupt. In response to the preacher asking for more time for closing hymn and benediction, Larry said, “You cannot have them, the Geezer waits for no mon.” That was the end of the church service, as everyone filed out to watch the geyser play under the illumination of the inn’s spotlights. According to Allen, “Old Faithful geyser came to time to the minute.” Old Faithful Tent Hotel, 1903 [Library of Congress, #90715246] One guest in 1903 related that, "Driving up to the hotel we received the most effusive welcome of the entire trip. Larry Matthews, as wild an Irishman as ever escaped from the Emerald Isle, is in charge there. He meets all guests in the same loud and enthusiastic manner and hustles around amongst them during their stay, inquiring “is iv’rything all might” and cracking jokes he has probably used every day of the Park season during the past dozen years." [The Big Sandy News, Louisa, Kentucky, 21 Aug 1903] Now ‘‘Old Larry” is an interesting Irishman who keeps the “Auld Faithful Hotel.” In the art of talking, he is perpetual motion, never lets up from the time you arrive till you go away and all his geysers are “geesers" hence “Our Geeser Girl. Just after we had all got settled for dinner. Larry, who was every where present, would announce: “Now. ladys and gintlemen. auld Faithful is due in tin minutes, you can see her from the porch, but there's no hurry, ivery body eat all they kin.” Now some were so unkind as to say Larry was afraid we would eat too much. Any how he served a good dinner and the best ginger bread I ever ate. [The Fairmount News, Fairmount, Ind., 03 Nov1903, p4] Larry Mathews and guest at the Old Faithful Inn, 1904 "Jolly'in a Guest." [T.W. Ingersoll Stereoview, 1905] IN A TENTED FIELD. One of the promises of the tour was that we should sleep in tents one night, and at noon on Tuesday we espied in the distance a snowy line of tents adjoining "Larry's" lunch station. Larry is a garrulous Hibernlan noted in the guide-books, whose jokes have delighted tourists for some ten years. Our party took three meals with Larry and found a great similarity between his jokes and his meals; but he is one of the features of the trip. Our tents were almost convenient enough to be ridiculous for tents. They had all the necessities and were actually supplied with stoves. Each tent has six rooms and a hall. In the morning a voice shouted, "All who want hot water put out their small pitchers," and where should this luxury come from but from the "Old Faithful" geyser, a stone's throw away. They have a barrel set on wheels and all they do Is to ladle out the boiling water and bring it to the tents. We are cautioned not to drink it, however. [THE INDIANAPOLIS Journal, SUNDAY. Sept. 7. 1902] It is said that a grouchy old fellow complained to Larry one day about the turkey they had for lunch, and in accents wild asked Larry where they came from. Larry whispered as low as the "groucher" had talked loud, "They came over in the Mayflower and walked here." Larry swears sometimes, and a lady who heard him said: “Larry, if you talk like that-where do you think you’ll go when you die?” “It makes not the slightest difference, ma'am,” replied the jolly Irishman. “I’ve lots of friends in both places.” Top Left: Description of the Old Faithful tent hotel, 1903. [Vicksburg Evening Post, 15Aug1903] Right: Part of Larry's tombstone at Saint Mary's Cemetery, Minneapolis. [Photo from] FUNERAL TODAY ENDS VARIED CAREER OF "LARRY" MATHEWS Lawrence "Larry" Mathews, aged 68, passed away at the home of his daughter Mrs. Ralph L. Kirsch, Elm street, shortly after four o'clock Saturday. Death was due to cancer from which the deceased had been failing for weeks. An operation for cancer three years ago was not wholey successful. "Larry" as his friends called him was born on January 29, 1854 in Droghoda County, South Ireland, the son of Patrick and Elizabeth Matthews. He came to the United States in 1880 and settled in Minnesota. In 1885 he went to Yellowstone National park where he had charge of park hotels for 18 years achieving a wide reputation among thousands of tourists. He spent the winters of these years in Panama, Cuba, Mexico and Southern California leading and having charge of all arrangements for Gate's Tours. Mr. Matthews also was a traveling passenger agent for the Northern Pacific Railroad during part of this time. In 1909 he retired from active business and returned to his old farm near Rochester, Minn., where he lived until 1918 when he came to Crookston. He had resided in the city with his daughter, Mrs. Ralph L. Kirsch since that time. The deceased is also survived by his wife Mary Brennan Matthews. Crookston Daily Times - October 9, 1922

  • YP Camps Companies |

    Camping in the Yellowstone ​ Yellowstone Park Camping Company - 1917-1919 Yellowstone Park Camps Company - 1919-1927 Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Company - 1927-1936 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yellowstone Park Camping Company - 1917-1919 Huge changes were enacted in Yellowstone beginning with the 1917 season when the new National Park Service mandated a concessions consolidation plan. All of the stagecoaches were retired, and replaced with automobiles stages manufactured by the White Motor Co. All transportation would be run by H.W. Child and his Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. The various smaller camping companies were shut down, and the largest - the Shaw & Powell Camping Co . and the Wylie Permanent Camping Co . were combined into one company. This was known as the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. The hotels were mostly unaffected, except that the Fountain and Norris hotels were shut down as unnecessary due to faster travel time in the new auto stages. The general stores were untouched, but Frank Haynes was forced to sell his transportation operation and former stock in the Wylie Co., leaving him in control of the picture shops in Yellowstone. Left: Possibly the 1st newspaper ad for the new Yellowstone Park Camping Co., 22Jun1917, Salt Lake Tribune . ​ Right: Newspaper ads with the new, "The Camp Way" logo showed up early in the summer of 1917. 3Aug1917, Salt Lake Tribune . A.W. Miles gained 51% of stock in the new camping company, while various Shaw and Powell family members shared the remainder. Many of the former camps were abandoned to avoid duplication of services and a new camp at Mammoth was established. Camps located at Canyon, Lake, Riverside, Tower and Upper Geyser basin were retained, while camps at West Thumb, Willow Park, Gibbon Falls, Nez Perce, and the east entrance (Cody Camp) were abandoned. Riverside Camp closed in 1918 due to WWI and never reopened. The company immediately began using the slogan "The Camp Way," a take-off of the Wylie Way motto. The logo itself was reminiscent of the Shaw & Powell logo. The term Camp Way continued to be used in advertising up into the early 1930s. By 1927-28, most of the permanent camps were beginning to be called lodges instead of camps. The “Wylie Way” slogan was no longer used in Yellowstone, but went into use in 1917 at Zion national Park, where Wm. W. Wylie opened up a new camp - the first lodgings in Zion. Photo of a Yellowstone Park Camping Co. truck hauling employees to a camp in Yellowstone for the summer season. A blurb in one of the company’s brochure boasted, "A hostess at each camp look after the comfort and convenience of women guests. The camp atmosphere is clean, informal and pleasurable. There is nothing rough or coarse. There is no “dressing up.” The employees are young folk from private homes—many of them students and teachers. All sleeping tents are framed, floored, wainscoted and heated. The furnishings, while simple, are absolutely comfortable The beds are of the best quality, full sized. A special nightly feature at each camp is the "Camp Fire" and entertainment and dancing in the recreation pavilion. “Camp Roosevelt” is an extra “stop-over" camp for guests who desire to prolong the standard “four and one-half day tour." The government urges prospective visitors to plan if possible, to stay several extra days in the Park. The weekly .rate, American plan, is $30.00." From The Yellowstone News, Spring 1918, published by the Yellowstone Park Camping Co., New method to revitalize your weary bones: “Are you a member of that annual band of tired business men and women, fagged-out teachers and weary hosts and hostesses, worn by the strainn of a hard social season who are looking, during the summer time, for the road which leads to the three “R’s”—Rest. Recreation, and Recreation? . . . You have "nerves?” Can't sleep nights? Then why hesitate longer? Pack your suitcase with a few warm, rough clothes and some stout shoes, wire the Yellowstone Park Camping Company to reserve accommodations for you. and take the first train to Yellowstone National Park, I wager the first morning’sride will smooth the wrinkles from your brow and soothe your tortured nerves; and after your first night’s rest you will awaken feeling reborn and ready for anything.” Yellowstone Park Camps Company - 1919-1927 Howard Hays and Roe Emery purchased the YP Camping Co. in 1919. Walter White of the White Motor Co. was a silent partner and Hays became president of the company. Harry Child, wanting to buy the company very badly, after having to give up his share of the Wylie Co. after 1916, was hoping to get a good deal. While he was waiting for the $150,000 price to come down, Hays unexpectedly came up with the money, with backing by White. Walter White hid his involvement in the business, as he did not want to antagonize Child, who was one of his large customers for White buses. The new owners expanded operations of the camps by building rustic log lodges and recreation halls at all existing locations except Riverside, which closed in 1918 due to WWI and never reopened. A swimming pool was built at Mammoth Lodge around 1920 and a Boys Forest & Trail Camp was established at Roosevelt in 1921 that included a swimming pool, council house, and eight tent cabins. The camp taught boys the fine arts of fishing, mountain climbing, and studying the flora and fauna. For additional information and photos of these camps & lodges, check my "Hotels" web pages: Mammoth ; Roosevelt ; Canyon ; Lake ; Old Faithful . Above: Camp photos from the YP Camps Co. 1922 brochure.. Right: Description of the five camps, from a 1920 YP Camps Co. brochure. From the Director of the NPS, Stephen T. Mather, in his 1924 annual report Vernon Goodwin takes over the helm of the YP Camps Co. The company was sold in 1924 to Vernon Goodwin of Los Angeles, when Howard Hays retired and sold out due to poor health. The Salt Lake Tribune of May 9, 1924 explains: ​ “The Yellowstone Park Camps Company, controlling the camp system in the national playground, has been sold to Vernon Goodwin, wealthy Los Angeles hotel man, according to an announcement received yesterday 'by Daniel S. Spencer, general passenger agent for the Oregon Short Line railroad, from Horace M. Albright, superintendent of Yellowstone park. The consideration was not made public. The property has been controlled by Howard H. Hays, formerly of Salt Lake, and the sale has the approval of S.T. Mather, director of the national parks service, who recently joined with Mr. Albrlght, Mr. Hays and the purchaser in a discussion of the deal in Los Angeles. All officers of the company, with the exception of Mr. Hays, will remain with the organization, it is understood. The sale of the properties was prompted by the ill health of Mr. Hays, who is preparing, on the advice of a physician, for a rest of about six months.” Harry Child kept his involvement in the new company quiet, much as White had done five years earlier. The purchase now cost Child four times what it would cost him in 1919. Goodwin became company President and A.L. Smith served as Secretary/Treasurer. Ed Moorman, who had previously served as Secretary/Treasurer was brought into the deal and became Manager. The company opened the Sylvan Pass Lodge in 1924, located near the East Entrance. The lodge, along the route from Cody to Lake Hotel, provided meals in a log lodge and guests could stay overnight in tent facilities. The lodge operated for ten years. Vernon Goodwin , who had been manager of the Alexandria and Ambassador hotels in Los Angeles, purchased the YP Camps Co. in 1924 for $660,000 with financing by Harry Child. Although it technically became known as the Vernon Goodwin Co. the company continued to be referred to as the YP Camps Co. According to "Greater Los Angeles & Southern California Portraits & Personal Memoranda," Lewis Publishing Company, 1910. Goodwin was "born in Santa Rosa, Cal., Dec. 13, 1871. Chiefly educated in public and high schools. Assistant postmaster of Santa Rosa for three years; resigned to take a law course, and admitted to practice in California Supreme Court, 1894. Principal of grammar school for three years, and later took a special English course at Stanford University. Served as Deputy County Auditor for four years and resigned to accept position with California Gas & Electric Corporation. Came to Los Angeles, 1895; now Secretary of the Bilicke-Rowan Fireproof Building Co., Bilicke-Rowan Annex Co., Alexandria Hotel Co. and Hollenbeck Hotel Co." [Rotarian Magazine, March 1926] The Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. This company came into existence sometime in 1927 when Vernon Goodwin Co. changed the name. When Goodwin’s wife died in January 1927, her obit mention Vernon being President of the Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. The company continued the operation of lodges and camps at Old Faithful, Lake, Canyon, Fishing Bridge, West Thumb, Mammoth, and Roosevelt. Although the name changed, Goodwin remained in management with the Child enterprises and was listed as president of the YPLC Co while Ed Moorman was retained as general manager. This new company (just in name) invested $300,000 on new buildings at Canyon, Lake and Old Faithful. Cafeterias were also built at the public auto camps at Old Faithful and West Thumb. The trend now was to focus on a lodge operation as opposed to tent facilities. Gradually the historic striped canvas sides and tops were replaced with more conventional wood structures. When Harry Child died in 1931, his son-in-law Wm. Nichols took over the operation and Goodwin became vice president of the YP Hotel Co. The company struggled during the Depression, as did the hotel andother park businesses. Some camps closed for a year or more, but that the camps were less expensive than the hotels was a distinct advantage. For additional information and photos of these camps & lodges, check my "Hotels" web pages: Mammoth ; Roosevelt ; Canyon ; Lake ; Old Faithful . Advertising from the company's 1930 brochure: "From many years' experience, the Yellowstone Park Lodge and Camps Company has developed a truly remarkable system and service. The Lodges are located at the main centers of scenic interest. In each lodge, guests come first to a great central building, which house lobbies, dining halls, social assembly rooms, business headquarters, curio shops and many of the usual facilities of hotels and clubs. Surrounding the main buildings are the small lodges—of one-room, two-room and four-room capacity. They are of two types - (1.) log, (2.) rustic clap board - all substantially built, comfortable and well furnished. Each lodge is heated by a rustic wood-burning stove (for nights and mornings are cool in the mountains), the beds are full size and of high quality, the furniture plain but adequate. Lodges are electric lighted, of course. The dining rooms serve wholesome, well-cooked food." Yellowstone Park Company - 1936-1979 In 1936 the Yellowstone Park Lodges & Camps Co. merged together with the other Child-Nichols interests into the Yellowstone Park Company. These interests included the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co., Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., and the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. Wm Nichols was president, Vernon Goodwin vice-president, and Mrs. Harry Child remained a principle stockholder. The company embarked on an ambitious renovation plan which including the razing of the Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel (Old National Hotel). The North Wing was retained and a new lobby/office complex constructed at the end of the wing. A separate restaurant, recreation hall, and cabins were also erected. Many of the tent cabins at Mammoth Lodge were moved to Roosevelt Lodge and the MHS Lodge was shut down in 1940. It was the beginning of a new era for the company in Yellowstone, but the earlier vision of the tent camp operation became a lost relic of history. The National Park Service's Mission 66 plan in the 1950s closed down the beautifully rustic camp at Canyon, and new facilities were constructed at Canyon Village, a mile or two away. Sylvan Closed around 1934, but Roosevelt Lodge, Lake Lodge, and Old Faithful Lodge remain successful operations to this day, under the auspices of Xanterra Parks & Lodges. Top Left: Mammoth Lodge , 1923. Haynes Postcard #23295 ​ Center: Old Faithful Lodge , 1928, Haynes Postcard #28029 ​ Bottom Left: Lake Lodge , 1922. Haynes Postcard #22032 Top Right: Roosevelt Lodge , 1927. Haynes Postcard #27468 ​ Bottom Right: Canyon Lodge , 1922. Haynes Postcard #22032 ​ Of these five lodges, only Roosevelt, Lake & Old Faithful remain.

  • Transportation |

    Coaching in Yellowstone ​ Click on Link above to begin your tour. Development of the Transportation Companies in Yellowstone The earliest commercial transportation venture in the Park seems to be Jack Baronett’s toll bridge, built in 1871 near Tower junction over the Yellowstone River. He built a cabin on the bench above the junction of the Lamar and Yellowstone Rivers, and charged a $1.00 a head for man or beast to cross. In 1873, John Werks, George Huston, and Frank Grounds operated a primitive pack and saddle business at Mammoth. Stagecoach service was started in 1874 with ‘Zack Roots Express’ weekly service on Mondays from Bozeman to Mammoth, carrying both freight and passengers. The construction of a primitive road by Supt. Norris and his crew from Mammoth to Lower Geyser Basin in 1878 allowed Marshall & Goff to start a stagecoach business in 1880 to access the Geyser Basins and Marshall’s Hotel. During the next 36 years numerous companies operated stagecoach lines, including Wakefield & Hoffman, Yellowstone Transportation Co., Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co., Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. (F.J. Haynes), Cody-Sylvan Pass Co., Wylie Camping Co., and Shaw & Powell Camping Co. After the 1916 season, all transportation companies were merged into a monopoly, called the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., headed by Harry W. Child. In August of 1915, automobiles were first allowed into the Park. That year and the following one was a time of transition with both modes of travel operating under strict guidelines. This act of 1915 brought major changes to the entire way of doing business in the Park. With the shortened travel times now available, hotels were no longer needed at Fountain and Norris. Many tent camps were also closed. The increased travel times and freight tonnage available with motorized trucks eliminated the need for the various dairy and slaughterhouse operations inside the Park. Also, with the elimination of the “weed-burners’, the park’s pastures would no longer be needed for the intense grazing that had been necessary. In 1917 the stagecoaches and stock were sold out, and Child, with loans of over $400,000 from the railroads, purchased 117 White Motor buses and various service trucks. These were headquartered at the barns built in 1903-04 at Mammoth. Plans were finalized for new facilities in Gardiner in 1924, but in March of 1925, the buildings at Mammoth burned, along with at least 93 vehicles. It took a giant effort by the White Motor Company to get new auto stages to the park for spring opening. The new garages in Gardiner were completed later that year. In 1936 the YPTC was merged with other Park concessionaires into the Yellowstone Park Company under Wm. Nichols, Child’s’ son-in-law. As automobiles took over, the need for improvement of the roadbeds became a priority. Gradually, the roads were widened, oiled, graveled, and ultimately paved. The maintenance of the roads was and still is a constant problem. The need for auto campgrounds and gas filling stations became apparent, and eventually facilities were established at all major locations. Yellowstone Park Service Stations currently runs the gas stations and is independently owned. The Railroad Era The influences of the early railroad companies, although now lone gone from the local scene, reaches back into the earliest days of ‘official exploration’ of the Park. Nathaniel Langford of the Washburn Expedition of 1870, was an employee of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Through the influence of his boss Jay Cooke, financial agent of the NPRR, Langford was a strong advocate for the railroad interests in park affairs, as were other influential people connected with the park. By 1883, four railroad companies have achieved transcontinental status, receiving vast tracts of lands adjacent to their right-of-ways as their incentive. In order to recover their costs and increase travel along these lines, the railroads needed to create reasons for people to travel west. These included land sales for homesteading, ranching, farming, and business opportunities in the newly established towns along the way. Promotion of resort areas and natural wonders was another ploy to attract travelers from the moneyed classes. Yellowstone was the target of this last type of promotion by the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1882. In that year surveys had been made into the heart of the park in hopes of extending rail lines to all the important points of interest. Also there was a push to run tracks along the northern border to Cooke City in order the service the gold mines there. Eventually, through the actions of the Secretary of Interior, Congress, and various sportsman groups and concerned citizens, these plans were thwarted. The gateway communities became the ‘end of the line’. In 1883 the NPRR extended a line from Livingston to Cinnabar called ‘the Park Branch Line’. It had stopped there instead of continuing on to Gardiner because of lack of access through certain private lands. Construction of the National Hotel at Mammoth had started earlier this year, and was partially open for business in late summer. This was the first hotel built in the park that hoped to cater strictly to the upper class visitors. By 1911 luxury hotels had been constructed at all major locations with financial backing by the NPRy. Other railroads companies joined in the competition for park business with Union Pacific RR entering West Yellowstone in 1907. The Burlington & Chicago reached Cody in 1901, and the Milwaukee extended service to Gallatin Gateway in 1927. Land claims were eventually settled in Gardiner, and the NPRy reached that town in 1902, with the depot and Arch being built the following year. The railroads continued to exert influence on park business into the 1900’s with outright wnership or majority interests in the hotel companies and some of the transportation companies. By 1907, NPRy had sold its stock and direct interests in the hotels, but continued to actively promote the park and provided loans to H.W. Child for construction and improvements. The railroads continued to provide financial assistance to Park businesses until after WWII. Demand for railroad services after that time decreased rapidly with the increase in the use of automobiles for vacation travel. Regular scheduled passenger railroad service ended in Gardiner in 1948, Cody in 1956, and West Yellowstone and Gallatin Gateway in 1961.

  • Yellowstone Park Transportation C. |

    Coaching in the Yellowstone Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. ​ YNPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1892 - 1897 YPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1898 - 1916 YNPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1892 - 1897 ​ Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) transportation privileges were revoked Nov. 1, 1891 after Silas Huntley of Helena received the 10-year transportation franchise on March 29, 1891. He was allowed 14 months to begin operations by the Interior Dept. He brought in his brother-in-law Harry W. Child and Edmund Bach , Child’s brother-in-law. Together they formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. (YNPTCo) which was incorporated May 20, 1892 with capital of $250,000. Aaron and L.H.Hersfield were also partners in the operation, and Huntley became general manager.Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) transportation privileges were revoked Nov. 1, 1891 after Silas Huntley of Helena received the 10-year transportation franchise on March 29, 1891. He was allowed 14 months to begin operations by the Interior Dept. He brought in his brother-in-law Harry W. Child and Edmund Bach, Child’s brother-in-law. Together they formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. (YNPTCo) which was incorporated May 21, 1892 with capital of $250,000. Aaron and L.H.Hersfield were also partners in the operation, and Huntley became general manager. Left : YNPTCo coach at Mammoth Hot Springs, ca1896 [Stoddards Yellowstone Park Travelogue] Right : YNPTCo coach No.46, courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum. In reality, YNPTCo actually began stage operations in March 1891 when George W. Wakefield lost his YPA contract. YPA then leased all of their transportation equipment and facilities to YNPTCo, who appointed Wakefield as President. A year later, the new company purchased the old Yellowstone Transportation Company and the Wakefield & Hoffman operations for $70,000 and was granted exclusive transport of NPRR passengers in Yellowstone National Park. The following February (1893), YNPTCo received leases for six parcels of land in Yellowstone to erect barns, corrals and other facilities. The company began with some 500 horses and 75-100 coaches of various types. In Yellowstone Park How to Travel Through Wonderland Pall Mall Gazette, London, England, July 10, 1897 “The company is divided into departments, and each is presided over by a most competent man. The head stables are at the Mammoth Hot Springs. They consist of several large buildings containing the 550 horses, excepting those which arc going through the park and a number of saddle horses at the various hotels, on which the tourists make short trips. Then there are the long rows of wagon sheds, blacksmith shop, harness shop, saddle shop, repair shop, washing stand, a dozen houses for the drivers, and a hospital for the sick horses. The company employs over 100 men. These include a veterinary surgeon, three blacksmiths, harness maker, wheelwright, washers, painters, stablemen and drivers. The stables and other buildings owned by the company form quite a little settlement of their own, and are always a source of interest to the tourists, who are surprised to see such a plant away up in the mountains. The park season lasts but a little over four months in the year, and the expenses of maintaining such a plant are large. It costs 5.000 dols. a year to paint the coaches, and an equal sum is expended in incidentals, including new tyres, harness, axle grease, horseshoes, etc. The board bill for help alone is 10,000 dols. for the four months and a few days. In that time the horses eat 1,000,000 lb. of oats and the same amount of hay. As the plant now stands, it represents an investment of over 200,000 dols., and with only about a third of the year in which to do business.” YPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1898 - 1916 ​ Harry Child, Huntley, and Bach formed a new company called the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) in 1898 that took over the operation of the YNPTCo. They received a 10-year lease on March 31. Silas Huntley passed away three years later and his shares reverted to the NPRR’s North West Improvement Company (NWIC). Bach sold his shares to NWIC in 1902 due to health concerns and died of Bright’s Disease in the spring of 1904, leaving Harry Child as the prime operator of the company. Above : YNPTCo coaches ca1903. [Yellowstone Park Association brochure, 1904 Above : YNPTCo Tally-Ho coach #12 loaded with tourists leaving Gardiner and headed to Mammoth Hotel Springs. [W.S. Berry Photo, undated, Montana Historical Society] CHANGED HANDS A New Company Will Handle the Yellowstone Business. St. Paul, April 5.—The Yellowstone Park association this afternoon sold out Its entire belongings and interests in the National park to the Yellowstone Park Transportation company, which consists or S. S. Huntley and E.W. Bach of Helena, Mont., and H.W. Childs of St. Paul, the consideration being close to $1,000,000. Among the items transferred were the Mammoth Hot Springs hotel recently built for $200,000; the Fountain hotel, $100,000; Grand Canyon hotel, $100,000, and the Lake hotel, $75,000, besides four lunch stations and other property. J.H. Dean, president of the old company, will be manager of the new and the transportation company is now purchaser of all the property in the great national park. [The Anaconda Standard, April 6, 1901] ​ With the purchase of the YPA hotel system in 1901 and the deaths of S.S. Huntley in 1901 and E.W. Bach in 1904, Harry Child gained control of all the park lodging and transportation concessions, save the various camping company operations. Between 1903 and 1907, four Concord Tally-Ho coaches were purchased for use on the Gardiner to Mammoth route. Previously, two Tally-Ho had been acquired between 1886 and 1889. In 1901, a Northern Pacific brochure printed a schedule for park tours using the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. coaches. Throughout the stagecoach era standard tours were generally 5-6 days duration, beginning and ending at the north entrance. In later years shorter tours were available, and travelers could eventually enter or exit the park at West Yellowstone and Cody, Wyo. The following is a typical tour schedule for 1901 and similar in later years. ​ TIME SCHEDULE IN THE PARK The following approximate time schedule will give a comprehensive idea of the park itinerary: First Day —Leave Livingston at 8.30 a.m., arrive Cinnabar 10.45 a.m.; leave Cinnabar at 11.00 a.m.; arrive Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel 1.00 p.m., taking lunch, dinner and lodging. Second Day —Breakfast. Leave Mammoth Hot Springs at 8.00 a.m., arriving at Norris at noon for lunch; leave at 1.30 p.m., and arrive at Fountain Hotel, Lower Geyser Basin, at 5.50 p.m. for dinner and lodging. Third Day —Breakfast at Fountain. Leave for Midway and Upper Geyser Basins at 8.00 a. m. Lunch at Upper Geyser Basin. Return from Upper Geyser Basin to Fountain Hotel at 4.30 p. m. Dinner and lodging at Fountain Hotel. Fourth Day —Breakfast at Fountain. Leave for West Arm of Yellowstone Lake at 7.00 a.m. Lunch at lake and leave the lake after lunch for Yellowstone Lake Hotel at lake outlet. Dinner and lodging at Lake Hotel. Fifth Day —Breakfast at Yellowstone Lake. Leave for Grand Caiion at 9.30 a.m. via Sulphur Mountain; arrive Grand Canon at 12.30 p.m. Lunch, dinner and lodging. Sixth Day —Breakfast. Leave Grand Caiion at 10.00 a.m., arrive Norris at 12.30 p.m. Lunch. Leave Norris at 1.30 p.m., arrive Mammoth Hot Springs at 4.30 pm. Dinner. Leave Mammoth Hot Springs at 6.30 p.m., arriving at Cinnabar at 8.00 p.m.; leave Cinnabar at 8.15 p.m., arrive Livingston at 10.30 p.m. Left : The new horse and coach barn at Mammoth, 1903 [YNP Black Scrapbook] ​ Right : Gardiner Wonderland article about the barn dance, 4Jun1903 edition. In 1903 the company built a new coach and horse barn and related buildings at Mammoth, near the current Aspen Lodge site. The barn was a beautiful structure designed by Robert Reamer. Construction began in February and on May 7 the Gardiner Wonderland announced that, “The new transportation barn is nearing completion.” By the end of the month it was announced the building was complete and ready for occupation. A barn-warming dance was held the following week. The Tally-Ho coaches were housed in Gardiner to meet the trains, but most of the other coaches were stored at Mammoth and various locations throughout the park. ​ That same year the Northern Pacific RR opened up passenger service at the depot in Gardiner. Now the Tally-Ho coaches would have a shorter drive to Mammoth. A new Reamer-designed depot was built on the edge of town to host the tourist crowds. Above : YPTCo coaches in front of the Northern Pacific RR depot in Gardiner, 1905. [YNP 22954] In 1906 YPTCo constructed a new horse barn and carriage house, along with a bunkhouse/mess hall for the drivers and workers in Gardiner . They were located where some of the current Xanterra Parks and Resorts facilities are located above the Gardiner River. They were designed by Robert Reamer, using local stone and wood construction. The bunkhouse/mess was originally two separate buildings, but later joined by a breezeway. It still stands and is still used as employee housing by Xanterra. Sadly, the unique barns were torn down in 1926 to make way for the new concrete bus storage barn. The Butte Daily Post announced on May 6, 1906, “The Transportation company anticipates a large business. The company is erecting a mammoth barn at Gardiner. There are sixty men now employed on the structure, which will house many of the horses used by the company. The company has a great barn at Mammoth Hot Springs, from where all its passengers make the start throughout the park, but it was found desirable to have stables at Gardiner, where stages meet the trains.” Left : The new horse and coach barn at Gardiner under construction, 1906. [Author's digital collection] ​ Right : YPTCo Tally-Ho barn in foreground, with horse barn to the rear. [1914 NPRR brochure] Left : YPTCo barn on left, carriage barn in center, and bunkhouse & mess hall on right. [Original negative, Copyright: Goss Collection] Left Top : 9-Passenger Abbot-Downing coach. [1905 YPA Brochure] ​ Left Bottom : 11-Passenger Abbot-Downing coach. [1905 YPA Brochure] ​ Right : Map of Yellowstone Park and the hotels and road system. The stages typically travelled in a clockwise direction, usually beginning at Mammoth for the YPTCo coaches. [1904 YPA brochure] In 1915, an event occurred that held huge ramifications for Yellowstone and the country. The Panama-Pacific Exposition was being held in San Francisco from February to November. Visitors flocked to the West Coast to view this stupendous fair. Most travelers relied on railroad travel, yet many folks chose to travel cross-country by automobile, many planning on visiting Yellowstone enroute. Anticipating a heavy travel season, all the stage transportation companies purchased additional coaches and horses to meet the demand. Records show that visitation in 1915 reached almost 52,000 tourists, significantly more than the 20,000 of the previous year. Unfortunately, the investment by the companies would last a mere two years, as in 1917 the stagecoaches and horse wagons were banned from the park roads. Above : Real-Photo postcards of the true-to-size replica Old Faithful Inn built by the Union Pacific RR. The rustic interior was used for fine dining at lunch & dinner, and also for twice-daily orchestra concerts with plenty of room for dancing. [Real-Photo poscards, author's collection] Pressure had been building for many years to open the park to autos, but efforts had been unsuccessful. Mid-season 1915, Yellowstone and the Interior Dept. relented and on August 1, the first auto officially entered Yellowstone National Park. Over the previous year the roads and bridges had been improved to allow for motorized traffic. However, autos shared the roads with stagecoaches during 1915 and 1916. It became quite apparent that such a system would not be successful in the long run. The government mandated the conversion to motorized vehicles of all concession vehicles. Late in the fall of 1916, all of the transportation operations were to be consolidated into one company operating under a monopoly lease. These companies, which included Frank Haynes Yellowstone & Western Stage Co ., Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co., and the Wylie and Shaw & Powell camping company coaches, came under the control of YPTCo and Harry Child. Child arranged with the White Motor Company to purchase 117 10-passenger auto stages to be used in the park beginning in 1917. The Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. kept it same name until 1936, when all the Child and Wm. Nichols' enterprises were combined into the Yellowstone Park Company. Left : Stagecoach passing through the Roosevelt arch in Gardiner, ca1910. [Bloom Bros. postcard #A-6865] Right : YPTCo White Motor Co. auto-stage passing through the Roosevelt Arch in Gardiner, ca1923. [Bloom Bros. postcard YP62] Stagecoach Robberies in Yellowstone: ​ (1) 7/4/1887 - Near Split Rock in Gardiner Canyon - 1 stagecoach. (2) 8/14/1897 - 3 miles west of Canyon Hotel - 6 coaches and 1 military wagon robbed. (3) 8/24/1908 - Near Turtle Rock in Spring Creek Canyon on Craig Pass - 17 stagecoaches and 8 wagons. (4) 7/29/1914 - Shoshone Point on Craig Pass - 15 coaches. (5) 7/9/1915 - 1 mile south of Madison Jct. - 5 coaches. Perhaps the greatest stagecoach hold-up in Yellowstone occurred on Aug 24, 1908, near Turtle Rock, enroute from Old Faithful Inn to Lone Star Geyser and Lake Hotel A single bandit held up 17 coaches and wagons. Upon completetion of his dastardly deed, the hold-up man escaped and was never captured. In an excerpt from the 1908 Yellowstone National Park annual report, the Park Superintendent briefly describes the robbery: "The unfortunate event, the hold-up of seventeen coaches, surreys, and spring wagons on August 24, and the robbery by one man or many of the passengers therein at a point on the main road between Old Faithful Inn and the Thumb of Lake Yellowstone, and about 4 1/4 miles distant from the former, took place about 9 a. m. on August 24 . . . Four of the looted coaches belonged to the Yellowstone Park Transportation Company, five to the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Company, and eight to the Wylie Permanent Camping Company. As near as can be learned by the separate memoranda handed in by the passengers the losses sustained by them in the robbery aggregated $1,363.95 cash and $730.25 in watches and jewelry. Upon being liberated the first coach of those robbed drove rapidly to the camp of the road sprinkling crew, located about 2 miles east of the hold-up point, where notice was given and a messenger dispatched to Old Faithful Inn—distant 6 miles—with news of the robbery." Upon safe arrival at the Lake Camp, members of the Wylie Camping Company involved in the robbery reflected on their escapade as what would no doubt be the most exciting adventure of their lives. Mr. H.B. Mitchell of Great Falls describes their meeting that evening: ​ “That evening [24Aug1908] we had a meeting of the sufferers ait the lakeside hotel, and adopted resolutions which have already been published . . . “The American people have the faculty of seeing the humorous side of even a serious matter, and this case was no exception. The holdup man was hardly out of sight before we were laughing at each other, and the various incidents that had not seemed so funny while the man had his gun upon us. Besides the association mentioned above, the Wiley [Wylie] tourists organized the "Lone Star Involuntary Benevolent association" in memory of the occasion, and for the fun we could get out of it. I was elected president and the ‘Not on Your Life’ girl, as she was called for the rest of the trip, secretary. We had our inaugural meeting around the camp fire with toasts by various members of the suffering party, songs written for the occasion and general jolity." [Great Falls Tribune, 29Aug1908, p5] Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell reached Butte yesterday. He had the honor of being elected president of the “Lone Star Involuntary Benevolent association," a society to which only those traveling with the Wylie company and who were in the hold-up are entitled to membership. This organization celebrated the event with speeches and much merry-making the evening of the affair at the Lake Hotel camp and still look back upon the hold-up as the real event of their trip. Mr. Mitchell said those In the holdup look back upon it as something not to have been missed—the real event of the trip, and one never to be forgotten. The "Not on Your Life" girl mentioned previously is explained by Mr. Mitchell: "In the last coach were five ladies besides the driver. The first one was Miss Stasia Riley, of Austin, Minn. He demanded her money. *Not on your life,” replied Miss Rilev. 'Here’s a dollar,. and that’s all you set from me." Evidently he admired the nerve for he passed to the next without further demands." [Great Falls Tribune, 29Aug1908, p5] Stage Robbery 9Jul1887 Yellowstone Journal Stage Robbery 15Aug1897 Los Angeles Heraldl Stage Robbery 25Aug1908 Billings Daily Gazette Stage Robbery 30Jul1914 Daily Ardmorite, OK Stage Robbery 16Jul1915 Glascow Courier, MT

  • Historic Bridges of Yellowstone |

    Historic Bridges in Yellowstone ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my old Historic Bridges Page at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Yellowstone Post Cards - 1 |

    Yellowstone Post Cards Vol. 1 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my Postcard Page that has been saved at ​ Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Early Stage Outfits |

    Coaching in the Yellowstone The Smaller Stage Companies ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Abbot-Downing Co. J.S. Abbott and Lewis Downing started this stagecoach company in 1826 and built the first Concord Stage in 1827. The company was known by several variations of the name over the years and produced over 3700 Concord Stages between 1827-1899. The coaches typically held 6, 9, or 12 passengers on bench seats. A Tally-Ho coach, with seats atop, could carry up to 20 or more persons. The Wells Fargo Company was among the company’s larger accounts, while the various Yellowstone companies purchased several hundred coaches from 1883-1916. The basic model weighed over 1-ton and the coach rode on twin through-braces made out of rawhide that formed 3-inch thick leather springs and gave a smooth, swinging motion. The coaches were used extensively throughout the west and are considered the finest stagecoaches ever built. One person could sit next to the driver (riding shotgun) and at least one model had bench seats on top. The underbody was painted yellow, while the coach body could be red (Monida & Yellowstone), yellow (Yellowstone Park Transportation Co), green, or other colors at the buyers request. When Yellowstone abandoned its coach fleet in 1917 for White Motor Co. buses, the company turned to making motor trucks for other industries. Above: The Abbot-Downing Carriage Works in Concord, NH ​ Left: The 'Castle' stagecoach, used by the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Co . A typical illustration of a 'Yellowstone Wagon' from the Abbot-Downing catalog. ​ Right: A typical illustration of a Wells Fargo Concord Coach, from the Abbot-Downing catalog. Gilmer & Salisbury John T. “Jack” Gilmer, with brothers Orange J. and Monroe Salisbury formed this stagecoach line in 1868 with the purchase of the assets of the Utah, Idaho, and Montana branches of Wells, Fargo Co. In 1873 this transportation firm was running stages from Fort Benton, Montana to Helena. They bought out the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage, Mail and Express Line in 1876, operating the Deadwood line between Cheyenne and the Black Hills. However, when they took over other stage lines, they generally kept the original names for the sake of customer familiarity, as thus, the Gilmer & Salisbury name itself was not always well-known to the public. The company became one of the most powerful corporations in the Northwest in the late 1800’s and amassed a sizable fortune. In their final days lines ran from the Canadian border to southern Utah and from the Great Plains to California and Washington. Gilmer passed away in May 1892 of Bright’s Disease. Monroe Salisbury died of cancer in May of 1907 while his brother O.J succumbed to heart disease a month later in June of 1907. Left: Gilmer & Salisbury Stage Line advertisement in the New North West. 8Oct1869. It outs service to Corinne Ut and Virginia City, Mt. According to “The History of the Construction of the Road System in Yellowstone National Park, 1872-1966 Historic Resource Study, Volume I,” “The first West Entrance Road, built by Gilman Sawtell , originated in Virginia City, Montana, and reached the Lower Geyser Basin by way of the Madison Canyon in 1873. Sawtell, the owner of a hotel near Henry's Lake in the Idaho Territory, named the toll-free road, The Virginia City and National Park Free Road, in order to differentiate it from the North Entrance toll road. But, by 1877, the road was a barely passable road as noted by a visitor “In 1878, Philetus Norris had the road along the Madison River to the western boundary in his improvement program . . . But two years later, Norris was approached by O. J. Salisbury, a partner in Gilmer & Salisbury Company, mail contractors, to find a new coach and mail route for the west side. The existing route along the Madison River, which required much bridging, was impassable most of the year and many considered the route dangerous. After two days of exploration, an acceptable route, which cut south from the Madison River at Riverside, was found. Salisbury left men to construct a mail station at the Riverside cutoff, while he proceeded east to secure his mail contract. Norris, who once considered the mountainous area south of the Madison River inaccessible, was surprised to find "a dry, undulating, but beautifully timbered plateau, allowing a judiciously located line of wagon-road with nowhere an elevation much in excess of 1,500 feet above the Forks of the Fire Hole. This route, which was shorter by six miles than the Madison Canyon route, would be cheaper to construct and maintain and also would open up new observation points for scenic and geologic interests." Top: Portraits of Jack Gilmer and Monroe Salisbury, undated. Bottom: Gilmer & Salisbury Stage Line pass, 1883 [Steamboat & Stagecoach Era in Montana and the North West, by Carlos A. Schwantes] Apparently, Gilmer & Salisbury was providing stage and Mail service to the Firehole by at least 1879 and perhaps earlier. In 1880 Marshall & Goff began providing that service, taking over from Gilmer & Salisbury. The company later began providing access close to Yellowstone Park as early as 1869 by running stagecoaches to Virginia City and later to Bozeman, where other stage lines (Bassett Brothers) carried passengers into the park. By 1880 they were running stages for mail, freight, and passengers from Red Rock, near Monida, to Mammoth Hot Springs . Marshall & Goff. George W. Marshall received a 1-year mail carrier contract in 1879 for the Virginia City to Mammoth route and formed the Marshall & Goff Stage Co. with John Goff in 1880. They built a house at the Firehole River near Nez Perce Creek. The following year erected a mail station at Norris, possibly in the meadow near the soldier station. Marshall and John A. Goff also built a 2-story hotel along the Firehole River near Nez Perce Creek in 1880. It was the 2nd hotel in Yellowstone; McCartney’s at Mammoth being the first). ​ Left: Marshall & Goff's Mail Station at Firehole, ca1879. [Thos. H. Rutter stereo, courtesy Yellowstone Stereoviews webpage.] The first passenger stagecoach left October 1, 1880 from Virginia City for the Lower Basin. George Marshall drove the first two passengers, one of which was Carrie Strahorn, who claimed to be the first woman to tour the entire Park. She was traveling with her husband Robert A. Strahorn. They traveled up the Madison River to the Lower Geyser Basin to Marshall’s Hotel located at the confluence of Nez Perce Creek and the Firehole River. Marshall began giving tours of the park that same year and his tours were the first known to originate from 'within` the park. ​ The Helena Weekly Herald reported on Aug 26 1880, “This week the coaches on Marshall & Goffs mail and express line to the National: Park were started. The coaches are commodious lour-horse vehicles, and the stations are at convenient distances, so that tourists can now make the journey by easy stages to Fire Hole Basin.” The paper also reported that construction of the hotel was nearing completion and would be ready for visitors the first of September. Board and lodging was $3/day, or $12/week . . . [and] Persons desiring to ride or drive through the Park will be furnished a two or three-seated carriage with driver for $8 per day. Riding horses for ladies or gentlemen, or pack horses will be furnished for $2.50 a day each. Trusty guides to all places of interest for $5 a day when required.” Top Right: Helena Weekly Herald, 26Aug1880] ​ Bottom Left: 1908 Map excerpt showing Virginia City, Monida, Spencer, Henry's Lake and Firehole. [Clason's Map Co.] From “Montana and Yellowstone National Park,” by Robert E. Strahorn, 1881 ​ EXPENSES IN THE PARK. "Mr. G. W. Marshall, at the National Park House in Lower Geyser Basin, will transport parties to various points or outfit them at following rates; Three-seated carriage and driver, $8 per day; single-seated rig and driver, $6 per day; saddle horses, $2.50 per day for 3 days or more, or $3 for single day . . . Bedding, tents and board will be furnished to parties on Park tours at very reasonable rates; board at hotel, $3 per day. Parties who desire to outfit and board themselves while making excursions in the Park, can buy all necessary provisions, ammunition, fishing tackle and bedding of Mr. G. W. Marshall at a reasonable advance (for freightage) over prices at Virginia City, or cooking utensils, bedding, tents, etc., will be leased on favorable terms to proper parties . . . Our estimate of the entire expense of the trip for one person from Omaha to the Park and return, including horse hire, board or provisions, etc., for 10 days in the Park is from $225 to $250." "Crossing Firehole Creek, Lower Geyser Basin" Near Marshall's Hotel early 1880s. The coaches may be those of the Bassett Brothers. [Cabinet Card, F.S. (Francis Shay) Halsted, Photographer] Zack Root's Express Zachary T. Root was born in October 1846 in Maryland. He is known to have been in the Bozeman area by at least the fall of 1873. Around July 1874, Zach Root formed a transportation company in Bozeman that hauled freight and passengers from Bozeman to Mammoth and points in between on a weekly basis. Zack Root's stage connected with George Huston and Frank Grounds at Mammoth Hot Springs, who had been operating a pack train operation into Yellowstone since at least 1873. The New North West newspaper in Deer Lodge, Mt., noted in early August 1874 that, “Zack Root's express, carrying the U. S. mail, passengers and freight, leaves Bozeman every Monday morning for the Mammoth llot Springs, National Park, and connects there with pack trains to the geysers and all attractive points in Wonderland.” A Bozeman paper noted in May 1875, that Zack Root was having his coaches renovated and repainted for the upcoming tourist season. Right: Mammoth Hot Springs stage and pack trips ad. [Bozeman Avant Courier, 18Sep1874] Zack Root only advertised his operation during 1874-75. In 1876 Clark & Arnholt’s Express was being promoted with George Wakefield as proprietor and provided the same services that Root had offered. ​ The following year George Ash and E.L. Fridley bought out Clark’s operation and announced, “Tourists for the National Park and Geyser Land! Headquarters at the Bozeman.” They supplied wagons, carriages, buggies, saddle horses, and pack animals and connected with George Huston’s pack train at Mammoth. The operation changed hands again in 1877 as George Reese took over the venture under the name Clark’s Fork Express, and provided regular service to the burgeoning mining community at Clark’s Fork. There were no references in the Bozeman Avant-Courier that year for guiding or pack train services in the park by Huston or any other guide, nor were there any transportation ads for service to the park in 1878 or 1879 that the author has found. No doubt the Nez Perce and Bannock wars of 1877 and 1878 adversely affected business in the park. By 1880 Marshall & Goff were handling stage operations to Mammoth and Fire Hole from Virginia City, and Gilmer & Salisbury providing service to Virginia City. Left : Ad for Zack Root's Express. [Bozeman Avant Courier, 3Aug1875] ​ Above: Ad for Z.T. Root's Express [The Madisonian, Virginia CIty, Mt, 4Dec1875] James A. Clark James Clark constructed a small tent hotel at the base of Capitol Hill in 1885 and was granted a 4-acre lease for 10 years that permitted him to build a hotel and necessary outbuildings. He also established a transportation and guide service that year for his guests. It was a partnership with E.O. Clark and was known as the “National Park Hack & Express”. He apparently took over the operation of an operation of the same name operated by Hobbs & Link (Frank M. Hobbs and Lawrence Link) that advertised in 1884 and was based in Cinnabar , They operated until Sept of 1885 when the partnership was dissolved. ​ Right: Jas. A Clark - National Park Livery. [Livingston Enterprise, 10Jul1886 The Clarks advertised renting carriages, hacks, and saddle horses, with or without drivers. The Livingston Enterprise noted in 1885 that “Clark’s Town" is located at the foot of Capitol Hill and contains five houses and a number of tents.” By 1886 Clark was operating the ‘Cooke Stage & Express Line’, and received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail and stage contract in 1887. The business was often referred to simply as the White Barn at Mammoth . Two years later he was making tri-weekly trips to Cooke, with an overnight stop at the Soda Butte Stage Station. Above: Advertising Card for Jas. A. Clark at Mammoth, ca1886 Above: The "White Barn" at Mammoth Hot Springs, headquarters for James Clark's transportation operation. It was located at the base of Capitol Hill, about where the current Xanterra Parks & Resorts executive house is located. Livingston Enterprise - Apr 16, 1887 ​ Park Transportation J. A Clark has refurnished his already extensive outfit of horses and carriages, and is prepared to do a general transportation business through the National Park during the coming season. He will also run the Cooke City mail and stage line, for which he has the contract. All wishing to make a tour of the Park will find it to their interest to consult with Mr. Clark before engaging transportation elsewhere. His place of business is the White Barn south of the National Hotel, at Mammoth Hot Springs. Call and see him or address him at the above place. James sold his transportation business in 1889 to A.T. French, who received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail route franchise. Clark was never able to build the hotel as promised in his lease and sold out his hotel interests in 1888 to the firm of White, Friant & Letellier, and eventually landed into the hands of George Wakefield. Early in 1889 Clark applied for a lease to erect a hotel at Soda Butte, but was turned down by Interior due to his past record. Clark was also involved in several mining ventures at Cooke City. "Cooke Transportation Line - A.T. French, Proprietor" [Livingston Enterprise, 30Nov1889] Sale of Clark's hotel site at Mammoth [Livingston Enterprise, 10Dec1887] The Wakefield Stage Companies George W. Wakefield was born in Bangor Maine in 1833 ventured west in 1859, where he prospected for gold in Colorado, California, Mexico, Nevada, British Columbia, Oregon and Idaho. In 1872 he settled in Bozeman, operated a livery barn and took a lease to manage the Northern Pacific Hotel, which he purchased in 1879. Wakefield had been operating stage lines in Montana Territory and between Bozeman and Virginia City before he teamed up with Charles W. Hoffman of Bozeman to establish the Wakefield & Hoffman stage line in 1883. Hoffman, a Montana pioneer, had become Post Sutler at Ft. Ellis in 1868, later Quartermaster, Post Trader in 1878, and was a state senator in the 1890s-early 1900s. The new stage company, Wakefield & Hoffman, provided service from Cinnabar to Mammoth and into the park under an exclusive agreement with Yellowstone Park Association (YPA), effective July 15, 1883. They operated from Livingston to the track's end until the Northern Pacific’s RR’s line was open to Cinnabar. The business started out with four Concord coaches, drawn by four horses. The coaches were named the Mayflower, the Bighorn, the Huntley, and the Queen. According to a Stagecoach information page on the St. Louis arch Museum website, Wakefield and Hoffman purchased Gilmer & Salisbury’s equipment to operate there business in Yellowstone National Park ​ The company also received the mail contract for the Livingston to Cooke City route (tri-weekly) and provided daily mail service (during the summer season) to Mammoth beginning in July 1883. They utilized a cabin at Soda Butte for a mail station and overnight stop, as the trip from Cinnabar to Cooke City took more than one day. Right: Ad in The Yellowstone National Park , Herman Haupt, 1883 The St. Paul Globe noted on July 18, 1883 that, "The stage service by Messrs. Wakefield & Hoffman will be complete and ample for any emergency daring the season. They will have from 80 to 100 horses distributed through the park at various stations. From the terminus of the Park Branch road to the Mammoth Hot Springs, they place Concord coaches, and from the hotel through the park, new two and three-seated spring Concord wagons of Racine manufacture. They will be equipped and prepared with transportation for any number traveling in large excursion parties on short previous notice. Their whole outfit will be in the park in a few days." ​ The following April the Livingston Daily Enterprise revealed that Wakefield had just returned from a trip back east (probably Concord, NH) and had purchased, “an elaborate outfit of wagons of new and unique design.” It was reported that in1884 the company maintained about 40 vehicles, including Concord coaches, jerkies, buggies, elegant spring wagons, and single and double buckboards. In Dec. of 1885, C.W Hoffman sold out his interest in the stage company to F.J. Haynes, the park photographer. The new business was called Wakefield & Haynes Stage Co. In March of 1886 Wakefield traveled to South Bend, Indiana, ”purchasing carriages and stages for the park tourist business this season.” [Indianapolis Journal, 31March1886] The company however was short-lived and Haynes sold out in July of 1886 for $2400, for reasons not entirely clear. The concern then became known as Wakefield Stage Lines. Left: Portrait of Chas. W. Hoffman [History of Montana , H.F. Sanders] Right: Livingston Daily Enterprise, 25Jan1884 "Notice of dissolution of partnership.—Notice is hereby given that the co partnership heretofore existing between Geo W. Wakefield of Bozeman, Gallatin county, Mont., and F. Jay Haynes of Fargo, Cass county, Dak., under the firm name and style of the Wakefield & Haynes Stage Co., has by mutual consent been dissolved, and all persons indebted to said firm, or having claims against the same, are hereby notified that all the debts of said firm have been assumed by the said Geo. W. Wakefield, who will pay the same as they become due, and that all credits in favor of said firm have been purchased by said Geo. W. Wakefield, who is hereby authorized and empowered to collect the same. Hereafter the business of said firm will be continued by Geo. W. Wakefield Stage Co. In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our hands this 23rd day of July, A. D. 1886, at Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming. GEO. W. WAKEFIELD. F. JAY HAYNES Witness: W. W. Livingston. [The Livingston Enterprise, 07 Aug 1886, Sat • Page 1] In 1887 Wakefield began tri-weekly stage service from Livingston to the mining city of Castle. The following year he bought James Clark’s hotel operation at Mammoth and in 1889 the business incorporated as the National Park Transportation Co. with members Charles Gibson, E.C. Waters, G.W. Wakefield, and Thomas Oakes. An inventory conducted at that time revealed that the company owned three 11-passenger Concord wagons, eight 7-passenger Concord wagons, eight 5-passengers surreys and wagons, three 3-passenger Studebaker surreys, and eight other miscellaneous wagons and coaches. In a series of behind-the-scenes political maneuvers, schemes, and contrivances, the Wakefield company lost the transportation contract late in 1891, and the physical possessions were purchased by Harry W. Child and his associates. The Helena Independent Record announced on May 22, 1892 that, “George Wakefield and the National Park Transportation Co. lost the YPA contract in late 1891, and the operation was purchased by the YNPTC in 1892. In carrying out this object, a company has been incorporated under the laws of Montana entitled the Yellowstone National Park Transportation company, 'the incorporators are S.S Huntley, H. W. Child , E.W. Bach, L. H. Hershfleld and Aaron Hershfield. Silas Huntley will be the genera! manager of the company. The capital stock is $250,000. The contract given Mr. Huntley by the government is for ten seasons, beginning Nov. 1, 1901. The season opens June 1 and to start it the company has 500 horses, from seventy-five to 100 vehicles. and will employ about 100 drivers in addition to the stock tenders.” By 1894, Wakefield had teamed up with John A. Ennis and were delivering mail by stage from Livingston to Cinnabar under the name Wakefield & Ennis. D.I. Donovan took over the route in 1895 and Wakefield went into the camping business in Yellowstone, and received a permit in to operate a camping coaches and wagons from the Interior Dept His operation originated from Cinnabar , Montana, using 10-passenger Concord coaches. Passengers on the 10-day camping tours visited all the major attractions in the Park. The service cost $40 and all the visitors camping needs were provided for. Wakefield continued with this concession through at least 1901. Left: Billings Gazette, 11Aug1896 Above: George Wakefield standing in front of one of his camping coaches, ca1898. [Courtesy Univ. of Montana - Missoula] Yellowstone Transportation Co. (YTC) This firm was organized by Charles Gibson and Thomas F. Oakes (in 1886, under the auspices of the Yellowstone Park Association. Gibson was a St. Louis hotel businessman and co-founder of the Yellowstone Park Asso . (YPA) and Oakes was vice-president of the NPRR and held 10% of share in YPA. However, the YTC was unable to acquire a lease from the Army authorities, so they subcontracted with Wakefield & Hoffman to provide stagecoach service for YPA. That year Gibson issued a notice that "the drivers of the stage should act as guides in showing guests all the curiosities of the park." YPA`s transportation privileges were revoked November 1, 1891 and were taken over by the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co.

  • West Yellowstone |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ West Yellowstone & The Union Pacific RR ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Early Days . . . . The West Entrance of Yellowstone was used by many of the earliest tourists to Yellowstone. Gilman Sawtelle, probably the area's earliest settler, homesteaded a ranch in the Henry's Lake area in 1867. The following year he built a road from his ranch to Virginia City. Five years later he was instrumental in constructing the first road from Virginia City into Yellowstone through the West Entrance. The road was known as the Virginia City and National Park Free Wagon Road. In the 1880's travel to the park was also accomplished by the UP's line that extended from Brigham City, UT. to Butte MT. The train stopped at Beaver, near the Idaho and Montana border, and there stagecoaches made the trip through the West Entrance. The route traveled through Centennial Valley, past Henry's Lake, with an overnight stop at Dwelle's Inn. The passengers arrived at the Fountain Hotel the following day in time for lunch The jump-off point was later moved to Monida, where the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Line began service in 1898 and traveled a more direct route to the west entrance of Yellowstone. In 1905, E.H. Harriman, President of Union Pacific RR, made plans to extend their rail line to the west entrance of Yellowstone. The line was completed in Nov. of 1907 and the following June the line was open for regularly scheduled train traffic. Right Top: Dwelle's lodge, later known as the Grayling Inn. In 1884 he established Dwelle’s Stage Stop to service the Bassett Bros. stages that were running to the park from Beaver, Idaho. In 1898, Dwelle’s Inn became an overnight stop for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. that transported tourists to the park from Monida until 1908. [Montana Historical Society] Right Bottom: Gilman Sawtelles cabin in 1872, when he hosted F.V Hayden Expedition Hayden standing to right and Sawtelle sitting on the right. Photo by Wm. H. Jackson. Bottom Left: The Sawtelle Ranch in 1872. Photo by Wm. H. Jackson. The Union Pacific RR Moves in . . . The UPRR incorporated the Yellowstone Park Railroad Company on September 12, 1905 to build a line from St. Anthony, Idaho to the west entrance of Yellowstone. Construction began October 3, 1905 and was completed November 12, 1907. The line was almost immediately closed by winter snows, but was ready to provide service the following June. The town at the Boundary was founded in 1908 with the name of Riverside, even though the town site was two miles from the Madison River. The UP began providing passenger rail service to the town on June 11, 1908. A road was cut through the forest in 1907, to the Madison River two miles distant, where the Wylie Permanent Camping Company and the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Company built barns and other facilities required by their stages engaged in transporting the tourists into the Park from the Union Pacific RR depot. The townsite was located on Forest Service lands and permission was needed for any homesteaders. The original settler was Joe Claus, who built a cabin in what is now the townsite during the winter of 1906-1907, probably in the hope of profiting from construction of the railway. The first residents were issued permits for stores and homes late in the fall of 1907, but did not actually own the land. They were Charles A. Arnet, Sam P. Eagle, and L.A. Murray. A Forest Service survey in June 1908 created a town site consisting of 6 blocks and the town was officially named Riverside on Oct. 23, 1908. Prior to that time the area was referred to as ‘the Boundary’, or ‘at the Boundary'. ​ Yellowstone Hotel ​ Hotel Yellowstone, usually referred to as the Yellowstone Hotel, or Yellowstone Inn in later days, was a 2-story hotel was built around 1907-08 by L.A. Murray. Adjacent buildings were a small pool hall and a corner barber shop run by Osh Hedgecoach in the early years. I believe it came into possession of the Bryant Way, a camping outfit that toured Yellowstone. Around 1913, Shaw & Powell Camping Co. bought the hotel for use by their guests. After reorganization of the camping companies in Yellowstone in 1917, it came into possession of the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. In 1926, the property was sold to Sam Hurless, who constructed a cabin camp on the lot. T op Left: Hotel Yellowstone, photo taken perhaps soon after construction. Top Right: Yellowstone Hotel with the pool room at right and barber shop on far right. Bottom Right: The Inn at the Gate: The Yellowstone Hotel, ca1914 when used by the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. [Photo from University of Wyoming] Eagles Store, ca1910 ​ Samuel Peter Eagle, then in partnership with Alex Stuart, opened a general store in 1908 which operated for two years, after which the Stuart family went into business for themselves. On November 17, 1909 Sam Eagle was appointed Postmaster, taking over from Chas. Arnet. The store was enlarged in 1913. [Photo from Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea] The Town's Beginnings . . . The name Riverside had already been applied to an area 4-5 miles east of the park entrance in the 1880’s, where a mail and stagecoach station and a soldier station were located. To avoid confusion, the name was changed to Yellowstone on Jan 31, 1910. Confusion continued for years with the town named the same as the park. The name was changed for the last time in 1920 to West Yellowstone. In 1913 and 1919 lands were removed from the Forest Service jurisdiction for use as the town site and residents were then able to actually own their land. In 1920 additional areas were surveyed and platted, enlarging the town. The original blocks were renumbered and 22 additional blocks created. Charles Arnet, one of the original founders, built the Yellowstone Store, around 1907-08. It was the first store in town and located in the middle of Park Street. It also housed the first post office. He sold out to Alex Stuart in 1910. L.A. “Dick” Murray built the Yellowstone Hotel in 1909, located across the street and west of the Eagle Store. It later became the Yellowstone Inn, and then the hotel for the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Around the same time, Sam Eagle also operated a general store with Alex Stuart. When Stuart bought the Yellowstone Store, Eagle and his wife continued their operation. In the late 1920's they built a new 'Eagle Store'. The Eagle family continues to operate the store to this day. Early Street Views of "Yellowstone" T op Left: Real-Photo postcard with Hotel Yellowstone behind the horses, probably pulling a Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co., undated. ​ Top Right: Park St. in 1912. Alex Stuart's General Merchandise Store. ​ Bottom Right: Street view ca1917 showing buses of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. Behind are the madison Hotel (left) and Madison Cafe to its right. The building on the right advertises Park Tour and Permanent Camps, no doubt an old Shaw & Powell Camping Co. building. [Yellowstone Historic Center, #2016.4] Union Pacific Depot The depot was designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwood and opened in 1909 by the UPRR, replacing temporary facilities. The Union Pacific RR described it as, “built of stone, very substantial, spacious, and artistic. It is electric heated by steam, and provides large waiting rooms, an individual dressing room for ladies, two large fireplaces, drinking fountains, etc. In it are the usual ticket and Pullman offices and the office of the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Co. Upon the railroad's arrival to West, the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Line moved their operations from Monida to an area a few miles inside the park's boundary called Riverside. They picked up passengers from the depot and took them on the tour around the park. In 1972, major changes were made throughout the depot to convert its use to a privately-operated museum. The building currently houses the Yellowstone Historic Center Museum ​ Union Pacific Dining Lodge The Dining Lodge was built in 1925 by the UPRR with Gilbert Stanley Underwood as architect. The dining hall incorporated a large central eating space (the Mammoth Room) with a massive, arrowhead-shaped fireplace, a kitchen large enough to prepare over 1,000 meals per day; a large service wing containing the employee dining hall, a bakery, butcher shop, scullery, linen room, coal room, manager’s office, and walk-in refrigerators and freezers. Visitors would arrive in the morning and have breakfast prior to their journey into the park. Diners were served in the Mammoth Room, a dining room with 45' ceilings, large windows, and a fireplace large enough for a man to stand in. Several hundred people could be seated at once. Visitors returning from the park would have supper before boarding the train for their trip home. T op Left: The Beanery, built in 1911 to replace the original crude facility. [Photo from Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea] ​ Top Right: Mammoth Room in the new UP Dining Lodge, constructed in 1925, replacing the Beanery. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] ​ Middle Right: The Depot with the Yellowstone Special in front. [Postcard Bloom Bros. #4270, Author collection] ​ Bottom Right: Early view of the Union Pacific Depot. [Real-Photo postcard] ​ Bottom Left: Trackside view of the Union Pacific Dining Lodge (left), Baggage Bldg., and the Depot, late 1920s, Tammen Postcard #4520 Early Businesses Stuart's Garage Alex Stuart, one of towns founding pioneers, started out in business with Sam Eagle. Stuart bought Arnet's Yellowstone Store in 1910 and started a general merchandise store. They incorporated as the Stewart Mercantile Co. in 1915. According to the Butte Miner, Oct. 24, 1915, “The Stuart Mercantile company, organized to conduct a general retail merchandise business at Yellowstone, in extreme southern Gallatin county on the Park boundary, has been Incorporated by papers filed with the county clerk and recorder last Thursday. The capital stock is $25,000. The directors are Matthew A. Stewart and Emma Stewart of St. Paul. Minn., and Alex Stuart and Laura Stuart of Yellowstone. [See stereoview of the store on the "Street Views of Yellowstone above) Right: Stereoview of Stuart's General Merchandise Store, 1912. With the advent of the 'horseless carriage' in Yellowstone, he entered into an agreement with the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. to service their new White Motor Co. buses beginning in 1917. He built Stuart's Garage, selling gas, tires, oil, and other automotive supplies. He obtained the service contract in 1917 for the White Motor Co. touring buses of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. YPTCo took over operations from the Yellowstone-Western stagecoach company when motor cars began ruling the roads in Yellowstone in 1917. Alex’s son Walt, reportedly the first baby born in West Yellowstone (1909), began working at the station in 1919, purchased it in 1936 and eventually sold it in 1977. Alex Stuart died in 1961. Top Right: Colorized postcard of Alex Stuart's Service, undated. Top Left: Walt Stuarts Texaco after rebuilding/remodeling, ca1940s. Real-Photo postcard. Madison Hotel Built by Jess Pieman in 1912, the Madison Hotel is the only remaining early hotel in West Yellowstone. This rustic log hotel was soon after purchased by Charles M. "Roxy" and Dolly (Bishop) Bartlett. It was conveniently located across from the UPRR depot. There were originally 6 rooms upstairs with a downstairs lobby. Fourteen more rooms and a card room were added in 1921 and running water a few years later. Eventually the Hadleys bought the operation in 1959, adding a large gift shop. The business is still open during the summer season. Top Right: Ad for the Hotel Madison in 1915. [Road Logs Salt Lake City to Yellowstone Park, 1915] Bottom Right: Lobby of the Madison Hotel, undated. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] Bottom Left: Madison Hotel, located across from the UP Depot, ca1920. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] Kennedy Bldg - Menzel’s Curio The Kennedy Building was built in 1911 on a lot owned by Madison Basin Forest Ranger Louis J. Kennedy. It originally served as a dance hall in the town that would become West Yellowstone. Equipped with a piano, the building hosted Saturday night dances for the entertainment of tourists, railroad employees, and locals. It then housed a summer restaurant from 1913 to 1916, and in 1919, local students used its lofty space as a basketball court. Sam Eagle, one of the town’s founders, acquired the building in 1933 and opened a curio shop managed by his daughter, Rose. In 1941, Rose married Herm Menzel who promptly went off to war. Upon Herm’s return in 1946, the store became Menzel’s Curio Shop. The building still stands on Yellowstone Avenue today. Top Left : Kennedy Building, that later housed Menzel's Curio Shop in 1933. Rose Eagle managed the business until 1946, when she married Herm Menzel. [Real-Photo postcard, probaby ca1933.] ​ Top Right : Later view of Eagle's Curio Store, ca1940s ​ Bottom Right : 1981 view of Menzel's Curio Store. It is still in business to this day. It is one of the few original businesses in town remaining from the 1910s era. [NPS Photo #284] Eagle Store Samuel Peter Eagle, then in partnership with Alex Stuart, opened a general store in 1908 which they operated for two years, after which the Stuart family went into business for themselves. On November 17, 1909 Sam Eagle was appointed Postmaster, taking over from Chas. Arnet. Eagle took over the actual operation of the post office in January of 1910, which was the beginning of his 25 years of tenure. The West Yellowstone Post Office was housed in the store from 1910 until 1935. Also, a soda fountain was added to Eagle’s Store in 1910. The store was rebuilt/enlarged in 1913. The present 3-story building was built in the years between 1927 and 1930. Sam purchased Joe Claus’ cabins in the early 1920s and used them as employee housing. Small shops to the side of the store were replaced by a store addition in 1966. The Eagle Family has continued to operate at 3 Canyon Street in its original location to this day. Top Left: 1913 view of the early Eagle Store. [Photo from Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea] Top Right: View of the Eagle Store after it was rebuilt in 1927-30. [Schlechten Photo] Tepee Inn The Tepee Inn (also Tee Pee Inn) was built by Paul & Dorothy Strieder in 1919. It was a large two-story log structure that housed a bar, dance floor, cafe, and rooms. Paul died in the early 1920s and later Dorothy married Val Buchanan, and continued to operate the hotel. J.H. Venable sold the Tepee to A.K. Clawson in 1952. A fire caused by a burning grease trap burned the Tepee in 1965, but the exterior rock wall and interior back-bar survived the fire. The building was rebuilt as a single story structure, and Clawson added the Tepee Motel to the building. ​ Right: Lobby of the TePee Inn, 1934. [Schlechten Photo] Bottom Left: The Tepee Inn, ca1920. Real-Photo postcard. Bottom Right: The Tepee Inn, alte 1920s after the Inn was greatly enlarged. Real-Photo postcard. Doc’s Bar - Doc’s Club Horace G. “Doc” Bartlett was the brother of Roxy Bartlett, who opened the Madison Hotel. Doc opened a grocery store called the Log Store around 1920. A few years later he opened Doc’s Bar, later called Doc’s Club. Gambling was not unknown in the bar and occasionally newspapers, somewhat unfavorably, reported on the matter. In the late 1930s, Doc was involved in the startup of the Chalet Theater. In later days the club featured the Starlite Lounge, for drinks, dinner and dancing. It was listed for sale in newspapers in 1956 and 1968. Above: Newspaper ad for Doc's Club, from the Idaho State Journal in 1959 ​ Left: View of Yellowstone St., late-1930s. Doc's is in between the two cafes on the left. [Photo from, Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea ​ Smith & Chandlers ​ Transcription of sign from the West Yellowstone Historic Walking Tour "In 1927, two pioneering entrepreneurs from Las Vegas, Nevada, Carl Smith & Ken Chandler, built a large general mercantile across the street from the Union Pacific Depot. Train passengers walked across the dirt street for their group photos. Tour bus riders bought western hats and dusters. Auto travelers picked up postcards and curios. “Smith & Chandler Indian Traders” brought Navajo, Zuni and Hopi jewelry makers and rug, blanket and basket weavers to the store for decades. Alice Chandler was quite a memorable sight, too. She dyed her hair a bright red and was dressed in the finest western dresses and boots. She graced the store with her style and presence for 50 years. By 1972, the Smiths and Chandlers had retired and sold the store to the Hamilton/ Povah family. In March of 1973, suspected static electricity and leaking propane gas sparked a tremendous fire. Without the help from modern fire hydrants to extinguish the flames, the store and adjoining coffee shop burned to the ground. The family quickly built this new store and kept the same name" Bottom Right: Postcard view of the Smith & Chandler store in West Yellowstone, ca1940s. They also produced many postcards, many of which were Real-Photo postcards of the "Yellow Buses" filled with tourists heading into Yellowstone. Top Right: Early view of Smith & Chandler [Schlechten photo, Museum of the Rockies, #x80-6-3098] The Town Grows Up . . . This area collects tremendous amounts of snow in the winter and spring and the business season here is typically very short. The railroad shut down service during the winters. Many residents left the area for the winter, and the few that stayed were generally snowed-in for the duration. It was not until 1936 that the road to Bozeman was kept open through the winter. The area’s first airport opened in 1935 on forest lands south of town, cleared by Yellowstone pioneer George Whittaker. Private-owned snowplanes entered the park through the West Entrance in 1948-49. Private snowmobiles were 1st allowed into Yellowstone in the 1963-64 seasons and the area has since developed into a very popular winter resort area for snowmobiling, snowcoach tours into Yellowstone and cross-country skiing. Snowmobile rental businesses have begun using snowmobiles with 4-stroke engines that pollute less and are quieter. Although the Park banned individual snowmobile travel in Yellowstone, there are vast areas that be explored outside of the Park. ​ Regularly scheduled railroad passenger service ended in 1960, but a new airport was built in 1963-64, allowing for larger aircraft to bring visitors into the area. The town was incorporated in in 1966 and three years later the UPRR donated the Depot, Dining Lodge, and other service buildings to the town. Postcard Views of Motels of 1930s -1950s T op Left: The Hayward cabins and gas station, built by former Yellowstone storekeeper George Whittaker in the 1930s-40s. ​ Top Right: The Stagecoach Inn, built in 1948. A Sanborn Real-Photo postcard. ​ Middle Left: The Sleepy Hollow Motel. ​ Bottom Left: Circle R Motel, ca1940s. ​ Bottom Right: THerk's Modern Cabins, ca1940s. Street Views T op Left: View from near Park entrance looking east. From the right: Collette's Coffee Shop, Old Faithful Tavern, barber shop, drug store, cafe, Smith & Chandler's, and Madison Hotel & Gift Shop to the left. Ca1940s. YNP #185327-497. ​ Bottom Left: Looking north, Purdy's Frontier Club and Knotty Pine Coffee Shop ​ Click to enlarge photos Top Right: Yellowstone St., looking west from the corner with Stuart's Texaco gas station on right. A cafe is to the right of the Texaco, then the Frontier Club. A Sanborn postcard. ​ Bottom Right: Looking north from near Yellowstone St. A Pegasus/Mobil Oil gas station on right, Peterson's on left, with the Log Store and a Tavern next to it. A Linen-Style postcard, ca1940s. Click to enlarge photos Off to Wonderland . . . Be sure to visit the highly-rated Yellowstone Historic Center Museum, now the Museum of the Yellowstone, on your next visit to West Yellowstone

  • George Whittaker |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - George Whittaker General Stores ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. George Whittaker and the Yellowstone Park Stores - 1913 to 1932 The Army Days . . . George Whittaker began his career in Yellowstone as a soldier for the 6th Cavalry. He was assigned to Ft. Yellowstone in February of 1891 after participating in the Sioux campaign of 1890 at Wounded Knee. He served in Yellowstone until 1896, when he was appointed as a Scout by Acting Superintendent Gen. S.B.M. Young. He assisted in protecting the wildlife and searching for poachers until 1898 when he enlisted to serve in the Spanish-American War. He served at the Missouri Barracks and the Philippines as a packer, eventually returning to his scout duties in the park in 1902. He continued on as a scout during the winters until 1910, while he spent the summers working as a Transportation Agent for the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. at Canyon . Whittaker the businessman . . . In February of 1913 Whittaker purchased the Lyall-Henderson general store and post office at Mammoth. The enterprise became known as The Yellowstone Park Store. In 1914 Whittaker built a 20’ by 30’ addition to the store with an ornamental plate glass front. Financial reports showed 7 employees, including Mrs. Grace Whittaker, who is listed as Manager. He expanded into the gas station business in August of 1915 when automobiles were first allowed into the park and added a new gas station in 1919. In 1921-22 a 16’ long addition was built at the rear of the store. A 30’ addition to the former post office annex was also added. Top Left : Jenny H. Ash store at Mammoth ca1896 Top Right : Lyall-Henderson store at Mammoth ca1907. [YNP #9388] Bottom Right: Whittaker store 1917. [YNP #199719-72] In 1918 Whittaker established a store and gas station at Canyon. The store occupied a log building abandoned by Holm Transportation Co. and was located next to the ranger station, along the rim of the Grand Canyon. The old buildings consisted of one 18’ x 20’ cabin, a 14’ x 16’ cabin, a 22’ x 50’ stable and two outhouses. In the fall of 1919, he began construction a new large log store building that was completed the following spring. In 1921-22 a new warehouse was built at Canyon Revised blueprints from 1924 of Whittaker’s Canyon operation showed a ‘T’-shaped filling station with 4 pumps, a rectangular shaped store and 3 storage buildings. He then formed a partnership with the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. to operate the gas stations, with each partner having a 50% interest in the business. (The YPTCo also formed a similar relationship with Charles Hamilton's gas stations in the southern part of the park.) ​ ​ By 1923 he was operating a branch store at the Mammoth auto camp and the following year he added a deli to the Mammoth camp operation. In 1925 he sold the camp store business to Pryor & Trischman. Left : Whittaker store at Canyon ca1918, using old Holm Transportation Building Right : Whittaker gas station at Canyon, early 1920s. YNP #36503 Left : Whittaker store at Canyon ca1922. YNP 36501-733 Right : Whittaker gas station at Canyon, ca1922. YNP #36501-732 Left : Aerial view of Whittaker general store, gas station and support buildings at Canyon, undated. The sale to Pryor & Trischman and move to West Yellowstone . . . After 40 years of service in the park, George Whittaker decided to retire from the Yellowstone scene. He sold out to sisters Anna Pryor and Elizabeth Trischman in 1932 for $75,000, giving them a monopoly on the general store business in the northern half of the park. The sale included his 50% interest in the service station business at Canyon and Mammoth. He moved to West Yellowstone, where he had recently purchased property and an interest in the Hayward Cabin Co. The business included tourist cabins, a general store, service station and a beauty/barber shop. He was also involved in the construction of the first airstrip in West Yellowstone during the mid-30's. He continued his operation at West until the late 1940's when he sold the business (he was in his late 70's by this time). He eventually moved to the Old Soldiers Home at Sawtelle, California and died there in 1961 at age 91. Left : Hayward Cabins at West Yellowstone, 1940s. Right : Whittaker's Red Crown gas station in West Yellowstone, 1940s.

  • Norris |

    Hotels in the Yellowstone Norris Hotels 1887-1892 & 1901-1916 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The First Norris Hotel - 1887-1887 ​ Variously known as the Norris Lunch Station, Norris Hotel, and Larry's Lunch Station, there were five different facilities at Norris between 1883 and 1916. In 1883 the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co . (YPIC) established tent hotels at various locations throughout Yellowstone Park, including the Norris Geyser Basin. ​ The first hotel opened up in the spring of 1887, even though construction was apparently incomplete. A workman started a fire in an unfinished chimney that set the hotel ablaze on July 14. The Livingston Enterprise reported that there were many guests in the hotel, but that all were saved. A bit of furniture was rescued, but all else was lost. Afterwards tents were set-up for guest use. The Jamestown Alert in North Dakota reported that, “the Norris hotel at the National park was burned Thursday and a loss of $50,000 sustained. Sam and Mrs. Matthews, who were at the hotel in the capacity of managers, have not been heard from as to personal loss or injury. Their friends trust all is right with them.” Left: The 1st Norris Hotel, Spring of 1887. [F.J. Haynes Stereoview, YNP #345] Above: Close-up of the front of the hotel, Spring 1887. [YNP Archives #50792] The Second Norris Hotel - 1887-1892 ​ By the end of 1887 a temporary wooden hotel was completed with 20 sleeping rooms. It was long and narrow, built with 1" board siding. The Helena Weekly Herald noted on Aug. 18, 1887, “The Norris Basin hotel, burned a short time ago, is already replaced by a comfortable temporary structure with ample accommodations for more than a half hundred guests. Contrary to that report, Acting Supt. Capt. Moses described it as "cold and open, with no appliance for heating beyond a sheet iron stove in the common hall." Fire again caused havoc in 1892 and this building burned down. Much of the silverware, bedding and furniture were saved this time. Once again, the fire was believed to have resulted from a stovepipe or chimney problem. The view below would have been taken from the Norris Soldier Station, currently the Museum of the National Park Ranger. The bridge crossed the Gibbon River. Rare view of 2nd Norris Hotel by Emily Sibley Watson from Rochester NY on 20Aug1889, during her tour of Yellowstone. [Photo courtesy Univ. of Rochester , NY, Memorial Art Gallery] Round-format camera view of the 2nd Norris Hotel in 1890. Photographer unknown. The Third Norris Hotel - 1901-1916 A New Hotel. Larry Mathews , who is so well known in connection with' the Yellowstone Park, writes us that the new hotel recently built at Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Park, will be opened to the public Friday evening, Aug. 2nd. A 5 o'clock dinner will be served, after which a grand ball will be given. Ice cream, lemonade and all kinds of fruit will be served during the evening. It is expected that about 5,000 people will be present. This hotel is built on the formation, where all the large geysers of the park can be seen from the front porch, is a large affair costing $150,000, including fixtures. A large silk flag 80x47 feet will be erected over the center of the building. 'Mr. Mathews will have the management of the hotel, and is considered by the park association as the best manager in the park. [Post and Record (Rochester, Minn), 2Aug1901] A new lunch station and hotel opened in 1901 on the Porcelain Terrace at Norris. It was located on the edge of the Basin and from the front porch, one could gaze at the various geyser erupting. It contained about 25 rooms and continued to service the lunch crowd passing through. Larry Mathews managed he new hotel in 1891, and was moved to Old Faithful and managed the old "Shack Hotel Tent Camp" in 1902-03. As with the Fountain Hotel, decreased travel times in 1917 due to motorized buses, eliminated the necessity of the lunch station. It closed after the 1916 season and was razed in 1928. There are no longer any lunch or overnight facilities at Norris. Above: ca1905 view of Norris Hotel. Photographer unknown. Below: Norris Lunch House, ca1912. [Acmegraph PC #6501] Above: ca1905 view of Norris Hotel. [YPA Brochure, 1905] Below: Norris Lunch Station, ca1912. [Haynes-Photo, No. 194] From the 1901 Dept. of Interior Annual Report: "A new and very comfortable little hotel has been constructed at the Norris Geyser Basin. It has been built on a far better site than that occupied by the old lunch station, which was some distance from the geyser basin – entirely too far for the majority of tourists to walk. The new hotel is so conveniently located that the tourists can now sit on its broad and sheltered veranda, after having their luncheon, and while awaiting the arrival of their coaches, they will be greatly interested in watching the playing of the geysers in the distance below them; or if they prefer to do so, they can stroll leisurely through the basin and await the arrival of their coaches at the Monarch geyser, where comfortable seats and a shelter have been provided. This hotel has been greatly needed for a long time, and will be frequently patronized by people who can not afford the time to go entirely around the park, and also by many who wish to go out of the park by the Monida route." End of the Norris & Fountain Hotels . . . ​ The Yellowstone Park Hotel Company is now engaged in razing the old Fountain hotel and the Norris basin lunch station, which have not been utilized since the stage coach days of 10 years or more ago. These institutions went out .pf use with the inauguration of the motor bus service. Materials .contained in these structures will be used in other construction work. [Great Falls Tribune, Mont., 26 Jun 1927, p.26] Norris Hotel with stages, 1906. [Stimson Collection, Wyoming State Archives ]

  • Cody WY |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Early History of Cody Wyoming ​ Copyright 2021 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Early Days . . . Cody, Wyo is located on the Shoshone River in the Bighorn Basin in NW Wyoming, in a basin surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides: the Absarokas to the west; the Owl Creek Mtns to the south; and the Bighorn Mtns to the east. The east entrance to Yellowstone National Park lies 53 miles to the west, up the North Fork of the Shoshone River. John Colter passed through the area in 1807-08 and discovered the odorous springs along the Shoshone that became known as Colter’s Hell. The smell of the springs also gave the Shoshone River its original moniker of Stinking Water River. However, the name was changed in 1901, for obvious public relations purposes. Jim Carter and John Chapman both drove cattle herds from Oregon to the South Fork of the Stinkingwater River and established ranches. The following year Henry Belknap drove a herd south from Billings into that area. 1916 Postcard of Buffalo Bill and Cody entrance to Yellowstone, Denver Public Library In the spring of 1886, Charles DeMaris trailed a herd of cattle from Lemhi, Id. to the hot springs on the Stinkingwater River and took up a homestead near the springs. Suffering from ailments, he hoped the springs would heal him, which they seemed to do. The springs were named after him and the general area became known as DeMaris Springs. Charles and his wife Nellie built a hotel on their site that opened in 1903. On June 26, 1914, Charles DeMaris passed away. His wife Nellie and her family continued to operate the resort until her death in 1935. 8038 De Marris Hot Springs, Cody, Wyo. H.H. Tammen postcard, early 1900s. [Author Collection] Charles Demaris Pioneer is Dead Grazed the First Large Herd Where Billings is Located The Billings Gazette , Mont., 01Jul1914 Charles DeMaris, one of the oldest pioneers in northern Wyoming, died at his home at the DeMaris Springs, near Cody, at the age of 87, after several weeks’ sickness, last Friday night, according to information which reached Billings yesterday. The deceased was a real western pioneer. Bom in Ottawa. Canada, in 1827, he moved to Chicago with his parents when 9 years old. He came to Montana in the later 60s, traveling by steamer to Ft. Benton, from where he went to Leesburg Basin, Idaho, and engaged in gold mining. In 1871 he engaged in the cattle business in Idaho and in 1879 he came to the Yellowstone valley and went into the stock business, driving his herds overland from Idaho. Mr. DeMaris is generally credited with being the first man to turn out a large heard of cattle here, grazing them on the spit where Billings now stands. In 1886 Mr. DeMaris discovered the famous Hot Springs, near Cody, Wyo., which now hears his name and from which water is shipped all over the country. The deceased is survived by a wife and 13 year old son [Bill]. Left: DeMaris Hot Springs, undated. [Wyoming State Archives #14249] ​ Right: De Maris Springs, Cody Wyo. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , P61643005] Wm. Cody had explored the Big Horn Basin in the 1870s and ’80s as guide and hunter for various military, civilian and governmental expeditions. He saw great potential for the agricultural development of the area. Cody and some cohorts examined the area for the possibility of dams and canals to provide water for the basin. They also surveyed for a road to pass over the Absaroka Mtns and into Yellowstone to establish a basis for tourism. He no doubt had conversations with Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR (CB&Q) officials to get their opinions for bringing a rail line into the basin. ​ The original town of Cody was located on DeMaris’s land on the flat above the river, and was first called Shoshone, which the Post Office rejected. Richland was also proposed, but rejected by Cody’s cohorts, and naturally the name Cody came to be. In 1895, Buffalo Bill Cody, George T. Beck, Cody’s Wild West show partner Nate Salsbury, Harry Gerrans, Bronson Rumsey, Horace Alger, and George Bleistein founded the Shoshone Land and Irrigation Company. Construction began on the Cody Canal in the fall of 1895, which would carry water from the south fork of the Shoshone River to the town. In spring 1896, the area was surveyed and the present townsite laid out about 2 miles from DeMaris Springs. Early Cody founders: Wm. F. Cody, seated. George T. Beck, left, and Henry J. Fulton, right. [F.J. Hiscock photo, ca1910] According to the Casper Star-Tribune on 19Mar1978, “While on a visit to Sheridan [Wyo], in 1894, he [Cody] purchased the Sheridan Inn, and it was here that he heard about the Cody area and the Big Horn Basin. He had seen the area years before as a guide and when George Beck of Sheridan talked to him about his dream of introducing irrigation to the Big Horn country and starting a new town, Cody became enthusiastic about the project and became a third partner with Beck and Horace Alger in the Shoshone Land and Irrigation Co. He was able to interest four wealthy men from Buffalo, New York, Monte Gerrans, Nate Salsbury, Bronson Rumsey and George Bleistein, in the project and they each put up $5000 towards the building of the canal. By 1897 the canal was completed and the little town that sprang up as a result was named after Cody. Through his friendship with President Theodore Roosevelt he was able to get the tallest dam in the world constructed on the Shoshone River just west of Cody.” William 'Buffalo Bill' Cody Wm. Cody had explored the Big Horn Basin in the 1870s and ’80s as guide and hunter for various military, civilian and governmental expeditions. He saw great potential for the agricultural development of the area. Cody and some cohorts examined the area for the possibility of dams and canals to provide water for the basin. They also surveyed for a road to pass over the Absaroka Mtns and into Yellowstone to establish a basis for tourism. He no doubt had conversations with Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR (CB&Q) officials to get their opinions for bringing a rail line into the basin. The CB&Q had showed some interest in building a spur to Cody from Toluca, Mont., northeast of Cody in order to exploit the future agricultural and cattle market. The Shoshone Land Company deeded many town lots to the railroad company to ensure that the CB&Q built the line all the way to Cody, thus giving them a vested interest in the success of the town, Left: Advertisement for the Shoshone Irrigation Company touting new homes in the Cody basin. , ca1897. ​ Right: Plat map for the new town of Cody. East-West avenues are named after the founders, North-South streets are numbered. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , MS-07] Founding a new town in the Shoshone Basin Buffalo Bill helped to found the town of Cody in 1896. In 1897 and 1899 Cody and his associates acquired from the State of Wyoming the right to take water from the Shoshone River to irrigate about 169,000 acres of land in the Big Horn Basin. They began developing a canal system to carry water diverted from the river. A few years later the Feds stepped in to provide aid and funds for the huge project. The town of Cody was incorporated in 1901 and the following year W.F. Cody built the Irma Hotel and also established the town’s 1st newspaper, the Cody Enterprise in August 1899. The Buffalo Bill barn and livery was also operated by “Bill,” probably opening in the late 1890s, and reportedly torn down ca1919. In 1905 he officially opened up Pahaska Tepee Lodge at the east entrance and the Wapiti Inn about midway from Cody, serving both tourists and hunters in the nearby forest areas. He applied to the park to take over the business of the ailing Holm Transportation Co. in 1915. However, their business improved and his request was denied. He died in 1917 on the way to Denver and was buried there, much to the chagrin of the residents of Cody. Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show “Buffalo Bill” Cody opened Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show on May 19, 1883 at Omaha, Nebraska. With Dr. W.F Carver, exhibition shooter, they took the show, subtitled “Rocky Mountain and Prairie Exhibition,” across the country. Over the years, the troupe, which included as many as 1,200 performers, included many authentic personalities such as James Butler “Wild Bill” Hickok, Texas Jack Omohundro, Annie Oakley, Sitting Bull and Geronimo, as well as working cowboys recruited from the West. When Cody’s show began to suffer financially he sold a one-third interest in his production to Gordon “Pawnee Bill” Lillie in 1908. Soon, Gordon bought the remaining interest in the show but retained Buffalo Bill as a partner. The two traveled together as the “Two Bill’s Show” until 1913 when the venture went bankrupt. Top: Buffalo Bill's Wild West letterhead, dated 1896. [Buffalo Bill Hist Center , #P69118] Bottom Right : Wild West Show in London, England, 1905. [Library of Congress] Bottom Left: Original Buffalo Bill Wild West poster, undated. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , MS-07] Bottom Center : Ad for the Two Bill's Show, toward the end of Cody's career. [Ottawa Daily Republic , Kansas, 11aug1911] Shoshone Dam Planning and construction began on the Shoshone Dam in 1905 and was completed Jan. 17 1910. It created Shoshone Lake upon its completion, which took several years to fill. The dam was 328’ tall, and was claimed to be the tallest structure of its kind in the world. It was 85’ wide at the bottom and 200’ at the top, and 100’ thick. It was expected to irrigate some 100,000 acres of land. Hundreds of excited Cody citizens gathered on the 17th near the top of the dam to celebrate, and just before noon the final bucket of concrete was poured onto the dam, completing this massive project. ​ The dam created an enormous reservoir, with a surface area of ten square miles and an average depth of seventy feet. Its capacity in gallons was estimated at 148,588,512,000. The purpose of the structure was to control the great floods of the Shoshone river and provide an ample water supply for the irrigation of more than 100,000 acres of exceptionally fertile land in the valley below. "Big Dam Done Saturday" [Powell Tribune Wy, 18Jan1910] Left: "29199 Shoshone Canyon, Dam and Road from South Rim of Shoshone River. Wyo. [Keystone View Company stereoview] Right: Collage of dam scenes from Pictorial Souvenir of Cody, Wyoming, 1911. A.G. Lucier Photographer. In order to reach the dam site itself, it was necessary to carve a road through the inaccessible gorge of the Shoshone River. For several miles the road was blasted out of the sheer face of Rattlesnake Mtn. and carved through several tunnels. The Shoshone Dam name was changed to Buffalo Bill Dam & Reservoir in 1946. President Truman signed the bill in March, honoring the 100th anniversary of Buffalo Bill Cody's birthdate. Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR The CB&Q extended a rail line to Cody, Wyoming in November of 1901, providing access to the eastern side of the park and the beautiful Wapiti Valley. The Burlington Route to Cody was a branch line off the main route from Lincoln, Nebraska to Billings, Montana. It left the main line southeast of Billings at Toluca and headed southwest for 129 miles to the terminus at Cody. Construction on the line began in the spring of 1900 and was completed Nov. 11, 1901. ​ As the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR reached town in 1901, construction began on an automobile road up the North Fork of the Shoshone River. It would meet up with the road that was under construction over Sylvan Pass into Yellowstone by the Army in charge of the park. Two years later the road over Sylvan Pass became passable for wagons but was not officially completed until 1905. This allowed Cody to become the eastern gateway to Yellowstone. By 1903, both Aron “Tex” Holm and the Frost & Richard companies were leading camping trips from Cody over the pass and into Yellowstone. As time went on other local outfits escorted guest into the park by horseback or wagon. Frost & Richard Camping Company ascending Sylvan Pass from Pahaska, with camp wagons, carriages, and horses. Undated. YNP #1935 By 1917, tourist facilities in Cody were proving inadequate to meet growing tourist demands. To help alleviate the problem and satisfy their customers, the CB&Q built the Burlington Cody Café for their rail passengers. It was located just west of the depot and was scheduled to open on June 20, 1917. The railroad was hoping the town would pick up the slack in hotel accommodations, but apparently the local businessmen did little to add rooms. So, in 1922, the CB&Q built a new 2-story hotel to add on to the existing café. It featured 45 basic sleeping rooms upstairs, with a 100-person capacity café and lounge downstairs. It opened on June 19, 1922 and was renamed the Cody Inn. Burlington Cody Inn Dining 1955 [Buffalo Bill Historic Center] Bottom Left: Real-Photo postcard of the Burlington Inn, ca1922. Note the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) buses at right. Bottom Right: Real-Photo postcard of the Burlington Inn after remodeling, ca1928. YPTCo buses at the entry, along with private autos on road. Tourist demands continued to expand and the CB&Q built a new addition to the Cody Inn in the spring of 1928. It included a basement and 2-stories that would about double the existing restaurant space and bedroom count. Again, it was scheduled to open June 20, 1928. The Inn was closed from 1943 to spring 1946, no doubt due to WWII, and reopened June 19, 1946. During closure it was remodeled and redecorated. In 1948 the Cody Inn was leased to a Billings man and he changed the name to El Rancho. The railroad ended passenger service to Cody in 1956 and a year later the all the furnishings and mechanical & electrical fixtures were sold at auction the end of June. The north wing was saved and moved to the nearby Husky Oil Co. site to be used as office space. The rest of the historic Inn was razed. In 1970 the CB&Q became a part of the Burlington Northern RR. BN merged with the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe RR in 1995, creating the BNSF railroad. Buffalo Bill's Hotels Irma Hotel Built by Wm. F. Cody on the main street in Cody, Wyoming and opened on November 1, 1902. He named the hotel after his youngest daughter. It was one of three lodgings that Cody built to help promote business through the east entrance of Yellowstone Park. The others were Pahaska Tepee at the east entrance, and Wapiti Inn, at about the halfway point from town. 8-10 guest rooms occupied the main floor of the Irma, along with a lobby, dining room, billiard and bar room, kitchen, and office. The Irma's famous cherrywood bar, a gift from Queen Victoria, dates to the period of construction. Cody hired brother-in-law Louis Decker to manage the hotel. Cody’s wife Louisa died in 1921, but the hotel stayed in the family until Henry and Pearl Newell bought the hotel in 1925. The northwest addition was constructed in 1929, and The new owners gradually expanded the hotel, building an annex around 1929-‘30 on the west side to accommodate automobile travelers. After her husband's death in 1940, Pearl Newell operated the hotel until her own death in 1965. She left the hotel's extensive collection of Buffalo Bill memorabilia to the Buffalo Bill Historical Center, and stipulated that proceeds from the estate be used as an endowment for the museum. The southwest addition was added in 1976-1977. ,Buffalo Bill's Hotels in the Rockies." Brochure cover, authored by Louis E. Cooke, 1905 Top: Irma Hotel, ca1908. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center .] ​ Bottom: "Col. Cody, "Buffalo Bill" in the Office of Irma Hotel." [F.J. Hiscock postcard, Copy. 1910] Top: Irma Hotel photo collage. [Pictorial Souvenir of Cody, Wyoming, 1911. A.G. Lucier Photographer] ​ Bottom: Postcard of Irma Bar, ca1907. Col. Cody 4th from left. Wapiti Inn Wm. F. Cody built this lodge near in 1903-04 at about the halfway point (31 miles) from Cody, Wyoming to the east entrance of the park. It was one of three hotels he built to help promote the town of Cody and the new road over Sylvan Pass at the east entrance of Yellowstone. The other two facilities were the Irma Hotel in Cody and Pahaska Tepee at the east entrance. The Wapiti Inn was a 14-room frame structure built on Forest Reserve land at the mouth of Wapiti (Elk) Creek and could accommodate about twenty people. It also catered to fisherman and hunters. It was sometimes called the Wapiti Wickiup. According to the Park County Enterprise, May 17, 1913, Wapiti Inn was slated to be torn down and removed to Pahaska to expand facilities there. That year the Holm Transportation Co. began transporting tourists from Cody to Pahaska by automobile, and with decreased travel times and improved roads, Wapiti may no longer have been a necessary mid-way stop. A 1908 “Cody Road to Yellowstone” brochure described the Wapiti Inn: “At Wapiti there is the Wickiup (or Inn), a unique structure of rough boards, accommodating forty guests, and other smaller buildings (for one or two persons) with board floors and sides' and canvas coverings. The dining tent is 50 x 20 feet. The Wickiup is on Elk Fork at the junction of the Wapiti, the Elk Fork, the Sweet Water and the North Shoshone rivers. Unexcelled trout fishing is found within a hundred paces of the Wickiup. Elk Fork takes its name from the fact that for years the elk have made this vicinity their home. They may be found there the year through. Rates for meals and for lodging will be $1 per meal or lodging for the first day, and for succeeding days, or parts thereof, a rate of $3 per day.” ​ In 1918 another Wapiti Inn appeared on the scene, but little is known of this operation. It was established by Ed. Reighley and Art V. Cunningham, perhaps on the same or nearby the original “Wapiti Inn site. Cunningham later in the year took over Reighley’s share. Newspaper ads indicate it continued to operate off and on at least into the mid-late 1920s. In later years it may have become the Wapiti Valley Inn. Top : Wapiti Inn ca1909. It was also a respite for local hunters, trappers & traders. Bottom Left: Wapiti Inn, ca1907. From Campbells' Yellowstone Guide, 1908. Bottom Right: News article describing demo of Wapiti Inn and buildings being hauled to Pahaska Tepee. [7May1913, Park County Enterprise , Wyo.] Pahaska Tepee A.A. Anderson designed Pahaska Tepee, built by William F. Cody built at the east entrance of Yellowstone in 1903-05. The lodge first opened in 1904, although construction continued into the following year. The main building was built of logs in a T-shape with two stories, bedrooms for about forty people, a good-size dining room, and a large living room with a grand fireplace. A large porch wrapped around the building on three sides. The upstairs housed Cody’s private suite and six other bedrooms. One and two-room cabins were also available and were equipped with cook stove, cooking and eating utensils, and furniture. A general store was also open for guests. ​ In 1910 Col. Cody received shipment of a White Steamer automobile in late June. The 60hp auto was put into service to provide faster and more comfortable transportation from Cody to Pahaska. The first trip was made on July 5, 1910. Col. Cody had intended to put the vehicle into service for the 1909 season, but the vehicle failed to arrive that year. He added two more White Steamers the following season. Left: Pahaska Tepee, ca1920s. Real-Photo postcard. ​ Right: Col. Cody driving a Pahaska Tepee bus, ca1910. [" Pictorial Souvenir of Cody, Wyoming", 1911. A.G. Lucier Photographer ] Louis E. Decker, Cody’s brother-in-law, managed the lodge in 1910 and the following year a log laundry building, a round canvas-topped dance pavilion, rifle range, tennis and croquet courts were added. Two years later a bunkhouse was constructed using logs from the Wapiti Inn. After 1916 the lodge was also used as a lunch stop for passengers on the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co . (YPTCo) touring buses. In 1924 Sylvan Pass Lodge opened and became the YPTCo lunch stop. ​ Pahaska Tepee lodge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 and the land is still leased from the federal government. The Coe family currently owns the lodge. The word Pahaska probably comes from the Lakota word for ‘long hair of the head’, which is what the Lakota called Buffalo Bill. Right : Ad for"Pahaska Tepee, Buffalo Bill's Old Hunting Lodge." [Casper Star Tribune , 18Jul1926] Bottom Left: "1697 Interior of Pahaska Tepee, Col. W.F. Cody's Hotel in the Rockies.' [Tammen Postcard, author collection] Bottom Right: "8069 Pahaska, Buffalo Bill's Hotel, on the Road to Yellowstone Park, Wyo." [Tammen postcard, ca1910] Early Cody Hotels By the early 1900's, Cody had at least three lodging houses, in addition to Buffalo Bill's Irma Hotel: Cody Hotel The Cody Hotel was built ca1896 on the north side of the 1300 block of Sheridan Avenue and run by Maxx & Shurtleff in 1900. By 1903 the hotel and saloon was owned by J.B. "Ben" Primm. By 1912, ads in the Park County Enterprise touted a Cody Hotel and Cody Bar, run by H.H. Patchell. Reportedly, it was owned by the Lonnie Prante family who operated the hotel until the late 1930s. Top : Ad for the Cody Hotel, Marx & Shurtleff, Proprs. [Cody Enterprise, 6Sep1900] ​ Bottom Left: Cody Hotel, undated. A sign advertising "The Grill" hangs above the men on the porch. [Buffalo Bill History Center ] ​ Bottom Right: Ad for the Cody Hotel Saloon, Fred Primm. [Cody Enterprise , 5Nov1903 Hart Mountain Inn The two-story Hart Mountain Inn (Hotel) was constructed by David H. McFall at the corner of Beck and 13rd St. around 1897-’98. May Jordan bought the hotel in 1912 and ran it until 1928. Kate Buckingham purchased the Inn ca1953 and operated it into the 1990s. In 2004 new owners dubbed it the Hart Mountain Suites and operated it until 2008. Right : Hart Mountain Inn, early 1900s. [ Pictorial Souvenir of Cody, Wyoming, 1911. A.G. Lucier Photographer ] Bottom Left: Hart Mountain Inn, undated photo. Bottom Right: Hart Mountain Hotel, ca1950s [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , PN891182151601] Chamberlin Hotel The Chamberlin Hotel was built in 1903 on 12th St, a half block off of Sheridan Ave by Agnes Chamberlin who moved to Cody in 1900 to work for W.F. Cody’s newspaper. It was primarily used as a boarding house, but as additions were built and the hotel improved and expanded over the next 15 years, particularly in 1917. In the 19teens & 1920s, a Chamberlin Dentist Office was advertised in the hotel. The hotel was known as the Hotel Chamberlin and Chamberlin Hotel over the years, providing rooms with or without bath and a dining room. An 8-room addition was built in 1920, in time for the new tourist season. Agnes sold the hotel in 1939 and passed away in January 1949. She was a pillar of the community and upon her death the town’s businesses closed for her funeral service. Around 1941, the Chamberlin was renamed the Pawnee Hotel by new owners Hattie and George Evans. After other changes in ownership, it became the Chamberlin Inn in 2005 and is still in operation. Top Right : Hotel Chamberlin, ca1920s. [Chamberlin Inn website] Bottom Right: Chamberlin Hotel in 1959. It was known as the Pawnee Inn at that time. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , P8923394501N Bottom Left: Newspaper ad for the Hotel Chamberlin, Official AAA Hotel, ca1930s. Local Businesses Cody Enterprise From the Semi Weekly Billings Gazette, Aug. 8, 1899: “J. H. Peake, an experienced journalist of Washington, D.C., and an old-time friend of Buffalo Bill, arrived in the city today [Billings] en route to Cody, Wyo.. to establish a newspaper, says the Red Lodge Picket. The plant will reach Red Lodge in a day or two, and Mr. Peake expects to get out the first issue about Aug. 20. It will be called The Cody Enterprise and is to be a seven-column, four page paper, with all home print. Independent, with democratic tendencies, will be the new paper's politics.” The Cody Enterprise, undated. [Courtesy Park Co. Archives, Wyo] Peake established the newspaper in conjunction with W.F. Cody, who funded the project. Over the years the name has vacillated with the Park County Enterprise name, sometimes using both. A number of different owners and publishers have run the paper. Novelist Caroline Lockhart purchased the Park County Enterprise in 1920, changing back to Cody Enterprise the following year. She apparently tired of the business and sold the paper in October 1925 to concentrate on writing and other projects. The newspaper has continued to prosper and had been owned by the Sage Publishing Co. of Cody since 1971. Buffalo Bill Museum The Buffalo Bill Museum was built in 1927 on the current site of the Cody Country Chamber of Commerce and the Cody Country Art League. It was dedicated and opened to the public on July 4 with Cody's niece, Mary Jester Allen, as the first curator. In 1935 Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney donated 40-acre site that later became the Buffalo Bill Historic Center.The Whitney Gallery of Western Art was dedicated in a newly constructed modern facility on the donated site in 1959. Ten years later the name was changed to Buffalo Bill Historical Center and the Plains Indian Collection added and the original Buffalo Bill Museum collection was moved to the new facility. In 1979 the Plains Indian Museum was dedicated and the following year the Winchester Collection was installed and the McCracken Research Library dedicated. The Cody Firearms Museum was added and dedicated in 1981. The Draper Museum of Natural History was constructed and opened to the public in 2002. Name changes ruled the day in 2013 as the Buffalo Bill Historical Center was renamed to Buffalo Bill Center of the West, to more accurately describe the width and depth of the museum’s mission, collections, and programs. In addition, the Whitney Gallery of Western Art became the Whitney Western Art Museum, and the Draper Museum of Natural History transformed into the Draper Natural History Museum. "Buffalo Bill Museum at Cody, Wyoming. Founded by Members of the Cody Family and the People of Cody, Wyoming." [Burlington Route postcard, nd] "1191 - Buffalo Bill Museum, Cody, Wyoming." [Real-Photo postcard, ca1930s] Ned Frost Nedward W. Frost was born April 11, 1881 in Minnesota and in 1884 came into the Cody country in a covered wagon with his family and settled near what later became Cody, on South Fork of the Shoshone R., moving to Sage Creek in 1888. He reportedly killed his first grizzly bear around the age of seven or eight and began a life of hunting and guiding. By age 14 he was shooting antelope to supply meat houses in Coulson (Billings), Montana. He appears in the 1900 Federal Census for Wyoming. He helped to build the Corkscrew Bridge on Sylvan Pass in the early 1900’s and in 1903 he discovered Frost Cave in Cedar Mountain just west of Cody. His future wife Mary Hughes was born February 1881 in Chicago, Ill. and was the sister of Margaret Hughes, who married Fred Richard in 1909. Ned and Mary were married January 20, 1910 at the home of Fred Richard. The couple’s first son Nedward Mahlon was born around 1911. He was followed by Richard J. about 1918 and Jessie W. circa 1921. Ned passed away Nov. 19, 1957 after several months of ill health. He was considered by many to be the foremost big-game hunter of his time. See my Frost & Richard Camping Co . web page for additional information. Left: Nedward W, Frost [1915 Frost & Richard Camping Co. brochure] ​ Right: Ned Frost Prince Albert of Monaco on a bear hunt in September 1913. [Buffalo Bill History Center , Jack Richard Collection] Announcement of new Frost Curio store in the Irma Hotel, 1920. [Northern Wyoming Herald , 14Apr1920] Frost Curio Ned Frost began operating a Curio Shop in the lobby of the Irma Hotel in March 1920. The Park County Enterprise reported on March 3 that, “The room at the Irma Hotel, formerly used as a sample room, has been leased to Ned Front for the period of one year from March 1 and will be fitted up as a curio shop, to be conducted by Mr. Frost.” In the spring of 1921, Frost enlarged his shop at the Irma by extending a wall out 12’ toward the sidewalk. The shop was only open during the tourist season, closing for the winters. Comparison of the Irma Hotel before and after the expansion of the Frost Curio Shop in 1923. Note addition at arrow on right. A sign for the Irma Cafe hangs above the old cars at right. [From Real-Photo postcards, author's collection] Ned Frost Curion Store at Irma Hotel closing for season. [Cody Enterprise , 26Sep1923] He constructed his Frost Curio Shop on Main Street across from the Irma Hotel in 1927 in time to be ready to open for the summer season, usually around 19-20h of June. The store was operated in conjunction with the curio shop and specimen room established by his wife Mary in 1916 at the Burlington Cody Inn. In 1946 son Richard Frost retired from the Army and took over management of the business. NED FROST COMPLETING CURIO SHOP AT DEPOT Ned Frost has almost completed the construction of a new curio shop which is to be located to the west of the road and south of the tracks at the Burlington station, and soon will have the new structure In readiness for the summer tourist trade. Mr. Frost plans to operate the place in conjunction with hls curio and souvenir room in the lobby of the Cody Inn and will have on sale soft drinks, sporting goods such as there Is demand for from the rail tourists and other necessities for which there Is a demand at the depot. [ Cody Enterprise, 25May1927] Top : 1932 ad for the Frost Curio Shop. [Casper Star Tribune, 13Mar1932] ​ Left: Frost Curio Shop as it appeared in 1952 [Buffalo Bill Historic Center ] ​ Right: Interior of the Frost Curio Shop, 1950s. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center ] Frost Cave This cave high upon Cedar Mountain (now called Spirit Mountain), was discovered by Ned frost and his pack of hunting dogs while chasing mountain lions in January 1909. The dogs spotted a bobcat and chased it to a small opening in the mountain. Ned thought it just a bobcat lair, but soon after entering, realized it was a cave. In one of his reminisces, he reflected that, “I didn’t smoke in those days and I had only a few matches I kept striking them as I followed the barking dogs but when I got down to three matches, I stopped to get my bearings and I couldn't see the daylight through the entrance any longer and I was in black darkness. I guess I never felt so lonely or lost before or since. But I found an old letter in my vest pocket, tore it into strips and twisted them into quills and back-tracked. I noticed the beauty of the cave in the small light made by my light—it looked like something in a huge block of ice—with frost glistening everywhere. On a later trip I found the “frost" was the stalactites and stalagmites formed by the lime from the old extinct geysers." A few weeks later Ned, along with Will Richards, and 10-12 other men went back in to explore the cave. They carried ropes, lanterns, lamps, candles and other necessities, and spent over 5 hours in the cave and figured they explored several miles worth. Later that year President Taft issued a proclamation on September 21, creating the Shoshone Cavern National Monument, the 2nd national monument in Wyo. Locally, it was mostly referred to as Frost Cave. On May 17, 1954, after years of lobbying by Cody officials, the federal government delisted the monument and turned it over to the City of Cody. The cave was renamed Spirit Mountain Caverns. Top: Caving party in 1909. At center is Buffalo Bill, to his right is Ned Frost, with perhaps his wife. [Wyoming State Archives] Right: Grand opening of Spirit Caverns, September 16, 1957. [Buffalo Bill History Center ] On Sept. 16, 1957, after jurisdiction was turned over to local control, the cave was officially opened as Spirit Cave, with a grand opening ceremony. Claud Brown leased the cave and operated tours for about a decade, but never invested enough money to make it successful. The cave was abandoned in the late ‘60s and another lease was issued in the early ‘70s to develop the area, but little happened. In Sept. 1977, the site was turned back over to the Federal government and is currently under jurisdiction of the BLM. The entrance to cave is locked and permits required for entry. Cody Street Scenes through the Years Top: Aerial view of Cody ca1904. Right: Aerial View of Cody ca191. [Postcard H.H. Tammen #8070] Top: Main Street, Looking West, Cody, Wyoming [H.H. Tammen #11095, undivided back] ​ Bottom: Main Business Street - Cody, Wyo., Ca1930s, F.J. Hiscock Real-Photo postcard Top: 1224 - Main Street and Business District, Cody, Wyo. Buffalo Bill's Old Home Town, Rattlesnake Mountain in the Background, circa late 1940s. [Sanborn PC #1224 Top: Main St., Cody, ca1920s. Real Photo postcard. ​ Bottom: Cody, Wyo., Main street, ca1940s, F.J. Hiscock Real-Photo PC. Top : Main Street, Cody, circa early 1950s [Sanborn PC #65916] Dam Brought Boom . . . [and Pleasure Palaces] ​ Selected Early Saloons and Dens of Iniquity Poker Nell & Blue Chip Kate From the Billings Gazette, May 22, 1938 It was during the "growing period" of the west that the old saloon [Cody Exchange] was built. However, Cody's first hey-day came during the construction of the Shoshone dam in 1907 and it was then that Poker Nell entered the scene. Mrs. Katherine Primm, dubbed "Blue Chip Katie" by the boys who tried to "take" her in faro, founded one of the town's first establishments of pleasure in the old building. She and her husband, Ben, for a time had a virtual monopoly on the local custom in liquor, gambling and license until another woman muscled in with a similar establishment directly across the street. The latter is remembered only as Poker Nell. Through the years, her fame has lived in the minds of the region's old timers for her ability to keep up a vociferous, cross-street argument with her competitor. During the wild boom years at the opening of the century there was plenty of business for both houses. However, when things were dull, Poker Nell and Blue Chip Katie would pass unpleasantrles back and forth across the street to while away the hours. Men who worked on the dam still remember the "acid*’ of their comments and tell of richly increased vocabularies after listening to the women exchange amenities. However, Nell and Katie never finished their debate and it became only a memory when the town continued to grow with the subsequent invasion of a dozen more saloons. Cody Enterprise, 20Jun1901 Poker Nell Poker Nell, who name may have been Nell Chadwick, in her days before Cody, had tramped around the state, plying her proficiency at poker, and perhaps other talents. One time in Casper she attended a party at which she met a young dentist by the name of Will Frackelton, who also enjoyed a good round of cards. The next day, Nell approached him and commented, “You sure put it over high, wide and handsome last night and dealt them a hand from all over the deck.” Smiling, she became more serious, “Now let’s get down to what I want done.” In her extended hand were two perfectly matched diamond rings, perhaps a half-carat each. “She asked eagerly: Will set these in my front teeth? . . . I can afford it. I took the boys to the cleaners these past few nights.” After a bit of ethical pondering, the dentist agreed to the job, noting it would probably invoke a good deal of pain. Shrugging it off, Nell responded, “You know what I want, Doc. Go to it.” It was a tedious process, involving replacing the teeth with porcelain-faced crowns with gold foil backing. But the process was successful and Nell went back to her work sporting a dazzling set of choppers, impressing both the women and men folk. [From, “Sagebrush Dentist,” as told by Wm. Frackelton to author Herman Gastrell Seely] Unfortunately, Poker Nell’s time in Cody was limited, as newspapers in September of 1908 sadly not that had been to the asylum for the hopelessly insane. The praised her qualities, “A a woman naturally possessed of a bright intellect, well educated and vivacious, a charming conversationalist, her path on the border land led to an unhappy ending.” Nell was eventually released and some sources have said she changed her ways and ran a Ladies Emporium in Cody. She was a partner to and eventually married Harry Bruce, and they may have worked the Last Chance Saloon. Her demise is as yet unknown. The Cody Exchange and Saloon Ben Primm and his wife Katherine (1857-1932), or Katie, established this saloon and gambling house sometime in the late 1890s. A 1938 Billings newspaper article dubbed it, “one of town’s first establishments of pleasure.” It seems Ben ran the saloon and pool room, while “Blue Chip Katie” ran the gambling and faro tables. Ben Primm died in December 1904 and Katherine in 1932. The state of Wyoming officially outlawed gambling in 1901, although in the smaller and more remote towns the practice continued for years. In 1906 Mayor Schwoob cracked down on gambling in Cody and 12-15 persons were charged with violations. Katie’s business must have greatly suffered, but the saloon continued to operate until at least 1913. At some point after that, the building was rehabilitated and remodeled under the direction of Mrs. Wm. F. Cody to establish an opera house for the culturally needy. “But the town didn't take to culture. Mrs. Cody’s well-meant plans could overcome the wind but they couldn't overcome the preference of customers who chose to find their entertainment in Cody's 14 saloons,” commented a 1938 news article in the Billings Gazette. A gas station later replaced the opera house and the buildings finally torn down in 1938. Left: Saloon Hold-Up article [Great Falls Tribune , Mt., 23Dec1902] ​ Right: Cody Exchange Saloon, Ben Primm Propr., 1903 ​ Cassie Waters Cassie came to Cody with her father Joe Welsh after they settled in Otto. In 1907 Cassie married an engineer on the dam project. When her husband died, Cassie started a “Ladies of the Night” house on Salsbury Street. She obtained liquor licenses to operate as a saloon, but with “extras” on the side. Her “house” was generally known as Cassie’s Place, and at various times she used several different last names, including, Waters, LaFay, McGhan and Stevens. On Nov. 27, 1911, young Art Spicer, a local cowboy came into Cassie's and claimed to have been drugged by two men and his bankroll of $110 stolen. After his discovery, he blamed the women in the saloon and drew his revolver and started firing at Cassie, missing her head by a mere 4 inches. Another women also had a close escape. An officer arrived around 1:30am and arrested Spicer and took him off to jail. The young man broke loose and ran, but the deputy stopped him with a bullet in the calf. He was later fined $5 and $3 in costs for firing a weapon in a house within city limits, and warned against getting into trouble again. After a fight broke out in her saloon in December of 1916, she was charged with operating a house of ill-fame,” and a number of her ‘girls” were accused of frequenting a house of prostitution. Cassie was soon after acquitted of the charges due to testimony by the local marshal and sheriff. n the early 1930’s, Cassie and another madam, Ida, were asked by the city to close their establishments. Cassie decided to move to the West Strip and in 1933 Cassie’s Supper Club was open. It was a very popular night club with dancing, liquor and later on, food was served. A bourbon and water sold for 50 cents a glass. Cassie did the color scheme in orchid after her daughter “Orchid”. Cassie died in April 1954. In 1955, the Nelsons took over Cassie’s. Cassie was remembered by close friends as a lovely lady who always helped people who needed a helping hand. Cassie's continues to remain in operation to this day. Left: "Fight Ends in Arrest of Soiled Doves." [Northern Wyoming Herald , 7Dev1916] Left: Ad for Cassie's Supper Club [Billings Gazette , 19Mar1997] ​ Right: Undated photo of Cassie's with a Yellowstone White Motor Co. Model 706 bus in front. ​ Etta Feeley Etta Feeley, born Alice Edwards in Black Hawk Co., Iowa, January 31, 1871 (per Find-a-Grave) came to the Cody area around 1902. She had previously plied her female trade in Denver and Billings. She opened her house that became known as the "White House on Bleinstein Ave., between 15th & 16th streets. Reportedly, the Cody Enterprise printed a gracious invitation in 1902 to the men of Cody, "You are respectfully invited to attend the opening of my new residence at Cody, Wyoming, November 1, 1902, Miss Etta Feeley." Not long after, the "Green House" opened next door sporting Cassie Waters as the Madam. The street would become known locally as "Crimson Way." Both houses operated until sometime in the 1930s, although Etta had retired previous to those times and moved to Clark, Wyo. She later took on the nom de guerre of Alice Leach, the name Leach taken from former husband Thomas Leach. She passed away Aug. 13, 1960 at age 90 in the Cody Hospital, and was buried in Cody's Riverside Cemetery. Cody Stampede ​ The beginning of the Cody Stampede tradition is said to have started with Clarence Williams of Cody in 1919. The events occurred June 22-25 and were originally designed as a celebration for the opening of the East entrance of Yellowstone Park and a remembrance of Buffalo Bill Cody and the passing of the Wild West. No doubt it also served as a victory celebration of sorts for the end of WWI and a return to normal life. There were rodeo events, music, dances, games, parades and other such activities to amuse the public. No doubt the esteemed John Barleycorn was also in attendance to help liven things up. Bottom: Old car advertising the Cody Stampede, ca1920s. Right: Advertisement for the 2nd year of operation of the Cody Stampede. [Park County Enterprise , 23Jun1920] The following year the phrase “Stampede Days” was used to describe the celebratory events. Miss Carolyn Lockhart, publisher of the Cody Enterprise , was quoted, "that they will put the "Stamp" in Stampede or bust something." A Wild West show was also promised that was hoped to rival those in the Pendleton Oregon and Cheyenne, Wyo. events. It was planned to coincide with the 4th of July holiday - July 5-7, 1920. Featured events included rodeo events for men and women, parades, and the other traditional activities, including bar-hopping. In 1921 the events were held July 4-6, and the slogan adopted by the stampede committee was, "We'll Put ’Er On Wild." "And In their efforts to live up to this promise they turned the town loose and she was a wild time for all." Top Left: Mrs. Altuff Wins Cowgirl Race, Cody Stampede, ca1925. [Doubleday Real-Photo PC ] Top Right: Roman Standing Race Cody Stampede, ca1925. [Doubleday Real-Photo PC] In 1938 Carly Downing, a Wild West show performer, reportedly started the Cody Nite Rodeo, or "Pup" rodeo, as it was called then. The Nite Rodeo quickly became an important part of the Stampede and the Cody community and has continued on a nightly basis during the tourist season. Over 100 years have passed now, and the events continue to thrive and thrill audiences and participants alike. Right: Cody Stampede Rodeo at Cody Fairgrounds, 1935. Parade celebrating the "Days of '49" [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , PN3161617] It’s winter in Wyoming And the gentle breezes blow Seventy miles an hour At thirty-five below. Oh, how I love Wyoming When the snow’s up to your butt You take a breath of winter And your nose gets frozen shut. Yes, the weather here is wonderful So I guess I’ll hang around I could never leave Wyoming I’m frozen to the ground! anonymous

  • George Huston |

    Camping in the Yellowstone George A. Huston Early Gold Miner, Guide & Packer Copyright 2021 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. George Huston was among the earliest guides in the wilderness that would become Yellowstone National Park in March of 1872. And although his operation does not fit into the mold of the latter day government-permitted camping operations, the situation in Yellowstone in the early 1870s was also quite different and much more primitive. I include him here because by 1873, I feel Huston provided what seems to be the first commercially advertised service for guiding, packing, camping, and transport through the north entrance into Wonderland. ​ Illustration of George Huston from Harper's Weekly , 11-17-1877 Biography of George Huston on my Biographies web page. Gold Miners, Harper's New Monthly, April 1860 Huston first appeared on the Yellowstone scene in 1864 as a gold prospector, fresh from having served three years in the Pennsylvania Reserves during the Civil War. That year he conducted a party of 30-40 miners up the Yellowstone River into the Lamar and Clark’s Fork drainages. Later in the year he led another party up the Madison and Firehole rivers. In 1866 he guided a small group of miners through the west entrance of Yellowstone up the Madison River to the geyser basins and prospected around Yellowstone Lake, Hayden Valley, Mirror Plateau, Lamar Valley, and returned to Emigrant via the Yellowstone River. He has been thought by some to be insignificant in the bigger historical perspective of Yellowstone, and perhaps in some ways that may be true. However, he was one of those people that always seemed to “be where the action is” in the very early days of Wonderland, and by following his adventures, one can be led through many of the important events in the early history of the greater Yellowstone region. Huston built a cabin in the fall of 1867 near Turkey Pen Creek along the present Rescue Creek Trail, becoming who is believed to be the first permanent white resident in the park. When Truman Everts was lost on the Washburn Expedition of 1870, it was Huston who carried Everts on his horse to the north side of Yankee Jim Canyon where a wagon could then transport Everts to Bozeman. It was probably his cabin that Jack Baronett and George Pritchett brought Everts to so he could recuperate. In Nov. 1871 Huston assisted Matthew McGuirk in the construction of a house and barns at McGuirk’s Springs on Boiling River that was intended to be a refuge for invalids to soak in the ‘medicinal waters.’ The following year he accompanied the F.V. Hayden Expedition into Yellowstone and with Jack Baronett helped provide guide services. Scribner's Magazine of 1871 depicting a dazed and lost Truman Evert s McCartney's Hotel, Courtesy YNP Archives #50787 In the early 1870s there were no formal hotels, stores, or roads in Yellowstone. Explorers and curiosity-seekers were on their own and needed to be provisioned with everything they might need on an extended packing/camping trip. James McCartney and Harry Horr had homesteaded 160 acres at Mammoth Hot Springs in 1871 and built what can be loosely termed a ‘hotel.’ It was primitive at best and visitors were required to provide their own blankets and sleep on the floor, but guests could at least be dry, warm, and provided with food and drink. During a Yellowstone visit in 1874 Lord Dunraven commented that it was “the last outpost of civilization – that is, the last place whiskey is sold.” That was the only lodging in the park until 1880 when George W. Marshall built a hotel and mail station on the Firehole River. The first known published reference to Huston’s commercial guiding and packing career occurred on April 4, 1873, when the Bozeman newspaper proclaimed “Huston & Werks pack train will in the course of a week be prepared to convey travelers and goods to the National park, or the Clark’s Fork mines.” Although Jack Baronett, Frederick Bottler and others had been providing guide services for exploration parties, this appears to be the first commercially advertised service for guiding and transport through the north entrance of the park. Huston joined up with fellow Pennsylvanian and prospector John Werks (John F. Works), who appeared to have handled the business end of matters. On April 25 another ad appeared in the paper and interested parties were to contact Gov. Williams at the Exchange Saloon in Bozeman for details and arrangements. The ad proudly proclaimed “Ho for Wonderland and the Mammoth Hot Springs - I am now prepared to carry INVALIDS and PLEASURE PARTIES to the celebrated Mammoth Hot Springs, and other points in the National Park.” G.W.A. Frazier’s four-horse ‘conveyance’ from Bozeman carried passengers to the ‘Yellowstone Canyon’ on a weekly basis, or more often if necessary. Top Right : Bozeman Avant-Courier , June 13, 1873 Bottom Right : Bozeman Times , July 6, 1876 Werks placed another ad in the July 4th newspaper that pronounced “Cheap Transportation to the Geysers. I am prepared to furnish Ten Pack Animals or Riding Animals to persons desiring to visit the national park or any portion of the Upper Yellowstone. Terms one dollar per day for each animal.” Frank Grounds, also a prospector and hunter, assisted in the pack train operation and the three men escorted intrepid tourists along the crude trails traversing the park, showing off the sights and describing the features as best they could. Men such as Julius Beltizer and Ed Hibbard also guided ‘dudes’ through the park, perhaps on their own, or in conjunction with Huston & Werks’ operation. In their spare time, the men began ‘coating specimens’ in the mineral-laden waters of the Mammoth terraces and sold them to the tourists. The guiding venture apparently was successful, as Huston continued the pack train enterprise at least through 1876. It has been estimated that around 500 people a year visited the park during those years. Above : Grounds & Huston Bozeman Avant-Courier , June 11, 1875 Right : Typical pack train in Yellowstone. [Courtesy Burton Holmes Yellowstone Travelogues] Huston was guide for the ill-fated Radersburg party through the geyser basins in 1877 during the Nez Perce War when members of the party were held captive and several persons killed in the park during that unfortunate event. He assisted in the search for George Cowen, who was wounded by the Nez Perce and joined Gen. Howard at the Clark’s Fork Mines as a scout for the US Army expedition that was tracking the Nez Perce. He apparently was with the command at the surrender of Chief Joseph in the Bear Paw Mountains in early October. Collage of images from the Bear Paw Battlefield, Montana, Harper's Weekly 11-17-1877] After the Nez Perce adventure in 1877, Huston focused his endeavors mostly on gold prospecting and mining. Although he still guided special parties on occasion. In 1879 Huston teamed up with Jack Baronett to guide Silas Weir Mitchell, a well-known physician and writer from Philadelphia. Upon his return to civilization Weir wrote of his experiences and reflected, “Not an unpicturesque scene, our campfire, with the rough figures stretched out on the grass . . . Jack and George Houston good-naturely chaffing, and now and again a howl responsive to the anguish of a burnt boot. He who lived a life and never known a camp-fire is - Well, may he have that joy in the Happy Hunting-grounds!” Huston also guided General Sherman through Yellowstone in the summer of 1881 and while in the park they encountered General Sheridan with a small contingent of soldiers and together they all continued their journey under Huston’s expert guidance. During this period of time Huston spent several years in the Bear Gulch District mining gold in the mountains above the valley where the town of Gardiner would be founded in 1880. He then concentrated his mining efforts on the Cooke City area where he seems to have led a fairly successful life and was a respected citizen until his death at the relatively young age of 42. Left Above : Jack Baronett's Bridge, built in 1871 to access the Cooke City gold mines. WH Jackson Photo Left Below : Bear Gulch news, Bozeman Times , July 12, 1877 Some years later Huston and Joe Keeney purchased about 116 acres of the Henderson Ranch at Stephens Creek on Nov. 19, 1883. They resold the land later that year to the Northern Pacific RR and the site became the town of Cinnabar MT. Huston was also heavily involved in the Cooke City gold mines and was one of the original Cooke City founders and townsite residents. In 1884 he was one of the incorporators of the proposed rail line from Cinnabar to the mines of Cooke City, an enterprise that ultimately failed. As I mentioned previously, it seems whenever some important event was occurring in the park George Huston was likely to be involved. Cooke City ca1883, courtesy YNP Archives #7141 Early in June 1886 the Bozeman Avant Courier reported that life-long bachelor George Huston was suffering with pneumonia and by mid-month was described as dangerously ill with pneumonia. As his health declined he was moved to a Livingston MT hospital. George A. Huston, born 1842 in Cumberland Township, PA, passed away July 4, 1886 at age 42 of typhoid pneumonia and other complications. An 1877 article in Harper’s Weekly described Huston as “…a man of sterling integrity and indomitable pluck . . . the hero of many a thrilling bear or Indian fight, but told so modestly that you do not suspect him of being the principle actor." George Huston's tombstone, located at the Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston, MT The Bozeman Weekly Avant Courier on July 22, 1886 posted a heart-felt proclamation from the citizens of Cooke City: RESOLVED, that in the death of Geo. A. Huston, we have lost a noble and true-hearted friend, filled with laudable impulses, faithful, kind and generous, gifted with all the manly attributes that add so much to the happiness of the world. RESOLVED, that in his death the people of Montana lose one of the bravest of the many brave pioneers, who penetrated the undiscovered wilderness of our Northwestern Territory, and with brave hearts and willing hands brought to the knowledge of the world one of the greatest mining sections ever discovered. RESOLVED, That his past efforts deserve the lasting gratitude of all who will share in the future Golden Harvest. For more detailed information on the life and times of George Huston, check out my book: “Pack Trains and Pay Dirt in Yellowstone: On the Trail with George Huston.” Self-Published, Copyright 2007 Available from the author for $12.00, which includes S&H via USPS Media Mail. Please email me for details.

  • Thumb Lunch Station |

    Hotels in the Yellowstone West Thumb Hotel - Lunch Station Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Thumb Lunch Station - 1892-1903 ​ Located along the shores of Yellowstone Lake at West Thumb, a tent camp was established to serve as a lunch station for stagecoaches traveling the route from Old Faithful over Craig Pass to the Lake Hotel . The business opened in 1892 by the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) and replaced the lunch station that had existed at Trout Creek , located along the previous route to the Lake that traversed the Mary Mountain Road from Fountain Flats. The famous Larry Mathews managed the lunch station that first season, but moved to Norris the following year. ​ YPA was granted a lease to operate boats on the Yellowstone Lake in 1891 and allowed Ela C. Waters to manage the new boat/ferry operation. The ferry service would eliminate the tedious and dusty ride from the Thumb Lunch Station to the Lake Hotel and the "The Zillah" was put into service for that purpose. The steel-hulled, 40-ton steamer was 81’ with a 14’ beam, and could carry 120 passengers and crew. The Zillah’ was assembled on site by Amos Shaw, of the Shaw & Powell Camping Co ., to provide ferry service from West Thumb to Lake Hotel. E.C. Waters would pay the stagecoach drivers fifty cents for each passenger the driver convinced to take the ferry, and then charged passengers $3.00 for the boat ride. Above: The steamship Zillah docked at West Thumb in 1906. [Glass slide F.H. Maude Photographic Co.] Top Left : View of the Thumb Lunch Station tents, ca1890s, as viewed from the boat dock on Yellowstone Lake. [High Grade Original Views stereoview, #1300] Top Right : "Hotel Camp, Thumb of Lake." View of Thumb Lunch Station tents from the edge of the hot springs basin. [Detroit Photographic Co., 86-200-2504, Colorado History Museum, Denver] The 1896 Haynes Guide noted, “There are no less than seven hot-spring areas surrounding Yellowstone Lake; those of the west arm, or Thumb Bay, are by far the most interesting. They comprise over sixty springs and paint pots and several geyser cones; one of which rises above the lake surface just a few feet from shore, standing upon which one may catch trout, and, dropping them into the hot water in the crater of the cone, cook them without removal from the hook.” The Thumb Lunch Station was located near the Thumb Paint Pots, and was short walk from the boat dock up a wooden walkway to the station at the top of the rise. Although primarily serving as a lunch station, a few sleeping tents were available for guests that wished to spend the night. Traveler Chas. Maus Taylor noted in1900, “The tents at Thumb Lunch Station appear plain and unpretentious, but the tourist receives a hospitable welcome, and the food is abundant, wholesome and well served.” Note: the Boardwalk can be viewed at left and above left.] Left : "Hot Spring Basin at the "Thumb" of Yellowstone Lake." In the distance can be seen people walking the boardwalk in front of Thumb Station ca1903. [HC White Stereoview, #12077] Top Right : The boat dock & boardwalk as viewed from near the Thumb Lunch Station. [From the Philadelphia Free Library, #PCDE00495] Carrie Belle Spencer , a young school teacher from Nebraska, Yellowstone National Park in July and August, 1892. She was in the company of her older brother Alvah and his wife Adaline. They were “traveling on their own dime,” as they say, and not with the transportation company. She had this to say about Larry’s: “. . . we were soon on the beautiful waters of the Yellowstone sailing smoothly along toward the Thumb. After a delightful ride of 1 1/2 hr. we landed at the dock on a beautiful beach and saw on a slope not far distant five tents in a row, this is what is known as the Lake Side Lunch station; as we were about ready for lunch and desirous of finding some place to leave our luggage we started in that direction. When not more than half way up the slope a gentleman, with skull cap, white apron, towel etc. started toward us saying "Good morning ladies, good morning", & before we had time to reply he had our luggage in his hands saying "Right this way to the waiting room." & entering this tent, he took me by the arm & pointing out of the tent in an opposite direction he says "Ladies toilet just ahead. . . The waiting room was a tent about 20 ft. sq., dirt floor & contained a few chairs, stove, cigar case & slat benches around the room. The "toilet" was out doors & too cute for particulars, ta ta. After arranging our "twilight" and entering the waiting room this man "Larry" Mathews as he proved to be began asking questions & entertained us in a royal manner until we heard the rattle of approaching hacks, which were of course the expected tourists. "Larry" no longer had time for entertaining individuals as each new comer was greeted in the same manner. It was not long until we heard the call "All register" & "Right this way to hash". Soon 40 ladies & gentlemen were seated on slab benches at long home made tables, and the bill of fare was soon commenced; it was not very extensive but every thing was enjoyed, being season with Larry's Irish wit. "Run in the hens." "Let 'er go pie." It was not long after lunch until the tourists were on the steamer & we were left in our glory with "Larry, wife and baby Lizzie.” Two pieces of souvenir china sold by E.C. Waters at his boat store, who ran the boat & ferry company until around 1907. These pieces were "Made in Germany for M.B. Waters." M.B. being Martha Bustus, EC Waters' wife. Detroit Industrialist Carl E. Schmidt traveled the Yellowstone and other western areas in 1901, and describes the lunch station in his book, A Western Trip : “The growth of timber grows heavier until it ends in a fringe at the shore of the lake. There is found a lunch station, that is, large tents, are pitched. We enter the first one which is a sort of a reception room. On inquiring for a drink the gentlemen of the party are motioned to the rear where a canvas flap is lifted and on stepping through we find ourselves in a smaller tent where eight whisky bottles are set on a shelf in a row, and to our delight each is labeled "Canadian Club”. While waiting around for the lunch to be set on the table a coach party arrives and as soon as they have shaken themselves free of dust we are ushered into the dining room which contains a long deal table with benches along the sides. After all are seated bountiful platters of good, substantial food are set out before us. Capt. Waters, a striking figure introduces himself and arrangements are made with him to cross the lake on his little steamer “Zillah." The "Zillah” is a small steamer that was transported piece-meal over the mountains to this lake.” Tourists gathered around the Fishing Cone at Thumb Bay. Included is chef Larry Mathews, manager of Thumb Lunch Station in 1892. [Keystone View Co. Stereoview #26498] Thumb Hotel - 1903-1916 ​ Construction began on a new wooden hotel and lunch station at West Thumb the end of May 1903. It was a simple frame building designed by Robert Reamer , architech for the Old Faithful Inn, without his usual rustic embellishments. Work proceeded quickly on the $3,000 building and the station was open for much of the 1903 season. The hotel sported 20 simple guest rooms for those who chose to spend the night. When the park transportation system was motorized in 1917, the trip to Lake Hotel from Old Faithful became much shorter and more comfortable in the new White Motor Co . auto-stages. The ferry service from Thumb to Lake became obsolete, and the boats were mostly used for pleasure cruises from the hotel. The hotel and lunch station also became unnecessary and closed down at the end of the 1916 season. The building sat empty until 1919 when Chas. Hamilton gained use of it for a general store. Top Right : Colorized postcard view of the Thumb Lunch Station ca1912. [Haynes Photo No. 208] Bottom Left Thumb Lunch Station, ca1905. [Yellowstone Park Asso. brochure, 1905] Bottom Right : Approach to Thumb Hotel. Notice large tent at left. Not dated. [YNP 1875] The Yellowstone Park Association brochure in 1905 described some of the basics of the lunch station and area: ​ “At the Thumb Lunch Station you will find everything neat and clean, and an appetizing lunch served, notwithstanding the fact that you are more than a thousand miles from a market of any considerable size, and that everything provided for you has been hauled by freight teams nearly seventy-five miles over mountains rising more than 8400 feet above sea level. On the lake you will find an excursion boat which makes regular trips between the Thumb and the Lake Hotel. This is not a part of the regular transportation trip, the steamer being owned and operated by an independent company, and parties desiring to make this trip are required to pay an additional charge.” There is good cheer at this lunch place and much to see in the hour-and-a-half stop. The drive-whetted appetites will find no disappointment here; these good people of the Thumb Lunch Station have one duty to perform, the preparation of the noonday meal, and they do it well; they know just how many are coming; there is never any shortage and the last have just as much and just as good food as the first to arrive, and the Thumb lunch is not the least of the pleasant surprises of this every-way surprising drive. There is an hour-and-a-half wait while the horses feed and rest, so there is time to visit the Paint Pots, and the Cone in the lake where you may catch a fish in the cold water of the lake and cook it in the hot water of the Cone without taking it off your hook. Top Right : View of Thumb Hotel from near the lake. [YNP #82] Middle Right : Thumb Hotel from one of the approaches, nd. [Author Digital Collection] Bottom Right Stagecoach with passengers at loading porch of hotel in 1906. [Wyoming State Archives] Bottom Left : Thumb Paint Pots near the hotel. Tent at left may be the photographer's tent. A building in trees at right, perhaps part of the hotel complex, 1905. [HC White Stereoview, #12078] Hamilton Store at the Old Thumb Hotel - 1919-1923 ​ In 1919 Chas. A. Hamilton made arrangements with the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co . to use the old Thumb Lunch Station as a general store. He was owner of the general store at Old Faithful, and desired to expand his business. He remodeled the interior of this lunch station to establish his first store at the Thumb in 1919. According to Park Superintendent Horace Albright, “He is now engaged in building a fine new store at the Lake which will take the place of the boat company’s store . . . Mr. Hamilton expects to arrange for the maintenance of a store next year in the old lunch station of the Yellowstone Park Hotel Company at the Thumb of Lake Yellowstone where the south approach road joins the belt line system” In 1924, Hamilton built a new log store and abandoned the old Lunch Station, which was torn down three years later. Map of the Lake area showing the Thumb Lunch Station. The Wylie Camp & ranger station were nearby. A Shaw & Powell camp was just north of the hotel along the road to lake. Route of the Zillah are also shown. [Oregon Short Line Brochure, 1899] For additional information on the West Thumb area after the closure of the Thumb Hotel, please check out the Thumb page on my old website, Info on the Hamilton & Haynes Stores, Thumb Camp/Cabins; Ranger Station and more. Click Here Right : West Thumb map from the 1936 Haynes Guide

  • Hamilton Stores |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Hamilton Stores ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Hamilton Stores, Inc. - 1915 to 2002 Charles A. Hamilton moves to Yellowstone . . . . Charles Hamilton was the founder of the Hamilton Store chain that operated in Yellowstone Park from 1915 to 2002. He was born in Winnepeg, Manitoba in 1884 and came out to Yellowstone in 1905 to work for the Yellowstone Park Association. His dedication to his work paid off when in 1915, he purchased Henry Klamer's general store at Old Faithful. The Klamer store had opened in 1897 and operated successfully until Henry's death in 1914. Child’s son Huntley had previously turned down the opportunity to buy the store. Hamilton paid slightly over $20,000 for the business, receiving financial backing from his boss Harry Child . Charles Hamilton was the founder of the Hamilton Store chain that operated in Yellowstone Park from 1915 to 2002. He was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1884 and came out to Yellowstone in 1905 to work for the Yellowstone Park Association. His dedication to his work paid off when in 1915, he purchased Henry Klamer's general store at Old Faithful. The Klamer store had opened in 1897 and operated successfully until Henry's death in 1914. Child’s son Huntley had previously turned down the opportunity to buy the store. Hamilton paid slightly over $20,000 for the business, receiving financial backing from his boss Harry Child. ​ Left : The Klamer general store purchased by Chas. Hamilton in 1915. YNP #22112 Left: West Thumb lunch station that became Hamilton's general store for several years. YNP #31871 Right: Hamilton's gas station at West Thumb, 1917. Museum of the Rockies #25034 Hamilton worked hard and in 1917 went into the filling station business with Harry Child and established a single pump filling station at Old Faithful. In 1919-20 he made arrangements with the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. to use the old Thumb Lunch Station as a general store. He opened up a filling station at Thumb and used the old lunch station until 1924 when he built a new store. ​ In 1919, Hamilton opened up a second store at Lake in the old E.C. Waters building, in front of Lake Hotel. Construction on a new general store, filling station, and residences began in 1920 and were completed for the 1921 season. By 1924 a new, smaller store opened at Fishing Bridge. That year small stores were established in auto campgrounds at West Thumb and Fishing Bridge, which were greatly enlarged the next year. The Fishing Bridge store was replaced by a new store in 1930-31. In 1948 a new gas station was constructed at Thumb. ​ Below: Hamilton's Lake store, as viewed in the 1923 & 1927 editions of the Haynes Guide. Note the unique log trimwork. Bottom Left: Fishing Bridge general store ca1929, built 1924. YNP #29902 Bottom Right: New Fishing Bridge store ca1940, built 1930-31. YNP #29940 More improvements at Old Faithful . . . Hamilton was not content to sit idle and was continually trying to improve and expand on his operations. He erected a huge addition to the old Klamer store in 1923-24. At the time, it was reputed to be the largest store in the National Park system, measuring 110' x 160'. The knotty wood porch was added to the former Klamer store in 1925, and a new filling station constructed nearby in 1927. A small store was erected at the Basin Auto Camp at Old Faithful in 1923 and enlarged in 1925. In 1926, Charles A. Hamilton, H.W. Child and George Whittaker formed the Yellowstone Park Service Stations, Inc., controlling all gas sales and auto repairs in the park. Upper Left: Lower Hamilton Store (former Klamer), 1925. YNP #193429-73. Upper Right: Basin Auto Camp store (BAC Store), 1929. YNP # 31199. Bottom Left: Upper Hamilton gas station, located near the new Upper Basin Store, 1952. YNP #31282. Bottom Right: Construction of the Upper Basin store, ca1929. YNP #31196-1. In 1929 Hamilton built a new store at Old Faithful - the Upper Basin Store. It was located near the Auto Camp and replaced the Basin Auto Camp store. It had 150' of frontage with a 48-person employee dorm in the upstairs. The walls were constructed of concrete made to resemble hewn logs, placed on a masonry stone foundation with stepped stone masonry pilasters and stepped stone masonry columns that support two covered entrance porches. The eaves of the wood shingled gabled roof are wood shingled with exposed log rafter ends; log rafter purlins are used in the roof structure of the two covered entrance porches. A gas station was built next door using the same construction design. ​ Right: Upper Basin Store in 1931. Haynes #311086, Povah Collection, Museum of the Rockies #2009-4-784 Geyser water swimming pools . . . . Hamilton expanded his business in 1933 when he bought out Henry Brothers Bathhouse & Plunge at Old Faithful. It had been established in 1914 in the basin across from the Old Faithful Inn. Hot water from Solitary Geyser was piped in to fill the pools. Brothers Plunge was enlarged in 1923 and a new log building was erected. In 1927 he built a bathhouse at the Old Faithful auto camp, and three years later built facilities at the Fishing Bridge auto camp. This bathhouse included tubs, showers, laundry and irons. Hamilton razed most of the old buildings and rebuilt/remodeled the structure that year, creating a peaked roof with log beams and skylights. There were 147 dressing rooms and 'sand porches' for sun bathing. After a prolonged political battle, the structure was razed in 1951 after the government determined it was inappropriate for a National Park. Left: Brothers Bathhouse & Plunge, as pictured in the 1928 Haynes Guide. Right: Hamilton's _lunge & Bathhouse, ca1935. HABS Photo Hamilton takes over all the park general stores . . . . C.A. Hamilton had controlled all the general store business in the south end of the Park for many years, and his dream of having control over the whole park (excluding Haynes Photo Shops) would be fulfilled in 1953 when Anna Pryor and Elizabeth Trischman retired and put up the Pryor Stores operation for sale. Hamilton purchased the businesses at Mammoth and Canyon for $300,000. George Whittaker originally owned the general stores and filling stations in those two locations, but sold out to sisters Anna Pryor and Elizabeth Trischman at the end of the 1932 season. (For more information, see my Pryor & Trischman page ) The 1953 sale to Hamilton gained him the Mammoth General Store (established in 1896 by Jennie Ash), the filling station next door, the Pryor Coffee Shop, and the general store and filling station at Canyon. Mission 66 calls for great changes in the Park . . . The store operation at Canyon did not last long after that, as the new Canyon Village was mandated to be constructed for opening in 1957. Hamilton shelled out a million dollars to build a new store, gas station, and employee dorms at the new location at what is now Canyon Village. Charles Hamilton died May 28, 1957 - one and a half months before his new store was to open at Canyon. Daughter Ellie and husband Trevor Povah took over the operations of the stores. The old Canyon store and gas station, located at the current Upper Falls parking lot, were eventually razed, passing into history. ​ Right: Modern, new Hamilton Store at Canyon Village, 1957. Haynes post card #K57157 From the Billings Gazette, May 30, 1957 . . . Hamilton Stores Founder Dies YELLOWSTONE PARK, Wyo. — Charles Ashworth Hamilton, 72, who since 1915 has operated general stores, service stations and curio shops in Yellowstone National Park, died Tuesday night of a "heart ailment. Park Supt. Lemuel A. Garrison said Hamilton was talking on the telephone about his health to his physician in Santa Monica, Calif., when he was stricken about 10 p.m. Hamilton died in his residence above the lower store at Old Faithful. He had been president and operator of Hamilton Stores, Inc., since 1915. His winter residence was at Santa Monica, in one of two apartment buildings he owned there. Hamilton first went to Yellowstone Park in 1905 at the age of 21 as assistant to the purchasing agent of the Yellowstone Park Assn., now the Yellowstone Park Co. He became a concessionaire in 1915 when he purchased a curio shop at Upper Basin. Except for two seasons, Hamilton had spent every summer since 1905 in the park. He was born Nov. 19. 1884, at St. Paul, where his father was the British vice counsel. Survivors include one daughter, Eleanor May Povah of Santa Monica. Her husband, Trevor S. Povah, is vice president of Hamilton Stores, Inc., and general manager of Yellowstone Park Service Stations. These firms jointly operate all stores and service stations in the park and all the lodge curio shops. Top Left: C.A. Hamilton letterhead, 1931, featuring the rustic Lower Store. Image from Minnesota Historical Society. Top Right: Pennant decal for Hamilton Stores, Inc, ca1940s. Author Collection

  • Prospecting Gold in Paradise |

    Prospecting in Paradise The Early Gold Seekers ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my old Prospecting in Yellowstone page at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Union Pacific RR |

    Yellowstone's Supporting Railroads ​ Union Pacific RR Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Union Pacific Railroad - Yellowstone's Western Access A Pictorial History of the Early Days Union Pacific Railroad - Beginnings . . . In 1862 President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act that named and directed two companies to construct a transcontinental railroad. The companies would be known as the Union Pacific and Central Pacific. The Act authorized land grants along the rail routes for the railroads as incentive for construction. The Ames brothers, whose shovel business flourished during the ‘Gold Rush’ years, provided the much needed immediate financing. The Central Pacific began construction in 1863 at Sacramento, California and headed east. Union Pacific started at Omaha, Nebraska to head west. The two lines connected in 1869 on May 10 at Promontory, Utah and the famous ‘Golden Spike’ was driven as the official last spike. The company fell into bankruptcy and was sold to a group of investors in 1897 that included railroad tycoon E. H. Harriman. It was Harriman that made the decision in 1905 to run tracks accessing the West entrance of Yellowstone. The Oregon Short Line & Utah Northern . . . The Oregon Short Line & Utah Northern came about in 1897 through a reorganization of the Oregon Short Line & Utah Northern RR. That railroad resulted from a merger between the Utah & Northern RR and other small ‘short lines’ in 1889. The Utah & Northern Railway was organized in April 1878 by Union Pacific interests to own and operate the bankrupt Utah Northern Railroad, with the intent to build a rail line from existing tracks in Northern Utah to the gold mines of Montana. Construction began the following year at Brigham City, Utah on a narrow gauge line. The tracks reached Butte on December 26, 1881, after a long lull in construction resulting from the ‘Panic of 1873’ Right Top : Utah Northern bridge at Eagle Rock (Idaho Falls) ca1880 Right Bottom : Union Pacific train crossing trestle enroute to West Yellowstone, undated. Yellowstone Historic Center. The Bassett Brothers began stage service that year to Yellowstone from Beaver, Idaho. Stage service to the park from the Monida station, located along the Montana-Idaho, border began in the 1890’s. The St. Anthony RR began building tracks from the main line at Idaho Falls to St. Anthony in 1899. Six years later UPRR President Harriman decided to open a line from St. Anthony to the west entrance of Yellowstone. The line was completed in November 1907 and the 1st scheduled passenger train arrived in the town of Riverside (now West Yellowstone) on June 11. The Oregon Short Line took over legal ownership of the line from St. Anthony RR in 1911 and in 1935 merged with the Union Pacific RR. Union Pacific provided much of the financing for these ventures Monida ​ The small town of Monida was located along the Montana-Idaho border where Interstate I-15 currently passes through between Dillon, MT and Idaho Falls. The old stage route also passed along that route, along with the Union Pacific RR. There was a post office there between 1891-93 and 1896-1964. The Bassett Brothers continued to haul their stage passengers from Beaver into Yellowstone, while FJ Haynes’ Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. began hauling tourists into Yellowstone from Monida in 1898 and continued until 1907, when the UPRR extended their lines to the west entrance of the park. The old route to the park roughly followed Montana Route 509 through the Centennial Valley and past Henry’s Lake. It skirted the Centennial Valley, Red Rock Lakes, passed through Alaska Basin and crossed the Divide to Henry Lake; then over Targhee Pass to the west entrance of the park. Left Top : Town of Monida, Real-Photo PC postmarked 1908. Right Top : Summit Hotel in Monida, from 1902 brochure. Right Bottom : Railroad depot at Monida, from undated glass slide. Where Gush the Geysers Cover page from the UPRR pamphlet, "Where Gush the Geysers" published in 1899. This was the first year for this publication and it was produced to publicize not only the Oregon Short Line's route into Yellowstone through the West entrance, but the firm of the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Co. This company began providing reliable stage service from Monida to Yellowstone the previous year, and was viewed as more professional and better financed than the Bassett line. The brochure contained full-color pictures of various park wonders, along with descriptions of the features. Each page was decorated with elaborate and delicate scroll art work. It also included information on the four major hotels available at that time: Fountain, Lake, Canyon and Mammoth. The tour lasted for eight days. Beginnings of West Yellowstone The town was originally called Riverside upon its founding October 23, 1908, even though the town site was two miles from the river. The site was located on Forest Service lands and permission was required for any homesteaders. The first residents were issued permits for stores and homes late in the fall of 1907, but did not actually own the land. Prior to 1908 the area was referred to as ‘the Boundary’, or ‘at the Boundary’. To avoid confusion, the name was changed to Yellowstone on Jan 31, 1910. Confusion continued for years with the town named the same as the park, so the name was changed again in 1920 to West Yellowstone. Above : West Yellowstone depot, from 1910 UPRR brochure. Below Left : Yellowstone Special, undated. Union Pacific’s first passenger train rolled into West Yellowstone in 1908, It has been noted in many history books that the original train arrival was on June 10, but according to Paul Shea of the Yellowstone Historic Center, a rock slide across the tracks delayed the train until the 11th. That day is now celebrated as Train Day. The train became known as the ‘Yellowstone Special’ after WWI, and was equipped with sleeping cars and would arrive in town early in the morning, where passengers could have breakfast before starting their journey into the park. It ran one trip daily during the summer season until the end of the 1960 season when declining passenger numbers could no longer support the service. A second train, the Yellowstone Express began service in 1922 and ran for 20 years. Union Pacific Depot ​ The depot was built in 1909 at West Yellowstone and replaced a rail car that had been used temporarily. Soon after its construction, the Union Pacific described the depot as “built of stone, very substantial, spacious, and artistic. It is electric heated by steam, and provides large waiting rooms, an individual dressing room for ladies, two large fireplaces, drinking fountains, etc. In it are the usual ticket and Pullman offices and the office of the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Co. The trains approach on the south side while the stages receive and deliver passengers under the porte-cochere on the north side.” (From the UPRR Collection of the Yellowstone Historic Center) Tourists were loaded onto stagecoaches of the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. to tour through the park until 1913, when the service became known as the Yellowstone-Western Stage Co. Beginning in 1917, White Motor Co. auto stages of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. replaced the stagecoaches. The depot was donated to the town of West Yellowstone in 1969, and a private museum opened up in the old depot in 1972. In 2000, the Yellowstone Historic Center leased the depot from the Town of West Yellowstone and spearheaded many major repair and restoration projects. The depot now is the home of the Yellowstone Historic Center Museum. Top Left : Depot, colorized lantern slide by J.P. Clum, 1908. YNP Slide File Top Right : Depot, undated. YP 39 Bloom Bros. postcard. Bottom Left : UP Dining Lodge, Real-Photo postcard. Bottom Right : UP Dining Lodge Interior, Real-Photo postcard. Dining Lodge The first eatery was a crude tarpaper and wood frame building in 1908. It was replaced by the 'Beanery' in 1911 and in 1925 UP had the ‘Dining Lodge’ constructed near the depot. It was a grand structure of stone and timber designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwood. Visitors by train would arrive early in the morning and partake in breakfast prior to starting their journey into the park. Diners would be seated in the Mammoth Room, a massive dining room with a 45-foot ceiling, large windows, and a fireplace large enough for a man to stand in. Several hundred people could be seated at one time. Visitors returning from the park could have supper there before they started their train ride home around 6:30 p.m. The Dining Lodge closed, probably during the mid-late 1950’, due to declining visitation. The lodge was donated to the town of West Yellowstone in 1969 and is currently used as an event center, serving as a venue for weddings, gatherings, celebrations, and more. ​ For additional information, visit the Yellowstone Historic Center website. Gilbert Stanley Underwood Underwood became associated with the National Park Service, the UPRR and other park concessionaires in the early 1920’s. He was trained in the California Arts & Crafts movement in 1910-11. Using those concepts he designed buildings that utilized natural and native materials, such as rock and logs, to blend the buildings in with their environment. He designed a multitude of buildings in the western United States including: the Dining Lodge at West Yellowstone; Old Faithful Lodge; lodges at Zion, Bryce, and Cedar Breaks; the Grand Canyon Lodge; Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite; Timberline Lodge at Mt. Hood, Oregon; Sun Valley Lodge in Idaho; and the Jackson Lake Lodge in Grand Teton. He also designed many other railroad depots for the Union Pacific. ​ G.S. Underwood, ca1925. NPS photo The Union Pacific Bears . . . ​ Walter Oehrle, a commercial artist was hired by the Union Pacific Railroad in 1923 to illustrate the covers of a promotional pieces announcing the opening of Yellowstone each June. The subject was always bears. The UP bears were drawn to look cute, silly, and anthropomorphic. The most common theme of the illustrations is of performance and entertainment. Of the 92 bear illustrations, 37 depict the bears being either mischievous or inept, like clowns. A number of them show the bears performing as artists, or in films, circuses, parades, or beauty pageants. The bears are presented as happily performing for their human visitors.” ​ Images of these happy-go-lucky bear were published in a small pamphlet that was given away by the Yellowstone Park Company. They were later rendered into woodcuts, which graced the inside of the Bear Pit Lounge at Old Faithful Inn for many years. A couple of these woodcuts are still on the walls of the Old Faithful Inn Snack Shop. During a recent remodeling, the images were redone in cut glass,

  • Yellowstone Bios A-B |

    Yellowstone Biographies A-B ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Albright, Horace. Horace Albright served as YNP Superintendent from 1919 to 1929, when he became Director of the National Park Service. His term lasted from Jan 12, 1929 to Aug. 9, 1933. He played a huge part in the development of the park under the newly created NPS, including the road improvement program, concession development, and general park protection programs. He resigned in 1933 to become vice-president of US Potash Co. [39-49] Alvarez, Manuel. Manuel Alvarez was born in 1794 in Albegas, Spain and traveled to Mexico in 1818. He went to New York and then down to Missouri, where he crossed the plains to Santa Fe in 1824 where he engaged in trade for several years. He became a free trapper and was associated with Andrew Dripps and the American Fur Co. He led a group of trappers in 1833 through Yellowstone and discovered the geysers along the Firehole River. He left trapping in the Rockies in 1834 and moved back to Santa Fe where he became a trader and politician. He died in July of 1856. [30;46] [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [30;46] Anceney, Charles. Charles Anceney and his son developed the Flying D Ranch in 1865 in the Spanish Creek area of the Gallatin Mountains. They began with a half-section squatter’s claim. In 1911 H.W. Child became a partner in the ranch. By the 1920’s it was considered one of the West’s great livestock enterprises, controlling a half million acres and supporting up to 20,000 head of cattle at times. Child's son-in-law Wm. Nichols sold off his share of the ranch in 1944 to help pay off YPCo debts to the railroads. Businessman Ted Turner now owns the ranch which is sized at over 113,000 acres. [25L;39] Anderson, Lou . Lou Anderson was a member of a prospecting party in 1867 that discovered gold along the Yellowstone River above Bear Creek. They named the area Crevice Gulch (now Crevice Creek). The party also named Slough Creek and Hell-Roaring Creek. They continued up the river to Pelican Creek and down to Yellowstone Lake. They passed through the geyser basins and exited the park along the Madison River. In 1849-50 Anderson prospected Yellowstone with Kit Carson and Jim Bridger. [97p;16,62-63] ​ Anderson, Louis. Louis Anderson was a member of a trapping party of 40 men in 1839 that was attacked by Piegan Indians near Indian Pond. Five trappers were killed. [30;52] Anderson, Jack Kenneth Jack Anderson was Yellowstone park superintendent from 1967 to 1975. He was born May 24, 1917 in San Luis Obispo, California. He entered the Navy in 1941 and was at Pearl Harbor during the attack on December 7. In 1946 Anderson gave up the Navy and went back to college while working the summers for the Park Service in Sequoia-Kings Canyon NP. He received a permanent position there as park ranger in 1950 and transferred to Glacier NP in 1957. He later served as superintendents of George Washington Carver Birthplace NM and Grand Teton NP prior to his assignment to Yellowstone. [25L;14][31;463] ​ Anderson, Capt. George Smith. George Anderson became Acting Supt. of Yellowstone on February 15, 1891 and served with the 6th Cavalry in that position until June 23, 1897. Aubrey Haines described him as one of the most capable officers ever to manage Yellowstone’s affairs during the Army years. Anderson graduated from West Point in 1871 and was assigned to the 6th Cavalry as a second lieutenant. He was sent out to the western frontier to aid in the Indian wars being fought all over the west. Until 1877 he was in the saddle most of that time, participating in campaigns in Kansas, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. In 1877 he was assigned to be assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point. This he did until 1881 when he was again called to assist in uprisings in Arizona and Colorado. He was promoted to captain in 1885 and served in Yellowstone beginning in 1891. Around 1900 Anderson, now a colonel, commanded the 13th US Volunteer Infantry and fought in the war in the Philippines. In the ensuing years Anderson commanded numerous regiments. He became a member of the General Staff of the Army. Anderson retired from the Army as general in 1912 after over 40 years of service to his country. He died of heart disease on March 7, 1915 while reading a paper at the University Club. His health had been declining for the past two years. [25L;14] [New York Times; 3/8/1915] Anderson, Ole . Olof Adolf Andersson (Ole Anderson) was born in Ostergotland, Sweden on May 18, 1857. He migrated to the United States in 1880 and Americanized his name to Ole A. Anderson. By 1883 he had settled in Yellowstone and began a business at Mammoth Hot Springs where the Commissioner's House now stands at the base of the Terraces. He began selling what became known as "coated specimens". They were common objects that had been placed in the flowing waters of the Mammoth Terraces and became coated with white, alabaster-like deposits of travertine. Coated specimens included bottles, pine cones, horseshoes, combs, small statues, vases, crosses and other such items. He also sold bottled sand art that was created by Andrew Wald, using colorful sands from various places in the park. Wald also worked with Ole in some capacity during the 1890's and possibly later. In 1891 Ole married Christine Granlund, who had also migrated from Sweden. The couple had two children born at Fort Yellowstone; Arthur in 1892 and Karl in 1895. A third son Roy was born in Helena in 1899. After several years of futile attempts to erect a permanent building at Mammoth to house his enterprise, Ole finally received permission in 1894 to build a store and residence at Mammoth. Ole's new 2-story wooden frame store opened in 1896 and became known as the "Specimen Shop" and was located just to the right of the Commissioner’s House. In April of 1896 Ole received a 10-year lease to operate the business and was permitted to sell ". . . coated specimens, wares, and other curiosities, [including bottled sands] for the accommodation of the tourists and others in the park." Ole's lease was renewed in 1906 and he was allowed the privilege of selling post cards, spoons and other curios, but not general wares. By 1908 Ole had been in business in the park for 25 years and was 51 years old. He decided to sell out his business to George and Anna Pryor, who turned the operation into a coffee and curio shop. Anderson and his family moved to Helena year-round after the sale and he continued in life as a carpenter until his death in 1915. The Specimen House was torn down in 1984. [25m] See my web page on the Specimen House for additional information. Armstrong, James. Shot twice by A drunken David Kennedy on St. Patrick's Day in 1883. The shooting occurred in the old McCartney hotel. James Armstrong survived his wounds with the bullets remaining in his body. [30;270-71] Arnet, Charles A. Charles Arnet was one of the first three residents to receive a permit in 1907 to build a house and business on the land that would eventually become West Yellowstone. He built The Yellowstone Store, the first store in town. It was located in the middle of Park Street and also housed the first post office. At that time (1908), the town consisted of only 6 blocks. Arnet sold the store to Alex Stuart in May of 1910. [18t] Arnold, A. J. A.J. Arnold was a Helena man who became a member of the Radersburg party that visited Yellowstone in 1877. The party was attacked by Nez Perce in August of that year. ​ Ash, George. George Ash was Supt. of the Wakefield Stagecoach Co. in the late 1880’s. By 1892 he was in charge of the YNP Transportation Co. properties at Mammoth. In that year he became the Postmaster at Mammoth. He married Jennie Henderson Dewing in 1893 and together they operated the Post Office Store. In 1896 they built a new general store at Mammoth. After being ill for some time, George passed away in June of 1900 in a Salt Lake hospital. (See also Ash, Jennie H.) [25j] ​ Ash, Jennie H. Jennie Henderson Ash was one of four daughters of famed park interpreter George L. Henderson, born Mar. 13, 1864 as Jeanette Ann Henderson. She began helping her sister Barbara with the Post Office Store in Mammoth at least by 1883 and became Postmistress in 1884. She was also the proprietor of the Cottage Hotel Museum, which mostly functioned as a store. She married John Dewing in 1886, but they later divorced and she married George Ash in 1893, with whom she had two children. In 1895 she obtained a 10-year lease to build and operate a new post office and store at Mammoth, which became the first permanent general store in Yellowstone. Her brother-in-law Alexander Lyall assisted in the construction of the new store. The store was located between the National Hotel and the Cottage Hotel and is currently operated by Delaware North Parks Services. It is the oldest store in the park. Jennie again became Postmistress in 1900 when her husband George became ill and later died. She and her family operated the business until 1908 when she retired and Jennie returned to Southern California, where she had spent many of the previous winters. Her brother Walter Henderson and Alexander Lyall bought the business in 1908 and sold out to former scout George Whittaker in 1913. Jennie lived to be 83 years of age. (See also ‘Henderson, Jennie’) [25j] See my web page on the Mammoth General Store for additional information. Bach, Edmund. Edmund Bach was co-founder of the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. with Silas Huntley and Harry Child in May of 1892. (Bach's brother Thomas was married to Child's sister Katherine.) Bach was in business with Child in Helena prior to coming to Yellowstone. They, along with others, formed the Helena, Hot Springs, and Smelter Railroad Co. in 1889. The company was forced into receivership and sold at auction in September of 1891. In 1901 the three men bought the YPA from the NW Improvement Co., but Bach sold his shares back to the railroad the following year. [25L-17] [Email conversation with Harry Child, 2004] Bacon, George Harvey. George Bacon was the only known gold prospector to explore the Yellowstone area in 1865. Gold strikes in other parts of Montana left the Yellowstone area somewhat uninhabited that year. [30;73] Baker, Jim & John. Brothers who were members of a trapping party of 40 men in 1839 that was attacked by Piegan Indians near Indian Pond. The group included Louis Anderson, Joe Power, Baptiste Ducharme and L'Humphrie. Five trappers were killed. [30;52] James Baker was born Dec. 19, 1818 in Belleville, Illinois. He went up the Missouri River in 1838 with the American Fur Co., returning to his home state in 1840. He returned to Green River in 1840, accompanying a group of emigrants. He guided various parties over the years and moved to Denver in 1859 and then to Dixon, Wyoming in 1873. He died May 15. 1898. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Barlow, Capt. John W . Capt. Barlow was an officer of the Corps of Engineers who conducted an exploration of Yellowstone in the summer of 1871. He was accompanied by David P. Heap and the expedition became known as the Barlow-Heap Expedition. They conducted extensive explorations, many times alongside of the Hayden Expedition that summer. Photographer Thomas J. Hine, draftsman W. H. Wood and topographer H.G. Prout added their services, along with some packers, laborers, and a cook. The party was in the park about six weeks. Upon their return to Chicago, the great Chicago Fire destroyed almost all their photographs, meteorological records and specimens. [30;142-50] Barlow was born June 26, 1838 in Wyoming County, New York and graduated from West Point in 1861. He served in the Civil War as artilleryman and engineer. He was assigned to the Military Division of the Missouri in 1869 and surveyed for the Northern Pacific RR in 1872, and fought off a heavy Sioux attack at one point. Barlow served on the International Boundary Commission along the Mexican border from 1874 to 1891, retiring as a brigadier-general. He died in Jerusalem, Palestine Feb. 21, 1914. [A.L. Haines, Yellowstone National Park: It's Exploration and Establishment] ​ Baronett, Collins Jack (John H.) Jack Baronett was born in Glencoe, Scotland ca1829-31 (the June 1880 Fed. Census listed him as age 49), he was also known as Yellowstone Jack and followed several different occupations, including soldier, miner, guide and sailor. As a sailor he jumped ship in China in order to make his way to the goldfields of California and later searched for gold in Colorado, Montana, Alaska, Australia, and Africa. He also served as 2nd mate on a whaling ship to the Arctic Ocean before returning to California in 1855. Baronett participated in the Civil War with the First Texas Cavalry, but left disenchanted to serve briefly with the French under Maximilian in Mexico. He began prospecting for gold in the park and greater Yellowstone area in 1864 and participated in the Yellowstone Expedition in 1866. He was considered for the park superintendent position in 1884 and when the Army took over in 1866, he was the only member of the civilian police force to be retained. He served with Gen. Custer in his expedition to the Black Hills in 1869. He was the builder of first bridge across the Yellowstone River in 1871, near the junction of the Yellowstone and Lamar rivers. A toll was charged to cross, and the bridge was used until about 1903, when a new bridge was built upstream at the current location. Baronett and George Pritchett found the lost Truman Everts, who had wandered for 37 days after being separated from the Washburn Expedition in 1870. Baronett guided the detachment from Ft. Ellis that found Richard Dietrich’s dead body on the doorstep of McCartney’s Hotel during the Nez Perce War of 1877. When the Army took control of the Yellowstone in 1886, Baronett hired on as an assistant superintendent and later became a scout for the Army. In the late 1890s he voyaged to Alaska on a gold prospecting expedition where his schooner capsized. He survived the wreck and returned to Seattle for some time before traveling to Idaho to continue his prospecting career. Frail and suffering from ill-health, Baronett died on Wednesday, Nov. 28, 1906 at the Park County hospital in Livingston, Montana. He is buried in Mountain View Cemetery at Livingston, Mt. [31] [108a] [113] [31d] [1880 Fed Census Records, YNP] (Variously spelled: Jack Baronette, Jack Barronett, Jack Barronette, Jack Baronnett, Jack Baronnette, etc.) Baronett, Marion (Nee Marion A. Scott) Marion Scott had been living in Emigrant Gulch and married Jack Baronett on Mar. 14, 1884. Marion Baronett became Postmistress at Mammoth on October 25, 1886 and in 1888 she was permitted to sell photos, stationary, and curios at her office. The store was located on the north side of Capitol Hill near the site of the future Haynes Photo Shop. In October of 1888 Jennie Henderson Dewing took over the Postmistress position. [25j] [YNP Army Files Doc 173] ​ Bassett Brothers. In the first decade of Yellowstone National Park’s young existence, there were few methods of commercial transportation services available. Roads were crude at best, and lodging facilities were few and rustic. The Bassett brothers of southeastern Idaho were one of the early outfits that stepped in to fill this void. There were six brothers who began providing outfitting and transportation services in the park that included furnishing wagons, horses, tents, tools, food, supplies, and guides. In 1881 they began running stagecoaches into the park from the Utah & Northern Railroad (U&NRR) line at Beaver Canyon, Idaho, near the current town of Spencer along Interstate I-15, a few miles south of the Montana border. It was about 110 miles from Beaver Canyon to the Lower Geyser Basin, requiring three nights camping to get there, but they advertised the route as being 150 miles shorter than the Virginia City route. An 1881 newspaper ad touting the Bassett Brother’s service proclaimed that Yellowstone was the "The Eden of America!" and that "Light Spring Wagons, Good Teams, Experienced Drivers” were utilized with “Good Hunting and Fishing anywhere along the road." The round-trip cost was $25 to Marshall's Hotel on the Firehole River. William Henry Bassett (W.H. Bassett) and Charles Julius Bassett (C.J. Bassett) seem to have been the prime movers of the operation. Other brothers involved were Charles Henry Bassett II, Fred C. Bassett, Frank A. Bassett, and Ernest Bassett. The Bassett family was headed by father Charles Henry Bassett of New York. It is said that by the late 1870’s they dominated the outfitting business in Yellowstone. The business became known as the Yellowstone National Park Stage Line in 1888, and operated out of Lago, Idaho. Sometime after 1897 their operation moved north along the rail line to Monida when the Beaver rail facilities closed. During the mid-1890’s the concern was called the Union Pacific Stage Lines, with C.J. Bassett as proprietor. [25g] [Email conversation with Thornton Waite, June 2002] [] For more info, check out my page on the Bassett Bros. camping operation. Bazata, Art. Art Bazata, who had been Property Manager of Yellowstone Park Co., became the new Executive VP and General Manager of the company in 1965. George Beall, president of YPCo, retired from active management to work with a restaurant business in Cleveland, while retaining his positions of president, consultant and director of the park company. Bazata had been with the company for three years prior to his promotion. Earlier he was in the public relations business Denver and was manager of the Cosmopolitan Hotel. He was replaced by company vice-president and treasurer John Amerman in 1967. [25L;18] [Billings Gazette, 23Apr1965] ​ Beall, George . George Beall was hired in 1962 as Executive VP and General Manager of YPCo. The following year he notified the NPS of the company’s refusal to comply with any more Mission 66 objectives. He resigned from active management in 1965 to work with a restaurant business in Cleveland while retaining his positions of president, consultant and director of the park company. Beall had been manager of the hotel division of the Del Webb Corp. in Phoenix before joining Yellowstone Park Co. [25L;18] [Billings Gazette, 23Apr1965] Beaman, John Warren . Beaman (2Dec1845 - 13Dec1903) was the meteorologist for the 1871 Hayden Yellowstone Expedition. He was born December 2, 1845 in North Hadley, Mass. After serving in the Civil War, he studied civil engineering at Renselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY. After graduation he went to Yellowstone with Hayden for two years. In 1874 he went to Seal Islands in Alaska with his wife Elizabeth and was the government Seal Agent, in charge of tabulating and verifying seal kills for bounty purposes. His wife was reportedly the first white women on the islands. Beaman later made surveys in the Indian Territory and areas north of that area. He moved to Missouri around 1886 and was in charge of government work on the Gasconade and Osage Rivers. Beaman moved to Washington DC in 1895 and at the time of his death in 1903 he was supervising the construction of a government building for the Treasury Dept. [30;142] [Biographies from Cole County Missouri,] ​ Beatee, M.J. He was permitted in 1878 to pasture 300 cattle on Blacktail Deer Cr. by Supt. Norris. [25L;19] Beau, Louis. French trapper Louis Beau may have made a raft trip to Stevenson Island in 1830. [25L;19] Belknap, William W . Secretary of War William W. Belknap conducted an 'investigation' of Yellowstone in 1875. He was accompanied by several other generals, Lt. Gustavus Doane and 24 men of the Second Cavalry. It seems most of the “investigation” consisted of fishing and hunting activities. [30;207] ​ Beltizer, Julius. Julius Beltizer had been guiding in the park since at least 1873 and blazed a trail from the Lower Geyser Basin north to Mammoth in 1874. The Bozeman newspaper noted that he ". . . discovered a trail leading from the Mammoth Hot Springs to the Upper Geyser Basin, by which forty miles in distance is saved, as compared with the old traveled route." Supt. Norris rebuilt this trail into a road in 1878 and called it the `Norris Road.' In 1875 Beltizer operated out of Mammoth as park guide, providing pack outfits for visitors and their luggage. [25L;19] [Bozeman Avant-Courier, 8/7/1874; 8/20/1875] Benson, Amos. Amos Benson built a log saloon and store in 1873 with Dan Naileigh near the ferry-boat landing on the Yellowstone River (near current Livingston, Mt.) The area became known as Benson's Landing and was a popular meeting place for fur trappers, traders, miners, and hunters. The ferry site was near Mission Creek and had been originally put into service by Buckskin Williams opposite the Crow Indian agency. Later on it became a stage station and post office. Another entrepreneur in the area was Hugo Hoppe, was also involved in the saloon and hotel business. [97p;98] [An Illustrated History of the Yellowstone Valley, Western Historical Publishing Co., Spokane, Wash., 1907.] ​ Benson, Maj. H.C. Maj. Benson was Acting Supt. with the Army from November 28, 1908 to September 30, 1910. Benson was born Dec. 8, 1857 in Ohio and graduated from West Point. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in 1882. He was involved in the Geronimo campaign in 1885-86 and served as superintendent of Sequoia National Park from 1895-97. Benson superintended Yosemite from 1895-97 and served in the Spanish American War. He became a lt. colonel in 1914 and a full colonel in 1915 when he retired from the military. He was recalled during WWI and died in San Francisco September 21, 1924. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [25L;19] ​ Berry, William Sanford (W.S) & Aurinda Sophronia Ferris Berry (A.F.) The Berry family moved into Gardiner in 1902 and established a photo studio in a tent at the north end of town. According to Ruth Quinn, the couple purchased two lots on Main St. in 1911 and had a new building constructed called the Gardiner Studio.. The husband and wife team produced at least 60 known postcards of the Yellowstone area. Many of them featured beautiful fauna and flora depictions, while stagecoaches were featured in several others. Documentary-type photos were also taken in nearby communities. Larger format photos were vailable, 4x5", 5x7" & 8x10", in either glossy or dull finishes. During the sixteen years they spent in Gardiner, one or both of them established temporary studios in other Montana towns to supplement their income. A son was born in 1912 - Ferris Milton Berry, who spent most of his career in the Air Force. The family moved out of Gardiner in 1918 and according to, W.S. served as "warden of Sully's Hill Game Preserve at Fort Totten ND; the preserve being established by President Teddy Roosevelt to help rebuild the herds of elk, deer, and bison which had been over hunted nearly to extinction. After several Dakota winters, William decided there was too much pioneering at Fort Totten for a man his age and in 1920 moved his family to sunny Long Beach CA; and in 1926 relocated to Pomona." They passed away in 1948 & 1950 respectively and were buried in the local cemetery. Unfortunately no photos have yet been located of their studio or of themselves. Biddle, Nicolas . Publisher of Captain William Clark's map from the Lewis & Clark Expedition of 1804-06. The map was published in 1814. Clark named the large lake at the base of the Grand Tetons Biddle Lake in his honor. The lake is now known as Jackson Lake. [30;5] [16a;331] Billings, Frederick . Frederick Billings became president of the Northern Pacific RR in 1879, the same time rail construction commenced after the 6-year hiatus resulting from the “Panic of 1873”. The city of Billings MT was named after him. Henry Villard replaced him two years later. In 1886 he became one of the organizers of the Yellowstone Park Asso., along with Charles Gibson, Nelson Thrall, and John Bullitt. [25L;19] ​ Binkley, William. Wm. Binkley was believed to have been responsible for the stagecoach holdup on Aug. 24, 1908, on the road between Old Faithful and West Thumb. Almost $1400 in cash and over $700 in jewelry and watches were taken from the tourists. Binkley had previously escaped from the guardhouse at Ft. Yellowstone, where he was being held on a poaching charge. [10;65] [31;153] ​ Black, Leander M. Leander Black was a member of the partnership formed by A. Bart Henderson around 1874 to construct a road from Bozeman to Yellowstone Park and appropriate accommodations. The concern was called the "Bozeman City & Yellowstone National Park Wagon Road and Hotel Company." Attempts to receive a Federal charter and monies failed, along with their grand plans. [30;189] Blackmore, William . William Blackmore, or Lord Blackmore, accompanied the Hayden Expedition of 1872 as an anthropologist. During the trip his wife died in Bozeman. Upon his return he purchased five acres of land in town and deeded it to the city for a cemetery. [30;185] Blanding, James. James Blanding was one of three road crew leaders working on the park roads under Lt. Kingman in 1885-86. He pioneered a new road from Norris to the Grand Canyon, which was completed in 1886. A steep grade on the road became known as 'Blanding Hill.' [31;215] Blankenship, Edwin V. E.V. Blankenship operated a camping company in Yellowstone that was based out of Bozeman. . Records indicate he was in business for at least the years 1897 to 1912. It was originally known as Blankenship & Morgan and later became Blankenship & Co. The company petitioned to leave equipment and supplies at designated campsites in 1909, but the request was denied. Later requests to built log cabins at their sites were also denied. Check out my Smaller Camps webpage for more info!! ​ Bogart, J.V. J.V. Bogart was a member of a partnership formed by A. Bart Henderson around 1874 to construct a road from Bozeman to Yellowstone Park and appropriate accommodations. The concern was called the "Bozeman City & Yellowstone National Park Wagon Road and Hotel Company." Attempts to receive a Federal charter and monies failed, along with their grand plans. [30;189] Bottler Bros. [Boteler] Three brothers, Frederick, Henry and Phillip Bottler, settled near the future site of Emigrant in 1868. Phillip was born Dec. 25, 1837 in Summit County, near Cleveland, Ohio and Fred was born April 10, 1843. Their parents were Catharine and Ernest Bottler. They family later lived in Indiana and Iowa. Phillip enlisted in the Civil War in 1862, but was discharged a few months later due to an injury. He and Frederick headed west in 1865 and established a small ranch in the Gallatin Valley. They sold the ranch a few years later and moved to Emigrant in December of 1867. Their ranch served as a stopping point for early travelers for many years, and also provided guide and hunting services. Frederick was in the geyser basins as early as 1866. Frederick Bottler joined Philetus Norris on a climb to the top of Electric Peak in 1870. Two years later Bottler accompanied the 2nd Hayden Expedition. In 1875 it was reported the brothers killed as many as 2000 elk near Mammoth for the hides and tongues only. The men raised wheat, potatoes, cattle and sheep on their ranch. An 1874 Bozeman newspaper ad proclaimed "Travelers to National Park, Attention! House of Entertainment. Boteler & Bro's Ranch, situated midway between Bozeman and the Mammoth Hot Springs, has been fitted up to accommodate the traveling public to and from the National Park with excellent fare for both man and beast. Good meals, comfortable beds and the best of pasturage for stock can always be had by the traveler. BOTELER & BRO." Fred married Josie Shorthill, a native of Pennsylvania, in 1881. [25g] [2] [3m] [Bozeman Avant-Courier 7/3/1874] [56m;1104] Boutelle, Capt. Frazier . Capt. Boutelle was Acting Park Supt. with the 1st Cavalry from June 1, 1889 to Feb. 15, 1891. [25L;20] He was born Sept. 12, 1840 at Troy, New York to parents James Augustus Boutelle and Emeline Lamb Boutelle. James Boutelle relocated to northern California with a daughter in the 1850s and by 1871 Emeline had married E.F. Gordon and moved to Ontario, Canada. Frazier volunteered in June of 1861 with the 5th New York Cavalry in the Civil War and emerged in 1865 commissioned as a captain. Frazier served at Antietam, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Wilderness, Gettysburg, and the second battle of Bull Run. He re-enlisted in 1866 for the Indian campaign in the West and was an active participant in the Modoc War of 1872-73 in California. In 1873 he married Mary Adolphine Augusto Hayden at Vancouver, Washington and they had one son named Henry Moss Boutelle, born June 17, 1875. Henry was killed in the Philippines during the war in 1899. He again gained rank of captain in 1886. He retired in 1895 and moved to Seattle around 1906. He died there Feb. 12, 1924. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [Univ. of Oregon Libraries, Hist. Photo. Collection] Bozeman, John. John Bozeman pioneered the short-lived Bozeman’s Trail, which was a short-cut passing through Indian lands east of the Big Horn Mountains from the Oregon Trail to Bozeman. He was killed in 1867 east of Livingston, reportedly by Indians. However, there has been some speculation the murder was committed by whites in an attempt to stir up military action against the Indians. The city of Bozeman, located about 75 miles northwest of the park was established in 1864 and named after John Bozeman. [25L;20] He was born 1835 in Georgia and left his wife and two children to venture west to Cripple Creek, Colorado in 1861. He joined the gold rush to Virginia City in June of 1862. Seeking a shorter route to the mines of Montana, he and John Jacobs were attacked by Sioux that winter east of the Big Horn Mountains, and robbed of all they owned. He led a wagon train along that route in 1863 to the goldfields of Montana and led several parties along "his" route the following year. The Army built forts along the way to help protect the road, but was eventually forced to abandon them due to constant Indian attacks. [Grace R. Hebard, "The Bozeman Trail"] Bracey, Capt. Capt. Bracey was a member of Bart Henderson's Yellowstone prospecting expedition of 1867. [30;77] Bradley, Frank H . Frank H. Bradley was a professor from Knoxville Tennessee and a member of Hayden's Geological Survey of the Territories. He renamed deLacy's Lake to Shoshone Lake. Breck, George. George Breck took over as manager of transportation for YPTCo when W.W. Humphrey left to form the Monida & Yellowstone stage line in 1898 with Franks Haynes. Breck had been prominent in stage transportation in the northwest and continued with YPTCo until his death on March 25, 1914. He had apparently gone into his cabin seemingly perfectly well and when a friend walked into 10 minutes later, Breck was dead. A.W. Miles called him one of the most valued and honored employees in the park. [15b] [1n;3/26/1914] ​ Brett, Col. L.M. Col. Brett was Acting Supt. for the Army from September 30, 1910 to October 15, 1916. In June of 1915 he made a tour around the park in an automobile, to confirm the feasibility of auto travel on park roads. In August he oversaw the entry of motorized vehicles into Yellowstone. He died in Washington DC September 23, 1928 at age 71 as a brigadier-general in the Army. [10;86] [25L;20] Bridger, Jim. Jim Bridger was a famed mountain man, explorer, trapper, guide, and teller of tall tales in the Rocky Mountain and Yellowstone regions in the early to mid- 1800’s. He was born March 1804 in Richmond VA and was hunting and scouting by age 14. He went into the Indian country at age 18 and became one of the founders of the Rocky Mountain Fur Co. in 1822, along with Wm. Ashley, Andrew Henry, Jedediah Smith, and Milton Sublette. Bridger is known to have begun trapping in the Upper Yellowstone area by 1829, and was in and out of the country up until 1860. He established a trading post known as Ft. Bridger in 1843 on Black’s Fork of the Green River. In the spring of 1860 he accompanied the Raynolds Expedition to Yellowstone, but they were unable to enter the southern portion of Yellowstone Park due to the deep snows. He liked to tell a ‘yarn’ and there are dozens of ‘tall tales’ attributed to him, many of which though, originated from other sources. People of his time referred to him as “The Old Man of the Mountains.” He died in Washington, Missouri on July 7, 1881. He was originally buried on his farm near Dallas, south of Kansas City, but in 1906 his bones were moved to Mount Washington Cemetery and a 8-ton stone monument was erected. In addition to his other exploits, the marker claims he discovered the Great Salt Lake in 1824 and the South Pass in Wyoming in 1827. [25g] [2] [Breckinridge Bulletin, CO., 1/7/1907 Brisben, Gen. James S. James Brisben was Lt. Doane's commanding officer during Doane's ill-fated winter exploration of the Snake River in 1876-77. He stationed his troops at Mammoth in 1878 during the Bannock Indian scare. The troop was armed with a Gatling gun. In 1882 Brisben was authorized to operate boats on the Yellowstone Lake, but refused to do so after finding out YPIC also had the same privilege. Brisben was born May 23, 1837 at Boalsburg, Pennsylvania and entered the Civil War as a private in 1861. By the end of the war he attained the rank of colonel, but upon re-enlistment after the war he became a captain. He was commander of Ft. Ellis at Bozeman in 1876 and went to the relief of the beleaguered trappers and hunters at Ft. Pease along the Yellowstone River. E.S. Topping was among the men at Ft. Pease. Brisben later maintained a ranch in Paradise Valley south of Livingston. He died January 14, 1892. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [25L;21] [30;212] [10;28] ​ Brothers, Henry J . In 1914 Henry Brothers established the Brothers Bathhouse & Plunge in the Old Faithful Geyser Basin across the river from Beehive Geyser. He used hot water from Solitary Geyser to supply the swimming pool and the five smaller hot pools. Brothers Plunge was enlarged in 1923 and a new log building was erected. In 1927 he built a bathhouse at the Old Faithful auto camp, and three years later built facilities at the Fishing Bridge auto camp. This bathhouse included tubs, showers, laundry and irons. He sold out to Charles Hamilton in 1933, who remodeled and enlarged the Bathhouse & Plunge, essentially rebuilding the entire structure. [25;21] Brown, Capt. Oscar J. Capt. Brown was Acting Supt. with the 1st Cavalry from June 23, 1899 to July 23, 1900. [25L;21] Brown, Joe . Joe Brown discovered gold in Bear Gulch, near the park’s northern border east of Gardiner in 1866. It was reported that he took out $8,000 in gold that year. He discovered gold ore on Crevasse Mountain in the 1870’s and sold out to George Eaton in 1885, who built the first quartz mill in the district. A trail up Dome Mountain, near Yankee Jim Canyon, is named after Brown. [25L;21] Bryant, Robert C. Robert Bryant formed a company that was originally known as the Bryant-Spence Yellowstone Camping Co. It began operating out of (West) Yellowstone in 1903, with main offices in Chicago. This camping company conducted tours of the park from the west entrance and Gardiner. Bryant applied for a camping permit in July 1908, but was turned down by Interior. Apparently he had been operating in the park during 1908 and previous seasons without a license and oft-times sold tours and pawned the people off on other operators in the park. A 1908 brochure advertised “The Bryant Way”, an obvious take-off on “The Wylie Way” phrase coined many years earlier. Bryant somehow resumed his camping operation ca1909-10 and also operated hotel and stagecoach operations in (West) Yellowstone. The business was incorporated as the R.C. Bryant Company on May 31, 1910 in Utah. Special wagons accompanied the tours, carrying provisions, baggage, tents, cots, tables, chairs, bedding, and stoves, etc. A professional cook accompanied the trips. The hotel was located on the main street coming out of the park, about a block east of the UP depot. Bryant sold out his camp and hotel operation to the Shaw & Powell Co. in 1912. [25g] [15b] [YNP Army Files Doc. #8021;8022;8506;8510;8516] Check out my Robert Bryant Camping Co. page for more info!! Buffalo Jones, C.J. Buffalo Jones was hired in 1902 to manage the dwindling buffalo herd. At that time the herd numbered less than 50, and only 21-22 by some accounts. 18 buffalo cows were brought in from the Allard Ranch in Montana and 3 bulls imported from the Goodnight Ranch in Texas. A house and corrals were built for Jones just south of Capitol Hill in Mammoth. C.J hired his brother as “buffalo keeper”, but he was later fired for incompetence. Buffalo Jones position was abolished in 1905 and he resigned shortly thereafter. [25L;22] Buffington, Leroy. Leroy Buffington was a St. Paul architect who designed the new National Hotel at Mammoth in 1883. He designed numerous St. Paul mansions and was considered the 'father of the skyscraper.' [10;130] Bullitt, John C. John Bullitt was a Philadelphia businessman who was one of the original organizers of the YPA in 1886. Bundy, Oliver C. Oliver C. Bundy was a Helena photographer who has become known for his early stereoviews of Yellowstone scenes in the early 1870's. Whether he took photos himself, or purchased photos from other photographers is unknown. Bundy arrived in Montana Territory in 1866 and opened a photo gallery in Virginia City in 1872. He went into partnership with Helena photographer E. H. Train in 1876 and later that year Bundy bought out Train. Bundy was born in 1827 and died in 1891. [ ] Burgess, Felix Felix Burgess was a government scout who was appointed a deputy marshall in 1891, although lack of adequate enforceable laws made his job difficult. Early in that year he assisted in the search for missing scout Ed Wilson. In Feb. of 1894, Burgess and Private Troike, arrested poacher Edgar Howell on Pelican Creek. Howell had at least six buffalo capes hanging near his camp. [31;63-65,445] Buttrey, Frank A . Frank Buttrey started his first store in Aldridge and he later established Buttrey's Stores all through Montana. [25g;144]

  • Boats on Yellowstone Lake |

    Early Boating on Yellowstone Lake ca1871 - early 1920s ​ ​ Copyright 2021 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yellowstone Lake Picturesque America, 1874 by Harry Fenn The Annie - First Vessel on Yellowstone Lake ​ The first documented boat to ply the waters of Yellowstone Lake was the Annie, fabricated by members of the 1871 F.V. Hayden Expedition. The small craft sailed to Stevenson Island on July 29 of that year. Hiram M. Chittenden, in his 1895 book “The Yellowstone National Park”, described the occasion: "The first boat on the Yellowstone Lake was a small canvas craft 12 feet long by 3-1/2 feet wide. Dr. Hayden records that it was christened The Annie, by Mr. Stevenson, in compliment to Miss Anna L. Dawes, the amiable daughter of Hon. H.L. Dawes.” The persons in the boat are James Stevenson and Henry W. Elliot Left Top: Woodcut of The Annie. from Picturesque America, 1874 Left Bottom: The Annie, Wm. H. Jackson Photo, 1871. Library of Congress #95514177 Dr. F.V Hayden described the day in a report published by the Chicago Tribune , 4Oct1871: “It lay before us like a beautiful mirror, its surface reflecting the sunlight with dazzling brilliancy . . . We had with us the frame of a boat, and covering this with canvas, launched the first craft that has ever floated on the bosom of Yellowstone Lake. Mr. James Stevenson with one of the members of the party, were the first to sail in it. They landed on one of the largest of the islands, and as mr. Stevenson was the first to put his foot upon it, we named it Stevenson's Island." There are early reports of a Canadian trapper by the name of Henri Le Bleau, or Louis Bleau, who built a small raft and sailed to Stevenson Island, but these cannot be wholly verified. The story is noted by Helen G. Sharman in her, "The Cave on the Yellowstone, or Early Life in the Rockies,” published 1902. Eugene Sayre Topping and The Sallie 1874 is the next year in which a boat appears on the waters of Yellowstone Lake. Eugene Sayre Topping , in his 1883 history “Chronicles of the Yellowstone,” describes the event: ​ "In June of this year [1874] Frank Williams and E.S. Topping, furnished with a whipsaw, canvas, and rigging, went up the Yellowstone to its lake. There they sawed out lumber to build a row boat, and a yacht, which they rigged in sloop form. They launched the latter on the twentieth of July . . . They advertised that the first lady to come up should have the privilege of naming the yacht. Two parties from Bozeman, each having a lady, came in at nearly the same time. These ladies, Mrs. W.H. Tracy and Mrs. Arch Graham, were each named Sarah, and they compromised by naming the yacht Sallie , and took a cruise in commemoration of the event." Right: The Sallie on Yellowstone Lake. At front is Frank Williams, with E.S. Topping at the rear. The "Sarahs" are seated with their husbands and two other men. Photo by Joshua Crissman. The Helena newspaper described the occasion a bit more picturesque, “The way the boat came by its name was this: Mr. Topping advertised that the first lady who sailed therein should have the naming of it. It so chanced, however, that two of Bozeman's most plucky ladies came for a ride at the same lime. It further chanced that both ladies were named Sarah, so the differences between them were split and they called it “Sallie," which name Mr. Topping gallantly accepted, and forthwith painted the same on the boat's end.” Left: The Sallie on Yellowstone Lake. Stereoview produced by W.I. Marshall from Joshua Crissman's original photo. The two men had been issued a permit to operate boats on the lake in1874. In May 1875, Frank Williams drowned in the Yellowstone River near the current city of Livingston Mont. Topping and another man constructed a cabin and boat dock at Topping Point, west of the Lake Outlet. They built two boats, one called the Topping and the other the Naiad Queen . In Greek mythology, the Naiads were a type of female spirit, or nymph, presiding over fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of fresh water. He operated on the lake for about three summers, and in the fall 1876 joined other Montanans in the gold rush in the Black Hills, Dakota Territory. The Topping boat was reportedly dismantled and abandoned in 1876, and the fate of the Naiad is unknown. T.E. Hofer and the Explorer Having some experience with sailboats on Long Island Sound, Thomas Elwood “Uncle Billie” Hofer and his cousin decided to build a boat and during the winter of 1879-80 gathered up tools and materials. During the summer of 1880 he stayed in E.S. Topping's old cabin and began construction of his “Sharpie," whip-sawing his lumber in the same pit that Topping had used. He ended up with a sailboat 20' long, 6' wide and 2-1/2' deep which they named it the Explorer. Park Supt. Philetus Norris used it in 1880 to circumnavigate Yellowstone Lake, and determined that there would be “…little danger attending trips around the fingers, thumb, and palm of the lake…” Although reportedly Norris wrecked the boat near Topping Point on his return. ​ According to Scott Herring in his "Yellowstone's Lost Legend" about Billy Hofer, the men built an un-named second boat for William Pickett that was 30-35' long. The craft apparently carried 8 men without an issue. It was used for several years, until unattended one day, it made the ride down the Yellowstone River by itself to float over Yellowstone Falls to its doom. T.E. Hofer at his cabin near Gardiner, ca1880. He was born around 1849 . Self-portrait, courtesy Brigham Young Univ., Ut. From the Helena Independent Record , 12Sep1880: “The Hofer Bros have put a strong and safe sail boat on the Yellowstone lake, in which, for a consideration the tourist may enjoy a ride on that beautiful sheet of water.” U.S. Geological Survey Boats in 1885 There were two government boats on the lake in 1885. The second was the US Pinafore, a small craft tested on Swan Lake by Daniel Kingman of the US Army Corps of Engineers before being used on Yellowstone Lake. It was built by Road Foreman E.L. Lamartine and floated on Swan Lake Aug. 22, 1885. Others aboard the craft included Mrs. Lamartine, Jennie and Mary Henderson, and two others. After its trial run, the vessel was hauled to Yellowstone Lake for use by Kingman and his men on Yellowstone lake. The Pinafore seems not to appear again in the records after its trial run. August 22, 1885). ​ The first boat was another USGS craft that has as yet remained un-named. The story of its fate is below: On Sept. 5, 1885, USGS surveyors M.D. Scott, Amos Scott, E.C. Quackenbush, and J.H.. Renshaw were sailing the craft on Yellowstone lake when a sudden storm came up. About 100 yards from shore, the boat was suddenly struck by lightning, which knocked all of the men unconscious. Upon awakening, they found M.D. Scott dead after being struck through the head, and a hole burned through the bottom of the craft. The others made it safely back to shore and buried Scott on a bench close to the lake. According to the Butte Weekly Miner on Sept 26, 1885, “the father and two brothers of the deceased stated that they were on the way to Bozeman to recover the remains and convey them to the old home for final interment.” Their home was reportedly in Illinois. Renshaw wrote a letter published in the Bozeman Weekly Chronicle on 16Sep1885 describing the event: ​ KILLED by LIGHTNING I have to inform you of the death ot your friend, M. D. Scott, under the following circumstance. On the afternoon of Sept. 5th he, with myself, Mr. E. C. Quackenbush, and Mr. Amos Scott, were out sailing on the Yellowstone lake, when there came up a sudden thunder shower and our boat was struck by lightning. We were all stunned, remaining unconscious for some time. When we regained consciousness we found poor Dick dead, he evidently having been killed instantly. The bolt had struck the top of his head, passing down over his breast and left side, tearing his clothing into shreds, then on down to his feet and out through the bottom of the boat. Upon recovering I found my right arm partially paralyzed and slightly burned, but otherwise I was not injured; the other two gentlemen escaping without any physical injury except the natural shock of the nervous system. Fortunately we were close to the land, so with a few pulls with the oars we were able to reach the shore and escape the rapidly filling boat. We buried Dick yesterday afternoon on a bench near the lake, overlooking the scene of his tragic death and of his last faithful services. Will you be kind enough to inform his friend Mr. Yerkes, of the Bozeman Chronicle, that the circumstances of his death may be made public. Very Respectfully, Jno. H. Renshaw.. Ela C. Waters - The Zillah and The EC Waters E.C. Waters came to the park in 1887 with E. C. Culver from Billings, where Waters was a businessman with interests in the Headquarters Hotel. He became general manager of the Yellowstone Park Association hotels in 1887, serving until 1890 when he was removed from that position. YPA was granted a lease to operate boats on the Yellowstone Lake in 1891 and allowed Waters to manage the new boat/ferry operation. Around that time a new road was being built over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb. A ferry service would eliminate the tedious and dusty ride from the Thumb Lunch Station to the Lake Hotel and the "The Zillah" was put into service for that purpose. Waters built a house and boathouse in front of Lake Hotel that first year. Top Right: Ela C. Waters, undated. NPS photo Bottom Left: E.C. Waters residence, undated. YNP #199718-277 Bottom Right: YP Boat Co. office and store, ca1917. YNP #199718-278 Waters was not a particularly well respected personage or businessman and was apparently not in good favor with park or Interior officials. He was `encouraged’ to leave the park in 1907 by the army. According to Bartlett’s “Yellowstone – A Wilderness Besieged,” a notice was posted by Supt. Gen. Young stating that, “E.C. Waters, President of the Yellowstone Lake Boat Company, having rendered himself obnoxious during the 1907 season, is…debarred from the park and will not be allowed to return without permission.” ​ In 1907, Tom Hofer and his T.E. Hofer Boat Co. took over the contract upon Waters’ exit. The Zillah was in service from West Thumb to Lake Hotel until around 1909-10 when Hofer brought in the new ship “Jean D,” and replaced the Zillah for the ferry service. The Zillah The Ulysses, was built in 1884, either in La Crosse or Iowa, sources seem to differ. Col. Wm McCrory had the boat built to provide service on Lake Minnetonka in eastern Minnesota. His railroad lines extended to Excelsior and Minnetonka Beach on the lake. The boat sections were shipped to the lake and assembled on site. Unfortunately her draft was 3', a bit too much for the shallow shoreline. It also tended to list a bit a full speed (16mph). The steamer was purchased in 1888 by Dr. Kenedy and Howard Trumbull, who served as captain, and renamed her the Clyde. Due to her unsuitable draft, it was put up for sale and purchased in 1889 by Charles Gibson, owner of the Yellowstone Park Association. The ship was brought from Michigan to Yellowstone in segments in 1891. The steel-hulled, 40-ton steamer was acquired to provide tourist transportation on Yellowstone Lake. It was 81’ with a 14’ beam, and could carry 120 passengers and crew. An article at right from the Gardiner Wonderland on 21Sep1905 described the tedious process of getting it to Yellowstone Lake. The Zillah’ was assembled on site by Amos Shaw (of the Shaw & Powell Camping Co ) to provide ferry service from West Thumb to Lake Hotel. It was an interesting alternative to the somewhat bland stagecoach ride from Thumb to Lake. E.C. Waters would pay the stagecoach drivers fifty cents for each passenger the driver convinced to take the ferry, and then charged passengers $3.00 for the boat ride. ​ The Zillah made its first run on June 22, 1891 with a crew of government road workers. Shaw captained the boat for the 1891-92 seasons. Waters bought the boat company from Yellowstone Park Association in 1897, and obtained a 10-year lease from Interior to operate the ferry The ship operated on the lake for about 20 years, but had deteriorated over time and was replaced by the Jean D around 1910. The Zillah sat at the Lake boathouse until at least 1922, and probably later. Right: The Zillah and Lake Hotel. [Haynes Double Oval postcard, ca1907] Zillah at the dock in front of Lake Hotel (not shown) At center is the Waters residence. [Haynes photo, Mont. Hist Soc. #10774] Zillah at Dot Island. Wm. H. Rau glass slide The final deposition of the Zillah remains unknown. Some sources have claimed that the ship was scuttled in the Lake somewhere off the coast from Lake Hotel. However, the Submerged Resources Survey conducted on the lake in 1996 was unable to find any remnants of the boat on the lake’s bottom. Park Historian Aubrey Haines has commented that he saw a notice that the craft may have been cut up and sold for scrap in 1929. The mystery remains . . . From the Jackson Hole News , July 22, 1971: Del Jenkins, former stagecoach driver in the park, recalls the days when the steamship [Zillah] was in use. He was driving four-horse stages in 1898 and often let off passengers to make the easier ride by steamship, instead of the longer stagecoach route around the lakeshore. "The owner of the boat used to pay me 50 cents a head for bringing them to the boat," he said, "and I was mighty glad to get rid of the dudes. It made the stagecoach a lot lighter." The route across the Lake to Thumb was only about 15 miles by boat, and a lot longer and rougher by the road. "It was wonderful for the horses," recalled Del, "but a lot of people didn't want to go on the boat 'cause it cost an extra three dollars." Del thinks the good ship Zillah ran about 10 years. Then someone thought they would get rich quick and built a bigger one to hold 500 passengers [The EC Waters]. The built it all in front of the Lake Hotel but the park would never approve the passenger load and it was never licensed." The EC Waters With the increase of tourist trade by the early 1900s, the deteriorating Zillah, and fears of competition, E.C. Waters decided to expand his boat operations. Waters brought plans and materials for a 140’ by 30’ wooden hulled steamship to Yellowstone Lake in 1904. The new vessel, larger than Zillah, was constructed and launched at the Lake docks boathouse in 1905. Accounts vary on its size, but range from 125-140’ long and 25-30’ beam, capable of carrying 400-500 passengers. It was used part of the 1905 season, but the regulators, the U.S. Steamship Navigation Service, refused a permit for the 500-passenger capacity that Waters demanded. Consequently, it was supposedly never used again and sat beached on a protected cove on the east side of Stevenson Island for many years. The cove was thought safe from the winter lake ice, but in 1921, strong winds and the ice breakup pushed the boat up onto the beach. Some of the machinery was removed around 1926 and the boiler unit was used to help heat Lake Hotel for some 46 years. Reportedly some Lake area winterkeepers set fire to the aging craft in 1930. Some of the wreckage remains to this day. Left: Rare photo of the EC Waters under construction at Yellowstone Lake. [Author's Digital Collection] Right: Steamboats Zillah in front, EC Waters at rear. Note elk antlers atop the Zillah. [ Barkalow #6898 postcard, advertising Union Pacific RR] Steamer E.C. Waters on the lake. [Tanner Souvenir Co. postcard] Steamer E.C. Waters wreck at Stevenson Island. Note holes in hull, where equipment apparently been removed. Excerpts from an article in the Gardiner Wonderland , 21Sep1905 ​ THE NEW BOAT LAUNCHED Amid Stirring enthusiasm the New Boat “E.C. Waters” Was Launched on Monday Morning Upon Yellowstone Lake “The new boat, "E.C. Waters," was launched upon the beautiful Yellowstone Lake on Monday morning at exactly 8:45 o'clock after the reading of a short address by F.D. Geiger, editor of Wonderland, which had been previously prepared by the Hon. John T. Smith of Livingston. The new boat slipped from its moorings into the deep lake with great ease and comfort and looked perfectly at home upon the deep blue waters of the highest lake in the whole world . . . A crowd of about 300 people witnessed the launching of the new boat and all expressed themselves well pleased with their trip to the lake to witness and listen to the ceremonies at the launching of the greatest boat the northwest ever had. . . .The christening of the boat was done by Miss Edna Waters immediately after the conclusion of the launching ceremonies . . . At the word she smashed a large bottle of champagne over the bow of the new boat and sent it joyfully out into the deep blue water, at the same time giving it the name that will henceforth for ages to come revere the name of the man who has been the cause of its existence, and who will pass into history as one of the west's greatest promoters. In building the new boat Mr. Waters has placed into her hold the best machinery obtainable. He has built the new boat at the total cost of nearly $65,000, almost a fortune.” Curios from the Waters Boat Company The company sold a collection of curios in the office/store. Among those included decorative plates with scenes from the Lake. Two image designs are known of at this point in time = one of a man standing in the tres looking at the Zillah sailing on the lake. The other depicts a woman and man, perhaps E.C. Waters & his wife, fishing in the famous "Fishing Cone." There are various styles of plates, but the images seem to remain the same. Even an ash tray with the Fishing Cone was available. All had a trademark label on the bottom, to the effect of "Made in Germany for M.B. Waters, Yellowstone Park, Wyo." The Wheelock company was a United States distributer of decorative china, while the manufacturer was in Dresden. The "M.B." no doubt stands for "Martha Bustus" Waters, Ela's wife. Perhaps she was in charge of the curio department. ​ According to Thousand Islands Life website, "Wheelock was not the manufacturer of souvenir china, as some believe, but the importer. Because Germany and Austria had the raw material to produce high quality hard paste porcelain, those two countries were the major source of souvenir china. The procedure was as follows. The scenes or pictures were selected in the area where they were to be sold, usually from postcards. They were then sent to Europe for processing. The next step was to make a transfer print of the picture which was then applied to the china. Initially the pictures were black and white but later many were hand colored at factories. Eventually transfer prints were done in color eliminating the step of coloring by hand." ​ A search of internet auctions reveals Wheelock china made for H.E. Klamer's General Store and other businesses selling custom souvenir china in or around Yellowstone. The T.E. Hofer Boat Company Thomas Elwood "Billy" Hofer came out West in 1872, spending five years in the Black Hills and Colorado. He arrived in the Yellowstone area in 1877 and in 1878 began guiding and outfitting tourist and hunting parties. He and his brother built a 20’ sailboat called the Explorer in 1880. An ad in the Bozeman Avant-Courier (8/19/1880) described it as "strong and safe . . [with] A competent man in charge, who will, at all proper times, be ready to accommodate all who desire to take pleasure excursions." He and his brother (or cousin) also built a second boat as described in a previous section. One of Billy Hofer's boats at a dock, ca1908 [Campbell's Yellowstone Guide, 1909] In the intervening year, Billy Hofer concentrated on his guiding, hunting, photography and trapping skills. Seeing an opportunity after E.C. Waters was ingraciously escorted from Yellowstone, he received a 10-year lease on Nov. 12, 1907. He was permitted o operate up to 10 power launches and 50 rowboats and dories on Yellowstone Lake, mostly purchased from the Truscott Lake Boat Company of St. Joseph, Michigan. He formed the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. the following year, buying out the E.C. Waters operation. Articles of incorporation were filed in March of 1908, and included three directors: Hofer, W.A. Hall, and C.N. Sargent, businessmen from Gardiner . His company also operated the ferry service with the ‘Zillah’ from West Thumb to Lake Hotel. It has been said that his boats carried odd names with unknown origins such as: Busha, Etcedecasher, Ocotta, Lockpitsa, Espear, Esportutse, Wood Tuk Colle, Bedupa, and Sata. ​ He also provided fishing boats for hire to visitors, and operated a small store that sold or rented fishing tackle and gear, grain, hay, and other basic tourist supplies. Financing for the buyout of the E.C. Waters business and operation of the company was obtained from Harry Child of Yellowstone Park Association and the railroad companies. Hofer apparently was not a great businessman, and by 1910 the company was failing, despite carrying close to 6000 tourists on his launches that year. Sensing an opportunity, Child used his financial interests to squeeze Hofer out of business. Child took over Hofer's operation and created the Yellowstone Park Boat Company the following year. The park transportation system became motorized in 1917 and the new auto stages traversed the road from West Thumb to Lake Hotel quicker and more comfortably, making the ferry service unnecessary. Left Top : "Boat Landing Near Lake Hotel." Depiction of two of Hofer's motor launches for tours and fishing. [Haynes postcard No. 168, ca1910] Left Bottom : Glass slide of the Jean D tour boat, purchased ca1909. "The Jean D" This new gasoline launch was placed into service in 1909-1910 by Tom Hofer. The ship was twin-screw, 120hp and featured an enclosed hardtop rear deck with storm windows. The capacity was 150 passengers. It was the only one of the launches with an easy name - the others was blessed with obscure names. A brochure ca1912, stated that the Jean D. left Lake Hotel every morning at 8:30am, arriving at West Thumb at 10:30am. The return trip began at 1:00pm and docked at Lake Hotel at 3:00pm. Top Right : Jean D at West Thumb. [YNP #40348] Bottom Left : Newspaper article about Hofer's boat operation. [Evening Star, Wash. DC, 22Aug1909] Bottom Right : "The Steamer at the Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. [Stereo Travel Co. stereoview, ca1912] Brief Notes on Early Boat Captains Amos Shaw , was raised in Michigan and had sailed on the Great Lakes prior to his arrival in Montana in 1890. He supervised the construction of the Zillah at Lake and captained the ship from about 1891-1893. E.C. Waters, who also grew up in Michigan, is not known to have had any significant nautical experience prior to adventures at Yellowstone. John Hepburn was a captain of the Zillah from about 1891 to 1909. He homesteaded land south of Emigrant, Mt., and was a prominent rancher by 1921. He remained in Paradise Valley until his death in 1959. ​ Capt. Royal O. Bigford, of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin (no doubt a neighbor of sorts to Waters), reportedly was a captain for eight seasons with E.C. Waters, including the seasons 1906-07. He also captained his own boat the "Laura May " on Lake Winnebago (near Fond du Lac) and also another boat called the "O'kipoji." Bigford passed away in early March of 1939. The Zillah with Capt. Amos Shaw at the helm. The Shaw family was later involved with the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. [Montana Standard, Butte, 10Sep1972] At Livingston, the gateway to the Yellowstone Park, is found one of the prettiest western depots, and an incident transpired here which shows how small our country is and the surprises it has in store. It was the meeting with Captain Bigford. of Fond du Lac, and his crew of ten men who had just finished the season’s work in the park and were thus far on their trip to their homes in Fond du Lac and Oshkosh. Captain Bigford had charge of the steamers on the lake last season, and will probably occupy the same position the coming year. [The Gazette (Stevens Point, WI), Feb. 6, 1907] Yellowstone Park Boat Company This company was created by H.W. Child , Wm. Nichols , and E.C. Day on May 27, 1911 after taking over the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. in 1910. Child, as was his usual practice, obtained financing from the NW Improvement Co. (subsidiary of NPRR) to buy the operation. The new company was permitted to operate motor boats, power launches, rowboats and dories. Dock sites were obtained at Lake Hotel and West Thumb, along with a 10-year lease in 1913. They operated the ferry until 1917 when the motorized bus fleet made the ferry unnecessary and unprofitable. The Zillah was dry-docked until 1926 when it was stripped and sold for salvage. A boathouse was built in 1928 just below the Fishing Bridge for canoe,rowboat and tackle rentals. The following year a 25' Cris-Craft Runabout was purchased. Wm. Nichols became head of the firm in 1931 upon the death of Harry Child. The company continued to offer sightseeing trips and in the 1920’s added speedboats for hire and provided trips to Stevenson Island for fish fries. The speedboats Adelaide , Adelaide II, and Marion were placed in service in the early 1930s and carried about 11 passengers. However, the Adelaide suffered an engine explosion in August 1937. Luckily no one was injured and the boat managed to limp back the 200’ to the shore. Deemed not salvageable, she was sunk in the lake in September. Other boats were acquired during this era, but documentation is scant. The YP Boat Co. operated until 1936 when it was merged into the Yellowstone Park Co. Other boats were acquired during this era, but documentation is scant. Right Top : One of the Adelaide speedboats. There were at least two Adelaide boats in the 1920-1930s. YNP #8743] Right Bottom : Another of the Adelaide speedboats. [YNP #124208] From a 1936 National Park Service brochure: “Speed boats, launches, rowboats, and fishing tackle may be rented from the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. Launches, including the use of fishing tackle, cost $3.50 an hour. Half-hour speed-boat trips on Yellowstone Lake will be made for $1 a person. You can rent a rod, reel, and landing net for 50 cents a day. A boat trip, including fishing and fish fry at Stevenson Island, is a popular feature.” ​ Three Cris-Craft boats were purchased in 1938 - 19’ and 25’ Runabout speedboats, and a 37’ partly-enclosed Cruiser. The Osprey, a 30’ Cris-Craft Seaskiff with twin 230hp Mercury inboard engines was launched in 1957. The Miss Yellowstone , a 30’ Inland Laker was acquired in 1967. The following year the Lake Queen set sail, a 46-passenger boat that was claimed to be the largest boat on the lake since the E.C. Waters . TWA Services (who took over the YP Co.) acquired the Anna in 1982 , a 35’ Holiday Mansions Super Barracuda. It was a houseboat that could sleep 8-10 people. In 1989 the Osprey , Miss Yellowstone , and Anna were put on the auction block and sold. The Lake Queen II was purchased in 1994 from Munson Manufacturing Co. It could seat 49 passengers and was powered by three Mercruiser Bravo 7.3L I/O engines. ​ For Additional information on the early boats in Yellowstone, see the "Yellowstone Lake Submerged Resources Survey" Left: Fishing Bridge and the Boat House to the left, with floating dock and canoe/rowboat & tackle rentals, ca1937. Built in 1935, it replaced an earlier structure. [Haynes postcard #37763] Center : Boat House at West Thumb, 1951. [YNP #51-423] Right : Boat House at the lake in front of Lake Hotel, ca1953. [Haynes postcard 53K393 Left : The Lake Queen in 1987. [Jackson Hole Courier, 26Aug1987] Bottom : The Lake Queen II, undated [YNP Jim Peaco photo]

  • Fountain Hotel |

    Hotels in the Yellowstone Fountain Hotel - 1891-1916 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Fountain Hotel, from a double-oval postcard by FJ Haynes. Construction of the Fountain Hotel began in 1889 by the Yellowstone Park Association on a small rise on Fountain Flats, close to the Fountain Paint Pots, facing Fountain geyser. It has sometimes been called the Fountain Geyser Hotel. It replaced the old Firehole Hotel, located nearby at the junction of Nez Perce Creek and the Firehole River, which was abandoned in June. It became the first overnight stop for travelers from both the north and later the west entrances of Yellowstone. The Fountain Hotel opened in 1891, the same summer YPA opened a new hotel on the shores of Lake Yellowstone. The structure cost $100,000 and featured electric lights, steam heat, and piped in hot water from a nearby hot spring. Capacity was 350 guests and the interior walls were calcimined with material from the paint pots. Eventually the exterior was painted yellow. The park hotel association now had three 1st class hotels in the park to serve park visitors - the National Hotel at Mammoth and Lake Hotel. Reau Campbell, in his Campbell’s Complete Guide to Yellowstone, 1909, describes the Fountain Hotel: “There are electric lights and steam heat, with the cheerful accessory of a log fireplace in the lobby. The house is three stories, with rooms light, cheery and well ventilated. The dining-room is particularly a cheerful one. It has been said that the walls of the rooms were tinted with material taken from the Paint Pots, and from their soft colors we may believe it. The fine sulphur baths of the Fountain are in grateful remembrance of all who have had the good fortune to enjoy them; the water comes from one of the hot springs near the Paint Pots at an elevation sufficient to send the water to the bathrooms on the second floor of the hotel.” The Fountain Hotel.—This elegant and modernly constructed hotel, is pleasantly situated on the east side of the valley, commanding an extended view of the surroundings. Its appointments are tirst class throughout, electric light, steam heat, and the only hotel in the Park having natural hot water baths. It is the first hotel reached by visitors entering the Park from the west. The adjacent streams are stocked with “Loch Leven” and “Eastern brook” trout, and with the many natural curiosities in this vicinity one can profitably spend several days at the “Fountain.” [Haynes Guide, 1898] Map of the Lower Geyser Basin. From Campbells Guide to Yellowstone, 1909 The Fountain Hotel, No. 115. Published by Haynes-Photo in 1908. In the mid-late 1800, "Taking the Waters" was a popular past-time for folks who believed the mineral hot spring waters were a restorative to body and mind. The water that was piped into the Fountain Hotel was also believed by many to have these properties. If you look closely at the photo at left (click to enlarge), one can see the pipeline (center) that ran from Leather Pool to the hotel. The 1905 YPA brochure claimed, ​ "Here also one may obtain the privilege of bathing in the naturally heated waters of Mother Earth, for the baths at the Fountain Hotel are supplied from a pool of hot sulphur water nearby. These baths will be found extremely refreshing and invigorating, and Doctor Howard Mummery, F. R. S., of London, gave it as his opinion that the hot water that supplies the baths at the Fountain Hotel contains properties that will most effectually act as a remedial agent in case of kidney complaints. Bright’s disease and all kindred ailments. These baths should be continued for one or more weeks to obtain the full benefit of their medicinal value." Top: Rare view/sketch of the lobby of the Fountain Hotel. YNP Scrapbook] Bottom: Front of hotel with stagecoaches. Los Angeles Co. Museum, SCWHR-P-002-2498 Top: Fountain Hotel with Coach [YNP Archives #147588)] Bottom: Rare view of the back side of the hotel. [YNP #20129827] The Bears of Yellowstone ​ One of the popular features of Yellowstone National Park was the legion of bears. Early on, bears were attracted to the hotel dumps at all the park hotels, Mammoth excepted. The first "bear shows" originated at the Fountain Hotel garbage dump, perhaps a 100 yards in the woods behind the hotel. According to a 1904 Yellowstone Park Asso. brochure, this iconic bear photo, "was made by the young son of a former manager of the Fountain Hotel." The manager is believed to be Ellis J. Westlake, who served from 1896 through 1900. His son's name was John, who would have been 16-20 years of age during that time. At some point the "Association" and YP Transportation Co. (both were partly controlled by Hary Child in 1901), began using the photo for the bear-in-Circles logo. The original photo showed the bear standing amidst a plethora old tin cans, but they were eventually "photoshopped' to look like cut logs. F.Jay Haynes published the postcard shown below in 1908, and also in latter years. From Our Friends, the Bears, by James E. Tower, Good Housekeeping, 1901 ​ “At the Fountain Geyser hotel the black bears allow the Kodak fiend to get within thirty or forty feet of them, while feeding. I saw seven bears there in a group, including a mother and two cubs. Not even the rattling of the stage and the sound of human voices prevented a large black bear from coming in full view of a stage load of us, in the woods near the Grand canyon. The expression on a black bear’s face when a snap-shot intruder creeps to within thirty or forty feet, is a study. He gives the visitor a side glance, munching the while on his food, as much as to say: "Well, I guess you’re harmless: this piece of meat is too good to leave, and there wouldn’t be a thing left of you, anyway, if you should get too fresh and compel me to make trouble.” Dooley, a silver-tip cub tied to a tree at the Grand canyon hotel, was so wroth because I snapped my camera at him that he "had it in for me,” as the boys say, the rest of the day: glaring at me, turning his back when he thought I was trying to photograph him. He snapped at visitors - quite pardonably. He was to return to the woods and his mamma in the fall, for silver-tips cannot be tamed, it is said.” Bears feeding at an unknown park dump, tourist nearby, ca1910. [Museum of the Rockies, MOR #92-41-2 From: Book of a Hundred Bears , Frederick Dumont Smith, Rand McNally, 1909 ​ And here we saw our first bears. All the Park hotels have a garbage pile, where the refuse from the kitchen is dumped once a day, and here the bears come from the woods for meals “a la cart(e).” The garbage place at the Fountain is some distance from the hotel, and that summer a particularly ugly old she-grizzly and two cubs had taken possession of it, and it was considered unsafe to go near them. Two of the soldier guards stand there with their riHcs anti heavy service revolvers to keep us from approaching too closely and to guard against the bears. This reassures us. We know they are wild bears; that there is no hippodrome about it. Your first sight of a real wild bear there in his native woods gives you just a little thrill. It is not like a caged or menagerie bear. You realize that there are possibilities of danger and when, just at dusk, they came galloping down the hill—three of them, a mother and two half-grown cubs—it was an event. The mother was very suspicious and, when she stood up to sniff for danger, she looked as big as the side of a house. PIPER IS LOST IN THE PARK Missing From the Fountain Hotel Since Monday Night He Mysteriously Disappeared THOUGHT TO BE INSANE Not a Trace of Him Can Be Found and It Is Feared That He Has Fallen Into Some of the Many Bottomless Holes. All Hope of His Rescue Given Up A Squad of Cavalry Has Been Tirelessly at Work on the Search. Special Dispatch to the Standard. - Livingston, August 2, 1900 Another day has gone by and still there has been found no trace of J.R. Piper, [L. R. Piper] the man who wandered away from the Fountain Hotel in the national park last Monday evening. Searching parties, consisting of soldiers, stage drivers, hotel employees and tourists, have scoured the country in the vicinity of the Fountain hotel since Tuesday morning, but they have been able to discover no trace of the missing man. It seems as if the earth had opened and swallowed him, and, indeed, it is not unlikely that he has stumbled blindly into one of the many pools or bottomless cauldrons of seething mud that are so numerous in the Midway geyser basin. So read the headline of Montana’s Anaconda Standard newspaper of August 3rd, 1900 - a Yellowstone mystery that has never been solved. No trace of Piper’s body was ever found and nothing was ever heard of him again. Leroy Piper was a mild-mannered bank cashier at a bank in St. Mary's, Ohio. Piper's "rich uncle" had died the previous year in California, and Piper was on his way west to help straighten out affairs, and hopefully collect his inheritance. Riding a Union Pacific train, he and a few friends stopped at Salt Lake City to make a side trip to Yellowstone Park. They rolled into Yellowstone Station at the west entrance and proceeded to Fountain Hotel for the first night. On the evening of July 30, 1900, Piper wandered downstairs to the dining room. He ate a leisurely dinner, purchased a cigar from the lobby newsstand and stepped into the night to enjoy a pleasant smoke and fresh mountain air on a peaceful evening . . . . . . and disappeared into the mists of time - never to be seen again, and nary a trace of him was ever found. Still a Yellowstone Mystery to this day. The Man Who Wandered Away:- A Yellowstone Mystery, an article by this author, is a vailable in "Annals of Wyoming " Autumn 2008, Vol. 80, No.4 Left: Fountain Hotel in 1896, Keystone-Mast photo Right: Touring car with Fountain Hotel in background, undated. Prior to the opening of the Old Faithful Inn in 1904, guests often stayed two nights at the Fountain with a day trip to Old Faithful in between. After the Inn opened, the stay was only for one night. With the advent of the motorized bus fleet in 1917, travel times were shortened considerably and the trip from Mammoth or West Yellowstone to Old Faithful could be made in a single day, eliminating the need for facilities at Fountain. The hotel closed after 1916, a mere 25 years of operation. It stood empty and deserted for over 10 years when permission was received to tear it down. It vanished into the past in 1928. Today, little remains of the old hotel - a few crumbled concrete foundation walls, water pipe fragments, concrete supports for the old generator cabin, remains of the old bear dump with sparkling pieces of old glass, pottery, and rusted cans. Left: Article about objects found during the demo of the hotel in 1928. [Star Tribune, Minneapolis, Mn., 17Aug1928] Right: Photo of the foundation supports for the old generator house. Photo by author 2005 SLY MOUSE GHOST OF PARK HOTEL The Davenport Iowa Democrat and Leader, June 13, 1928 Yellowstone Park, Wyo - (AP) At six o'clock of every cold, raw, winter evening a bell in room 203 of the Fountain Hotel would ring. Every night at six o'clock a frightened, but conscientious caretaker made his cautious way to room 203, only to find it empty. Finally even the caretaker's earnestness could not stand the spectral twilight calls, and he fled the hotel in the company of a park photographer. The old hotel was remodeled the next spring, and the workers found that a mouse had made its nest in the wall of room 203 over the wire leading to the bell. It had nibbled off the insulation as that every time it touched it the bell rang. The regularity of the ghostly rings testify to the excellent character of the rodent. Even this explanation has not entirely put down the evil reputation of the hotel, and native, park rangers and general park employees have held for 20 years to their belief in the "haunt." Demolition of the building this spring, however, is expected to lay the ghost forever.

  • Geyser Bob - Stage Driver |

    Robert Edgar - Stage Driver The "Real" Geyser Bob ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my Geyser Bob Page that has been saved at ​ Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Yellowstone Bios I-J-K-L |

    Yellowstone Biographies I - J - K - L ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Ingersol, Truman Ward. T.W. Ingersoll was one of the most important photographers and producer of stereoviews in Yellowstone National Park. He also published over 4000 different US and world-view stereos. His views produced in the 1880’s were of the highest quality. There were four different series featuring Yellowstone views during that time. He attempted to compete with larger commercial stereoview publishers such as Underwood & Underwood and the Keystone View Company with lower quality copy views. Buyers however, were not fooled and sales suffered. Between the years 1905-10 he produced three higher quality new black & white stereoview series, under the names Ingersoll View Company and High Grade Original Views. Ingersoll also sold the right to some of his views to other publishers such as Sears Roebuck & Co. and the American Novelty Company. He later sold the commercial part of his St. Paul photography business to Buckbee Mears Company. After his death June 9, 1922 in St. Paul, his negatives passed on to the Keystone View Company. Today they are part of the Keystone Mast Collection at the University of California at Riverside. Ingersoll was born February 19, 1862 in St. Paul and had studios under the names of Zimmerman & Ingersoll, Ingersoll View Company, and Juul-Ingersoll Company. In 1883 Ingersoll accompanied a man named Brooks from Connecticut who built a boat in Livingston, Montana and attempted to make a 4,000 mile river voyage to Louisiana. It is not currently known if either man completed the voyage. [Helena Independent; 9/22/1883] [The Yellowstone Stereoview Page] [Minnesota Historical Society Website - Directory of Minnesota Photographers] Jackson, David. David Jackson was an early fur trapper and co-owner of the Rocky Mountain Fur Co. in 1826. Jackson's Hole and the town of Jackson, Wyoming were named after him. Jackson was born in 1788 to parents Edward and Elizabeth Jackson in Randolph County in what is now West Virginia. He spent his early life in the wilds west of the Shenandoah Mountains. Jackson died in 1837 at age 49. [25L;57] [Wikipedia] Jackson, George J. George Jackson received a permit to operate a stage station in 1882 at Soda Butte and shared the homestead with Jim Cutler. Supt. Conger gave George verbal permission to live on Rose Creek (current Buffalo Ranch) in 1882. However, Supt. Carpenter kicked them, along with other squatters in the area, out of the park in the fall of 1884. The site became the location of the Buffalo Ranch in 1907. [113] [30] Jackson, William Henry. William Henry Jackson (W.H. Jackson) was born in Keeseville, New York in 1843, he became a self-taught artist. He later moved to Vermont and enlisted for the Civil War in 1860. While present at the Battle of Gettysburg, he saw no action. He went west in 1866 and was photographing the progress of the UPRR in 1869 when he met Ferdinand Hayden. Hayden asked Jackson to accompany him in 1871 on his expedition to Yellowstone. Jackson took most of the first photographs of the park that were used in the effort to convince Congress to set aside Yellowstone as a park. Photographer Joshua Crissman of Bozeman accompanied Jackson on this trip, and the two took many pictures side by side. Crissman actually had his negatives printed and viewed first, but he never received the acclaim that Jackson did. Jackson also accompanied the Hayden expeditions of 1872 and 1878. In 1879 he moved to Denver and opened a new photographic studio and founded the Jackson Photo Co. He joined the Detroit Publishing Co. in 1897 and assigned his stock of negatives to them in exchange for cash and company stock. Detroit began publishing Private Mailing Cards (predecessor of post cards) with Jackson’s Yellowstone images in 1898-99. He worked for them until 1924 when the company went out of business. Jackson died on June 30, 1942 at age 99 and has been credited with producing over 54,000 negatives. [25g] [79u;Jackson] [119b] Jump, William ‘Billy’ . Billy Jump opened a mail station in Harry Yount’s old cabin at Soda Butte in 1883. He had received permission to do so by Supt. Conger in the spring of 1882. In 1884, Jump, George Jackson, Jim Cutler, and other squatters in the area were asked to leave the park by park authorities. The buildings were reportedly burned. Jump moved to Jackson Hole for a time, but at least by 1899 he was tending bar at the Pisor Saloon in Horr. One of his customers was Calamity Jane. By 1902 he was married with two sons, Bill and Tom. Jump also tended bar in Jardine and did carpenter work, assisting with the construction of the officer's frame houses at Mammoth. [106d] [114] [71c] Kammermeyer, Fred E. F.E. Kammermeyer was Transportation Superintendent for H.W. Child and the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) from 1917 to the 1940’s. He had been a military transport officer during WWI and was hired by Child to set up and organize the operation of the new fleet of 117 White Motor Co. buses in 1917. These buses replaced the stagecoaches that had been used up until that year. He retired Sept. 30, 1948 as Manager of Transportation Div., Yellowstone Park Co. Fred E. Kammermeyer was born June 30, 1888 in Burlington, Iowa to parents Fred Christian Kammermeyer and Lidia Wilhelmina Tillman. Sometime after 1920 Fred married Evelyn Johnson, born 1888 in Ohio. In the fall of 1924 Fred was an Engineering Extension Student with the University of Wisconsin. In a letter to the college Extension Division, Fred commented upon his employment in Yellowstone that summer: “We handled nearly 150,000 tourists this season, and I supervise six garages and 322 busses and trucks with all the grief that goes with it; so you can readily understand that I could not give study any concentrated thought – much less time – as I put in about 18 hours a day trying to keep up with the problems.” The Polk Guides list Fred’s residence as Livingston in 1943, Billings, 1944, and Bozeman in 1950. According to the Allday family website, Fred died of a gunshot wound to the head on December 21, 1967 at Sun City, Arizona. He was buried in the Sunland Cemetery. Evelyn died March 20, 1969 in Glendale, Arizona. [39-49] [25g] Karst, Pete. Pete Karst founded Karst Stage in 1902 to haul freight and loggers from Bozeman to a logging camp on Taylor Creek in the Gallatin Canyon area. In 1908 he built the Karst Stage Stop Inn about 35 miles south of Bozeman, Montana. It became the first ‘dude ranch’ in the canyon and transported mail, freight, and passengers from Bozeman and surrounding areas to his ranch. He also operated tours in Yellowstone. He motorized his fleet in 1917 when stagecoaches were no longer allowed on park roads. He established the Gallatin Canyon Bus Line in 1924. “Gail’s Golden Guide of the Beartooth Mountains” of 1935 lists Karst’s Kamp as having guest cabins, coffee shop, general store, garage, indoor plunge, and orchestras playing on Saturday nights. Karst sold the business in the early 1950’s and although the dude ranch is no longer in business, Karst Stage, Inc. still operates and provides bus service to the western US and Canada. [25g] [Karst Stage website] Kayser, Albert. Albert Kayser was the owner of the German language newspaper “Oakland Journal” and began issuing postcards, then known as ‘mailing cards’, with mostly California views. One card printed in 1897 featured eight different Yellowstone images on it that appeared to be F.J. Haynes photos. It is suspected that he did not have Haynes’ permission for the images. This card is believed to be the 1st known postcard using Yellowstone images. In 1898 Kayser sold his business and Edward H. Mitchell, a San Francisco publisher of western-image postcards, acquired the postcard portion. Mitchell reissued the Yellowstone card in 1898. [97;Vol.2;No.3,Michael Bodell] Keeney, Elias Joseph. Joe Keeney was a miner and long-time pioneer in the Yellowstone-Cooke City-Boulder country. He was born Aug. 22, 1847 in Linn Co, Oregon Territory. His father, Jonathan Keeney, was a trapper with William Sublette, Kit Carson and Jim Bridger in the Yellowstone, Snake and Columbia River drainages. Joe came to Montana in 1875 with a herd of wild horses and ended up in the Gallatin Valley. Because he did not have a bill of sale for the horses, he was suspected of being a horse thief. Attracting the attention of the Vigilantes, he soon left town. In 1877 he became the first man to locate mining claims on the Boulder River in the Independence area. He also owned land with George Huston that became the townsite of Cinnabar. Joe operated a hotel, restaurant and saloon in Cinnabar for a time. He filed numerous claims in the Cooke City and Clark's Fork area in the 1880's. Keeney was an assistant superintendent in the park around 1882, but got into political trouble when he tried to arrest a judge for leaving a campfire burning. His diligence ended up getting him fired. He died Sept. 25, 1938 at the age of 91 in Livingston Mt. [Thanks to Joe's great-grandson Greg Keeney for this information] Killion, R.T. R.T. Killion owned the Yellowstone Park Ice Co., which was incorporated January 26, 1959 to operate ice plants and ice vending machines in the park. He subcontracted to Yellowstone Park Co. to operate the ice plant and ice vending machines at Fishing Bridge, Lake, West Thumb, Old Faithful, Mammoth, and Canyon. [25L;60] Kingman, Lt. Daniel. Lt. Dan Kingman was with the Army Corps of Engineers when they arrived in Yellowstone in August of 1883. Kingman was placed in charge and was responsible for the design, planning, and construction of the basic park road system until 1887. He was responsible for the basic figure-8 design that is still used today. He designed and built the wooden trestle and road through the Golden Gate Canyon in 1883 that bypassed the steep and harrowing Snow Pass road. The next two years he rerouted the Gardiner to Mammoth ‘high road’ to the route currently used along the Gardiner River. He left the park as a Captain. He had a boat called the U.S. Pinafore, which was test run on Swan Lake in 1885. Kingman retired from army service in 1916 as a brigadier general, and died in November of that year. [25L;60] For a detailed history of the Yellowstone Park road system, visit this NPS Road History website. Klamer, Henry Ernst. Henry Klamer was born in 1858 in Kahoka, Clark Co. Missouri, he moved west at least by the early 1880’s. He was a member of the road crew in the park under Supt. Norris in 1881. He applied to be an Asst. Park Superintendent in 1882, but was passed over for the position. When George G. Henderson assumed control of the Marshall Hotel in 1885, he brought Klamer into the deal with him. They built cottages, a new store, and renamed it the Firehole Hotel. The Cottage Hotel Association, run by the Henderson family in Mammoth, may have taken over the operation in 1886. The Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) came into possession of the property sometime in 1886, by unknown means. Klamer managed the park beef herd for John Harvat in 1890 and the next year received the beef contract to supply the hotels and camps in the park himself. He brought the herd into the park in the spring, pasturing them on Swan Lake Flats, with the slaughterhouse near Indian Creek. This business continued through the 1890’s until Van Dyke & Deever of Gardiner took over the contract in 1901. Klamer married Mary Henderson, daughter of G.L. Henderson in 1892, and in 1897 they established the H.E. Klamer general store at Old Faithful. They were granted a 10-year lease and 2 acres of land to operate the business. The original building was a rather plain, frame-style 2-story building. General merchandise, tourist supplies, Indian goods, and curios were sold and a post office was also located in the store for a short period of time. In 1899 they received permission to establish bathing facilities for the tourists. The distinctive rustic portion of the store facing Old Faithful was added in 1903-04 and featured 20-inch diameter upright logs for porch supports. It was around that time that the log braces were installed around the eaves of the roof, adding to the rustic character. They expanded the store with a 16’ addition in 1913-14, but Henry died that last year on August 12. Mary and her brother Walter Henderson operated the business until 1915 when she sold it to Charles Hamilton, who received financing from Harry Child. Huntley Child, Harry’s son, had an opportunity to buy the business, but turned it down. Hamilton built a large addition in 1923-24 and the store continues to do a booming business. As of 2003, the Hamilton stores came under the ownership of the Delaware North Parks Co. [25k] For additional information, please visit my Klamer General Store page. Klamer, Mary. Mary Klamer, nee Mary Rosetta Henderson, wife of Henry Klamer. (See ‘Henderson, Mary’) Knowles, John S. John Knowles came to Montana in 1876 and worked a claim at Emigrant Gulch. By 1882 he began mining on Crevice Creek, which feeds into the Yellowstone River near the North Entrance to the park, and built his cabin there around 1898. He was told to move out when it was discovered his cabin was within the park boundaries. In a letter to the park superintendent in 1899, Knowles claimed he built his cabins before the park was established and had occupied them since 1880. However, since the park was formed before he even came to Montana, he obviously exaggerated those time periods in order to claim legitimacy for his holdings, as he was trying to sell them to the government. He listed 18’ x 20’ and 12’ x 16’ houses, a 16’ x 18’ cabin, a stable and shed. He was asking $200 for the lot of them, which were located near the mouth of Crevice Creek. [113] [YNP Army Files Doc.2631] LaDuke, Julius J. (Jules). Julius J. LaDuke (originally spelled LeDuc) and his family built the LaDuke Hot Springs resort in 1902. Located a few miles north of Gardiner along the Yellowstone River, it was the site of a small resort with hot springs soaking and bathing facilities. The river was crossed by means of a boat and later cable ferry and swinging bridge. The business only lasted until around 1908 when they could no longer compete with the nearby Corwin Springs Hotel and the family moved to Livingston. Water rights to LaDuke Hot Springs were transferred to the new company at Corwin Hot Springs and a ditch was dug to supply the hotel and plunge. Sons Julius and Albert LaDuke had previously moved to the Aldridge area by 1907 and operated the tramway between Aldridge and Horr. Julius LaDuke Sr. owned business properties in Livingston that included the Bucket of Blood saloon and the LaDuke Pool Hall. Ugly divorce proceedings in 1914 caused Julius to lose his residence and most of his business properties. Eventually becoming a broken man, Julius died in the Livingston Poor House December 8, 1927 and was buried in the Livingston Mountain View Cemetery. [Goss, Taking the Cure at LaDuke Hot Springs] Click Here for detailed history of La Duke Hot Springs Langford, Nathaniel Pitt N.P Langford was a member of the Washburn Expedition of 1870. He helped promote the idea of preserving Yellowstone as a public park (under sponsorship of the Northern Pacific RR) with a series of tours and lectures. While accompanying the Hayden Expedition of 1872, he claimed to have scaled the Grand Teton with James Stevenson. He was the 1st superintendent of the park in 1872, but served his five years without pay and spent little time actually in the park. [25L;64] Larkin, G.A. The Yellowstone Park Fuel Co. was organized in 1929 by Jack Haynes to supply firewood to the auto campgrounds and housekeeping cabins. He owned 41 shares and G.A. Larkin owned 15 shares and acted as president. E. M. Allen had 1 share and was secretary. The business incorporated in Minnesota on April 18 and operated under yearly permits. In 1934 Haynes sold his shares to Larkin who then had 55 shares. Mrs. Larkin became secretary with one share and Mrs. Vernon Goodwin owned the other share. [25L;64] Lindsley, Chester A. Chester Lindsley began service in the park as a civilian clerk for the Interior department in 1894, holding that position until 1916. On October 16, 1916 he was appointed as Acting Supt of the park and served until 1919 when the transition between the Army and Park Service rule ended. Horace Albright became park superintendent and Lindsley served as his assistant until 1922. He served as Postmaster at Mammoth from 5/21/1922 to 11/24/1935. He died in Livingston on Nov. 24, 1938 at age 66. Lindsley was born around 1872 in New York to parents who were natives of that state. He was married to Maude B. Lindsley who was also a native of New York. They had one daughter named Marguerite Lindsley who was born around 1902 in Wyoming. Nicknamed "Peg", she became the first female naturalist in the National Park Service. [US Census 1920 & 1930, Wyoming] [39-49; p.163] Link, Lawrence. Lawrence (Larry) Link came to Montana from his father’s farm in Wisconsin to work on the Northern Pacific RR’s new tunnel on the Bozeman Pass. With the advent of the Park Branch Line to Cinnabar in 1883 he established a freighting and contracting business with 6-horse teams to furnish supplies to Ft. Yellowstone and later to Cooke City. By 1892 he was operating a saloon in Cinnabar with a combination pool and billiard table. He married Florence Bigelow in Nov. of 1893. Knowing that the NPPR line would eventually be extended to Gardiner, he purchased property in town. He built the stone house on E. Main St., next to the VanDyke house on the corner in 1903. The following year he supervised the construction of the stone community Union Church on the street behind the W.A. Hall store. Link, Hall, Holem, Scott, and LH Van Dyck were all active in the fundraising and building of the church. Link was also in the fuel business, acted as secretary/treasurer of the VanDyck meat packing company, and was manager of the Gardiner Electric Light & Water Co. He served as a County Commissioner from 1906-1908. He was instrumental in the formation of the Gardiner Opera House (Eagles Hall), the Eagles Lodge, and the fire department. Around 1914 he and Frank Holem built a second story addition to the stone school house. He died of a heart attack on Oct. 8, 1918 at about 54 years of age, after a bout of influenza. He was a member of both the Livingston and Gardiner Elks Club. [LE;6/4/1892] [L. Link bio, YNP Vert. Files, Biography] Lowe, Herrick. Herrick Lowe was the son-in-law of Wm. Nichols and was added to the Board of Directors of Yellowstone Park Co. in 1959. He became Chairman of the Board and president of the firm in 1962. [25L;65] Ludlow, William. Capt. William Ludlow, a career engineer in the military, was chief engineer of the Department of Dakota and lead a scientific expedition to Yellowstone in 1875 that included George Bird Grinnell and "Lonesome Charley" Reynolds, who was guide and hunter for the expedition. He was ordered to make a "Reconnaissance from Carroll, Montana, on the Upper Missouri, to the Yellowstone Park and Return." He later authored "Exploration of the Black Hills and Yellowstone Country." Ludlow was born November 27, 1843 to William H. and Frances L. (Nicoll) Ludlow on Long Island, New York. He attended colleges in New Jersey and New York, graduated West Point in June of 1864, and served in the Civil War 1864-65. He oversaw numerous civil and military engineering projects during his life and from 1888-93 was military attaché to the US embassy in London, and military governor of Havana from 1898-1900. He achieved the rank of brigadier-general in 1900. [Richard Bartlett, A Wilderness Besieged; Who's Who in America, 1902] Lyall, Alexander. Alexander Lyall was born June 24, 1861 of Scottish parents. Lyall constructed Jennie’s Ash’s new store and post office at Mammoth in 1895-96. He married Jennie’s sister Barbara Henderson in 1898. He operated a contracting business and worked on several of the government buildings at Mammoth. Alexander went into business with Jennie and became Postmaster at the store in 1906. In 1908 Jennie transferred ownership of the business to her brother Walter Henderson and Alexander, who operated it until 1913 under the name of Lyall & Henderson. They sold the store and post office business to George Whittaker in 1913. The building is the former Hamilton’s store. After the sale Lyall moved to his residence in San Diego with his family. [25j] [1900 Federal Census, YNP] Click Here for my web history of the Henderson-Ash store at Mammoth. Lycan, Alfred. Alfred Lycan operated the Lycan Camping Co. in the park for most or all of the years between 1895 and 1913. For more information check out my web page on the Smaller Camps.

  • Henry Klamer |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Henry Klamer at Old Faithful Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Klamer's Early Days and the Firehole Hotel . . . Henry Klamer became the 2nd general store owner in Yellowstone when he began operation of a general store at Old Faithful in 1897. This was just a year after his sister-in-law Jennie Henderson Ash opened her new store at Mammoth. By the time Henry opened his store he was already a seasoned Yellowstone veteran, having worked in and around the park for at least 16 years. He is known to have been a member of the government road crew under Supt. Philetus Norris as early as 1881. In 1885 he entered into a partnership with G.G. Henderson to operate the Firehole Hotel at Fountain Flats. The hotel was built by George Marshall in 1884 and replaced a structure built in 1880 known simply as Marshall's Hotel. In 1886 Henderson gave up his interest in the hotel and in a complicated set of transactions, the hotel became part owned by The Cottage Hotel Association, and eventually passed into the hands of the Yellowstone Park Association. Marshall's / Firehole Hotel, early 1880s T.W. Ingersoll Stereoview ​ Tour Guiding and Supplying Beef to the Hotels . . . Sometime after Klamer left the Firehole Hotel, he went to work for George L. (G.L.) Henderson and the Cottage Hotel Asso. as a Tour Guide and Driver. The Cottage Hotel opened at Mammoth in December 1885 by the Henderson family and Klamer joined G.L.'s four daughters and one son in the operation of the touring and hotel business. Although the business seemed to be successful, the Henderson's were forced to sell out to YPA in 1889, which had been fighting to gain a monopoly on the park's hotel business. Klamer went to work for John Harvat in 1890, the contractor who supplied beef to the park hotels. The following year Klamer received the beef contract and managed that business for about 10 years. In 1892 Henry Klamer married Mary Henderson, daughter of GL Henderson. Beef corrals and slaughter house on Indian Creek. Henry Klamer general store at Old Faithful Left: YNP #7933C - Right: YNP #02804 Opening of the Second general Store in Yellowstone . . . ​ Klamer received a lease from the Dept of Interior for 2 acres of land near the Old Faithful Geyser in 1896 and began construction of his new general store in the spring of 1897. The building was 20' x 30' in size, with two stories, and very plain looking. The store opened in late June and began serving tourists to the area. He later received a contract to operate the Post Office at his store. The store sold general tourist supplies, curios, groceries, periodicals, books, tobaccos, agate curios, precious stones and later on a wide variety of Indian goods and crafts. A 25' x 40' addition was erected in 1902-03 The business did well and in 1904 the Old Faithful Inn opened up nearby, no doubt greatly increasing his business. Around that time the store was remodeled with the outside sporting knotted and gnarled pine posts, resulting in very nice, rustic effect, similar to the décor of the Inn. A 16' extension was added in 1913-14 Klamer ad, from Wonderland newspaper 3July1903 Left Top : Klamer general store at Old Faithful, Castle geyser in background. Detroit PC12542 Left Bottom : Interior Klamer Store. Detroit PC 12541 Right Top : Klamer general store at Old Faithful, 1912 Right Bottom: H.E. Klamer wooden sign at side of store facing OF Inn, 1913 Bad Times and the Transition to Charles Hamilton . . . Midway through the season of 1914, Henry Klamer died, leaving his wife Mary to take care of the business. Overwhelved by Henry's death and the vast responsibilities of running the business, she called for her brother Walter Henderson to help out. Walter had operated the Mammoth general store for five years with Alexander Lyall and took over as the Manager of the Old Faithful store. With her husband gone and the rest of her family living in Southern California, Mary decided it was time to leave the business and return to family. The following year negotiations began with Charles Hamilton to buy the store. Hamilton was a clerk for the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co., headed by Harry Child. With financial backing from Child, Hamilton made a $5,000 down payment to Mary and carried a note for about $15,000 for the store. Interior approved the deal and 10-year lease was issued to Hamilton on June 15, 1915. Charles Hamilton later expanded the building and his family operated this store until 2002, along with general stores at other locations. On January 1, 2003, Delaware North Co., through a completive bidding process, obtained the general store contract in Yellowstone and operates all the stores in the park. The business is known as 'Yellowstone General Stores'. The legacy of Henry Klamer though, still lives on at Old Faithful. Map of Old Faithful area showing Klamer's Store, OF Inn, and Haynes Photo Studio, ca1909. ​ From Campbell's New Revised Complete Guide of Yellowstone Park, 1909, Published by H.E. Klamer. View my Hamilton Stores page to continue this story . . .

  • Holm Camping Co. |

    Camping in the Yellowstone "Tex" Holm's Camping & Transportation Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Beginnings of the Holm Camping Tours Aron Holm was born in Sweden in 1870, but moved with his family to America in 1883, settling in Nebraska. Aron reportedly traveled around the West, working horses in Texas, joining the Alaska gold rush, and prospecting for gold in the Black Hills of Dakota Territory. There he met, and married, Susan Katharine Powers in 1897, who had previously been twice married. They later moved to Cody to join his father John, who had moved to what would become Park County, Wyo. in 1898, and had taken up work as a carpenter. Prior to the unofficial opening of the road over Sylvan Pass in 1903, "Tex" Holm and his wife Katharine began transporting small camping parties to Yellowstone in 1901.The excursions into the park were of 2-3 weeks duration. They went on horseback with pack animals over Dead Indian Pass north of Cody, down the precipitous mountainsides to the Clark Fork River and trekked through the wilds of Sunlight Basin, through the mining town of Cooke City and the northeast entrance of Yellowstone. Aron "Tex" Holm and wife Katharine, at Holm Lodge, ca1912. [Courtesy Park Co. Wyo. archives , Buckingham Folder, #86-P001] Late in 1903 they began using the new although uncompleted, east entrance road over Sylvan Pass to Yellowstone Lake. In 1906 'Tex' Holm and F.H. Welch were permitted to conduct camping parties through the park using wagons and saddle horses. The company was headquartered in Cody, with rail access from the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR. They offered 14 and 18-day camping trips in covered surreys or ‘wagonettes’ built with extra good springs for mountain service. Saddle horses were available for those who desired them. Canvas-bottomed tepees were used for sleeping and were complete with mattresses, blankets, and comforters. A private ‘toilet tent’ was set up for the ladies at each camp. Women cooks prepared meals in a covered cook wagon, using canned goods, smoked meats, fresh vegetables and trout. Expansion of the company followed these early successes and by August 1905 newspaper ads touted a newly named company: The Yellowstone Park Camping Co. Park Guides and Outfitters. Personally Conducted Tours Through Yellowstone National Park, from Cody, Wyo. Yellowstone Park Camping Co., with A. Holm, F.H Welch, & H. Dahlem. [Cody Enterprise, 15Jun1905] Letterhead, Yellowstone Park Camping Co., with A. Holm, F.H Welch, & H. Dahlem. 23Sept1905 [YNP Archives, Doc. #6375] Officials of the new company consisted of Aron Holm, Frank H. Welch, and Henry Dahlem. Camping parties went out every two to three weeks, with the last one leaving in early October. In 1906, the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. incorporated as the Yellowstone Park Camping and Transportation Co., with Tex Holm as president, Dahlem as vice-president, and Welch as secretary-treasurer. Typically fifteen days on the trail would cost fifty-five dollars or a twenty-one day trip would run sixty-three dollars. The first night was spent at Wapiti, half-way between Cody and the east entrance. The next camp was near the East entrance and then Sylvan Lake atop Sylvan Pass. Nightly camps would be made near all the popular tourist sites in Wonderland. By 1910 business was such in May of 1910 Tex Holm embarked on a huge investment of time and money when he began construction of Holm Lodge, located along scenic Libby Creek about seven miles from the east entrance of the park. The rustic log building quickly took shape and on June 8, 1910 the Park County Enterprise proudly proclaimed, “The Holm Lodge is Now Open – This Famous Mountain Resort for Tourists, Anglers and Hunters is Now in Shape to Accommodate Guests in Pleasant Manner.” Early view of Holm Lodge (pre-1913 fire). [Courtesy the Stanley Museum , Kingfield, Maine] Undoubtedly construction continued throughout the summer putting finishing touches on the various facilities. The main lodge consisted of a large dining room and another “amusement room” used for kitchen services and dancing parties. Guests slept in 12’x14’ tent houses that consisted of board floors and partial woods walls topped with canvas tent-tops. Iron beds, Ostermoor mattresses, stove, dresser, chairs, and wash-stands completed the furnishings. The “houses” were scattered amongst the woods for privacy with a centrally-located log bathing pavilion sporting porcelain bathtubs and offering hot and cold running water. The “grub” consisted of “fresh fruits and vegetables and garden truck of every description, eggs laid by our own chickens, plenty of fresh milk from our own cows.” Guests who wished to spend extended periods at the lodge were charged $100 a month, which included meals, saddle horse, and guide service on short camping trips. Laundry facilities were available, along with telephone service to Cody. Two views of the original Holm Lodge, showing the rear section and scattered guest tents. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , Cody, Nos. P21-0503-11 & 12] Chicago Geographic Society 1909 and 1910 were busy years for Tex Holm. Among other travelers, he hosted a large group from the Chicago Geographic Society in both years, in early July - his first big trip for each season. The 1910 trip was said to coast $120 for society members, including all expenses. A wonderful set of photographs were made available to the author from the trip. The following is a newspaper notice about the 1909 trip from the Chicago Tribune: Second Night's camp, located just west of Pahaska Lodge. [Chicago Geographic Society , 1909] GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY PLANS CAMP IN YELLOWSTONE PARK. Forty Chicagoans Will Leave on July 6 for Three Weeks’ Outing Under “Tex” Holm, Roosevelt Guide. Equipped with camping utensils, guides, books, and the works of botanical, geological, and physiographical authorities, forty members of the Chicago Geographic society will leave the city July 6 for a three weeks' camping tour of Yellowstone Park. They will go to Cody, Wyo., in special coaches on the Burlington railroad and from there will take the trail under the guidance of “Tex” Holm, the veteran guide, who accompanied Theodore Roosevelt on a similar expedition several years ago. The route from Cody lies across the Shoshone national forest, through the mountains of the Absaroka range, and into the park through the southeast entrance. Jesse Lowe Smith, the president, will lead the expedition. A. Holm Camp Wagon with four men, perhaps rivers and camp tenders. [1905 glass slide, courtesy Brigham Young University Libraries ] Top Pair: Struggling get through a snowbank on top of Sylvan Pass in early July, 1909. the wagons had to be unloaded and reloaded after the drift. Middle Pair: Holm wagon, for unknown reason labelled: Peaches & Cream (cola) Coach. Names of lead horses?? Bottom Left: Mr & Mrs. Holm. katharine Holm was an active participant of the camping tours, although she rarely seemed to get proper credit for her work. Thanks to Walter Keats, Executive Director of the Geographic Society of Chicago (GSC) for many of the wonderful photos on this page. The GSC was founded in 1889 and in 1909 and 1910 members of the Society came out to Yellowstone to explore this vast Wonderland. They were guided by Aron Holm and his camping company. It is believed the photos were taken by Miss Meta Mannhardt, a member of the GSC, who gave her album of pictures to the GSC in the 1950's. Reproduction or use of these photos is not permissable, without written permission from GSC. Photo Credits: Owner/Publisher - Geographic Society of Chicago; Photographer - Meta Mannhardt. “To good guide Aron Holm and Mrs. Holm, his wife, whose sweet song charmed our nightly circle around the camp fire . . . to all whose faithfulness followed us day and night through the valley of the Shoshone, Sylvan Pass, and the Yellowstone, these pages are joyfully dedicated.” Charles Heath penned these poignant words in the dedication of his book, A Trial of a Trail, an account of his visit to Yellowstone National Park and Cody, Wyoming in 1905. He came west from Chicago to spend two weeks camping in Yellowstone and the beautiful Wapiti Valley, located between Cody and the east entryway to Yellowstone. Holm's Lodge & Camp located on Sylvan Pass, near the edge of Sylvan Lake. A 1910 Holm brochure described locations of the various campsites along the usual route: Wapiti, Holm Lodge, Sylvan Lake, Yellowstone Lake, Craig Pass, near Riverside Geyser, Lower Geyser Basin, Obsidian Cliff, East Gardiner Creek [Lava Cr.], Tower Falls, Grand Canyon, Turbid Springs, Camp Beautiful [near East Entrance] and repeating the route back to Cody. Campers could exit at Gardiner if desired, for a slightly shorter tour. The cost for this wonderful excursion was $4.00 per day. Big game hunting parties were offered from Holm Lodge into the surrounding National Forests areas as were trips to Jackson Hole on horseback with pack outfits. These trips lasted from 25-30 days, covering about 200 miles. Experienced guides and cooks accompanied each party. The route traversed the "wildest and most rugged parts of the Rockies, away from civilization, making many side trips into parts which have never been visited by other parties." The cost of this adventure was $250, which covered all the expenses from Cody and the return trip. In 1910 Tex Holm also received a permit from Yellowstone authorities to establish a permanent camp at serene Sylvan Lake, atop Sylvan Pass. Plans were immediately set in motion to create Holm Lodge No. 2 (Sylvan Lake Lodge), which would be similar to the main lodge, except without the luxury of bathing facilities, unless one was venturous enough to dip into the chilly waters of the lake. A log lodge was constructed at Sylvan Lake that served as lobby and dining room and was surrounded by Holm’s characteristic tepee-shaped canvas sleeping quarters. Wide-angle view Holm's Lodge & Camp located on Sylvan Pass, near the edge of Sylvan Lake. Buffalo Bill Historic Center , Cody, No. P21-1861] With anticipation of continued growth in tourism, Tex Holm moved forward with his business expansion. On October 28, 1911, the Park County Enterprise (Cody, WY) announced, “Holm Incorporates New Tourist Company – Local Parties Said to be Backing the New Concern.” The Yellowstone Park Camping and Transportation Company was dissolved and the assets were absorbed into the new “Holm Transportation Company.” The Tex Holm Livery Company, a livery business established by Tex in Cody, also merged into the new outfit. This fledgling organization, incorporated in Wyoming October 23, 1911, was capitalized for $75,000, divided into 750 shares and was managed by a board of directors consisting of Aron Holm, Louis Gokel, J.M. Schwoob, W.L. Simpson, and W.J. Deegan. The goals of the company were lofty. In addition to the purpose of engaging in general livery, transportation, hotel, and merchandise business, the company’s objectives included purchasing, leasing, or building hotels, lodges, camping outfits, and roads and bridges as necessary to conduct business. Holm Transportation Co. Letterhead, 1912. [YNP Archives, Holm Transportation Holm Transportation Co. Logo [From a mailing envelope, pm1913] Tex Holm & Shwoob traveled to Washington to gain permission to transport customers to the other hotels and camps, along with requesting permission to establish permanent camps in the park, much as the Wylie Company had done. The men conferred with the Secretary of Interior and Wyoming’s representatives to Congress. After what were no doubt strenuous negotiations, the Holm Transportation Company was finally granted a transportation concession in Yellowstone. It was, however, at the expense of not being able to establish permanent camps or construct hotels. Schwoob later reported that he was satisfied with the compromise that relieved HTCo of having to expend many thousands of dollars in order to establish new camps or other lodging facilities. Continuing, Schwoob related that, “what the company really secured was the privilege of having their tourists boarded at the Park hotels and the Wiley [sic] camps on the same terms which are given visitors who are conveyed thru [sic] the park by the old transportation company and the Wylie outfit.” Disaster struck when front page headlines of the Park County Enterprise on Saturday, November 15, 1913 proclaimed: “Main Building at Holm Lodge Completely Destroyed by Fire. Beautiful Resort is Scene of Disastrous Conflagration Last Wednesday Evening.” Luckily Tex Holm was onsite, and with the assistance of men from a nearby road crew, managed to rescue most of the interior furnishings, but nothing could be done to save the lodge. Tex was devastated. Unwilling and perhaps unable to borrow money to rebuild, Tex sold his prized Holm Lodge to William “Billy” Howell, an investor in his company who had managed Holm’s pack outfits for the past few years. The deal closed in early May for an undisclosed purchase price, but there was speculation that Holm gave the lodge to Howell in exchange for debts owed. Howell, who terminated his employment with HTCo, formed an association with Hillis Jordan, whereby Howell would run the lodge and Jordan, an experienced packer, would guide parties into the park independent of the Holm operation. Howell built a new and bigger lodge on the same site, retaining the same name. The next year, Tex Holm housed his guests at the nearby Pahaska Tepee, as his lodge was gone. When Howell completed the new lodge, Holm agreed to house his Yellowstone guests at Holm Lodge instead of Pahaska Tepee. Howell later went into a partnership with Cody schoolteacher Mary Shawver and together they managed Holm Lodge until 1947. Top Left: Holm Lodge, probably the rebuilt version after the fire. [Tammen 91671 Real-Photo postcard] ​ Top Right: Interior of Holm Lodge, undated Real-Photo postcard. ​ Bottom Left: Holm Lodge, probably rior to the building of the log lodge. Guest stayed in tents, touring wagons in foreground. [F.J Hiscock Photo, undated, Buffalo Bill Historic Center, #P211-201. Top of photo has been cropped] Beginning of the end . . . Holm Transportation Company was granted the security of a three-year lease beginning March 31, 1914. Expecting business to increase even more than it had in 1913, the directors of HTCo raised the corporate capitalization from seventy-five thousand dollars to three hundred thousand dollars to handle anticipated increases in business and expenses. Little did they realize that 1914 travel in Yellowstone would be down more than twenty per cent from the previous season. Well into the 1914 season, Holm was having some financial difficulties. With reduced visitation, excessive debts incurred during expansion, and financial problems suffered by their banking partner, the company barely made it through the year and prospects for the 1915 operation looked dim. Although Holm expected that the increased business from traffic to and from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco would save his business. But when private autos were allowed into Yellowstone in August of 1915, it was another blow to Holm’s enterprise, but he temporarily revived and continued service through the 1915 season. However, by that time the company had gone bankrupt and was unable to operate the following season, leaving no service provider from Cody and the east entrance into Yellowstone. To alleviate this situation, the Park Service authorized the creation of the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. for the 1916 season. This company became the first commercial motorized transportation concern allowed into the park and it journeyed from the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad depot in Cody to Lake Hotel where passengers were loaded onto Yellowstone Park Transportation Co stagecoaches for travel into the interior of the park.The following year the stagecoaches were retired and all commercial travel was by auto stages, with YPTCo being the carrier from Cody into Yellowstone. Top Left: Holm Coach in front of the Buffalo Bill monument in Cody. It seemed to be a popular photo op for tourists heading to Yellowstone. [Real-Photo postcard, undated] ​ Top Right: Tex Holm Ready for a Dude Party, Cody, Wyoming [Postcard #D8800, postmarked prior to 1910] . Bottom Left: The Pioneer Yellowstone Guide - "Tex" Holms, Cody Wyo. Holm Transportation Company and the Stanley Steamers In an attempt to modernize his business and reduce travel time from Cody to Holm Lodge, Tex Holm purchased two 5-passenger EMT30 autos from local dealer Jake Schwoob in 1911. Dissatisfied with the performance of the vehicles that year, Tex Holm bought a 12-passenger Stanley Mountain Wagon in 1912 to transport his customers on the 100-mile round-trip journey to the east entrance of Yellowstone. The shiny new red steamer arrived in mid-June with William S. Stanley, nephew of the Stanley brothers, at the helm. The Park County Enterprise (Cody) newspaper claimed the auto was “practically noiseless. It has immense pulling power and is claimed to be the simplest constructed car on the market.” Happy with the Stanley Steamer and its performance on the rugged and primitive mountain roads, Holm purchased three more in 1913. The new vehicles performed admirably for three seasons until the financial stability of Holm Transportation Company crashed in 1915. The Holm company went bankrupt after the 1915 season and the Stanley Steamers went on the auction block in March of 1916 to help pay off the debts incurred by the company. The fate and whereabouts of these historic steamers remains to be discovered. "Stanley Steamers ???? on Barrel Creek on Cody Road to Yellowstone, 1914-15 - Joe Paine." Joe Paine was hired in 1914 to drive one of Holm's Stanley Steamers to and from the East entrance of Yellowstone. Automobiles were not allowed in Yellowstone until August 1915. [Uncredited newspaper photo, Park Co. Wyo. Archives , Buckingham Files] SOMETHING NEW IN YELLOWSTONE Camps Co. Introduces Horseback Tours as 1922 Feature Four Tours this Summer Yellowstone can always be depended on for something new! This year the Camps Company, in addition to its other enterprises, offers an innovation in the form of "14-Day Personally Conducted Horseback Tours." These tours will leave Mammoth Hot Springs (Mammoth Camp) on four dates during 1922 season: July 1st, July 15th, August 1st and August 15th. Each tour will be identical in leadership, equipment and schedule. This arrangement offers such a wide range of starting dates that men and women who have been looking for this sort of tour can fit their vacation into one of those schedules. "Tex" Holm, The Leader. The Camps Company knows from long experience and observation that no inconsiderable part of the success of horseback tours is leadership. For those tours, they have engaged "Tex" Holm to guide and manage each tour. "Tex" Holm has been conducting parties through Yellowstone for over 20 years and knows every foot of the trails and highways. Of equal importance he is fitted by disposition to amalgamate the elements of a party into one harmonious whole. Each tour will be strictly limited in number so that the members will have all the freedom of a private party with a private guide. The tour will appeal to persons who desire to get away from an ordinary tourist experience and revel in healthful exercise, live in the open, and enjoy a scenic adventure of the first order. A big factor is the duration of the trip. The average visitor, who take the regular automobile tour, stays in the park for four and a half days. This is too short. Many guests at the permanent camps stay over for a day or a week. The saddle horse tours will be on the trails and highways for 14 days. Of course, members of these tours will see three times as much as the average tourist, not only because they are in the park three times as long but also because they will visit many places far from the automobile highways. Fourteen Eventful Days. Looking at these tours from the standpoint of healthful recreation, they wil appeal to many as the ideal vacation. Think of 14 days in the saddle and 14 nights in the open! The rides at first are short and grow grdually longer as the tour progresses. The first day's ride is 7 miles. The average for the entire tour is only 12 miles per day. Member of the party will be provided with individual tents and individual beds. All tents, bedding and equipment are new and of the first quality. The cost oif these tours is $196.00 each. This charge includes all expenses for the 14 days beginning and ending at Mammoth Camp. Members of the party will use any railroad they desire to the park and pay their own expenses to Mammoth Camp. Further details will be supplied on application. ​ The Yellowstone News, May 1922, Volume V - No. 5. Newspaper of the Yellowstone Park Camps Co. "Horseback Tours Through Yellowstone Park" Led by Aron 'Tex' Holm Yellowstone Park Camps Co. brochure, 1922

bottom of page