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  • Pryor & Trischman |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Pryor & Trischman - Pryor Stores ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Pryor & Trischman Stores - 1908 to 1953 ​ In the Beginning . . . ​ Anna and Elizabeth Trischman were daughters of Ft. Yellowstone post carpenter George Trischman, who came to work in the park in 1899. Upon Ole Anderson’s retirement in 1908, Anna and husband George Pryor purchased the Specimen House at Mammoth that had opened up in 1896. They continued to employ Andrew Wald , who created beautiful sand bottles, until around 1920 or so. In 1912 George Pryor, husband of Anna Trischman, signed over his interests in the store to Elizabeth Trischman and the business became known as Pryor & Trischman. They soon enlarged the business and called their operation the Park Curio & Coffee Shop. They sold ice cream, curios, souvenirs, newspapers, toiletries, coffee, tea, box lunches, and operated a bakery and soda fountain. Left : Specimen House, as purchased by Anna & George Trischman. Leroy Anderson Collection. Right: Pryor & Trischman store in 1917. The addition on the left was basically a mirror image of the original store. YNP #199718-78 Around 1923, they jointly operated a delicatessen with George Whittaker at the new "free auto camp" at lower Mammoth. In 1925 they purchased Whittaker's share on the auto camp operation and added a cafeteria to the operation a few years later. The business was expanded again in 1924 when the women established a small lunch stand at the Devil's Kitchen on the Mammoth Terraces, calling it the Devil's Kitchenette. The Devil’s Kitchen was the deep and narrow cavern of an extinct hot spring. Ladders were built into the vertical cave as early as 1881, and may have been explored with ropes even earlier. It has been said that entering it made one feel as if descending into the depths of the underworld. It was a very popular tourist attraction until closed by the NPS in 1939 Left : The Devil's Kitchen, undated stereoview. Right : Devil's Kitchenette, operated from 1924-1937 Above Left: Park Curio Shop, ca1940, Kropp postcard 13978N Above Right: Cafeteria at the Mammoth Auto Camp, 1939. YNP #185327-414 The Business Expands . . . ​ In 1932 the women branched out and purchased all of George Whittaker's Yellowstone Park Store operations at Mammoth and Canyon. His holdings included an interest in the service station business and general stores at both locations. They now held a monopoly on the store business in the northern portion of the park, with the exception of the Haynes Photo Shops. Charles Hamilton remained in control of the stores in the southern portion of the park. The Pryor & Trischman stores incorporated in 1946 and became known as Pryor Stores, Inc. Anna Pryor held a 2/3 interest in the business, while her sister owned the other third. Formed on October 1, Pryor was President and Trischman Secretary. Above Left : Canyon General Store, 1940s. YNP #47-84 Above Right : Canyon Service Station, 1940s. YNP #47-834 Time for retirement . . . ​ Six years later, after 45 years in business, the women decided to retire and sold out to Charles Hamilton in 1953 for $333,000. According to an insurance audit in September 1950, the Pryor Stores’ property at Mammoth consisted of the Park Curio Shop itself, with a single-story garage and warehouse located behind it, and the general store, service station and single-story employee dormitory located at the rear. Also at Mammoth were the general store, gas station, cafeteria, and dormitory facilities at the Mammoth Auto Camp. The Canyon properties consisted of the single-story general store and gas station, which housed the post office, soda fountain, residence, storage, and a two-story dormitory building located nearby. The women ended up with a profit of just over $100,000 and retired to their home in Los Angeles. Elizabeth Trishman (left) & Anna Pryor (right) at their home in Los Angeles, 1950s, YNP #122107 Anna Pryor died in Los Angeles in 1973 at age 89, and Elizabeth Trischman followed in 1984 at age 98. The Canyon store and gas station were torn down in the early '60s as part of the Mission 66 plan to create a new Canyon Village. The Pryor Coffee Shop at Mammoth was razed in 1984, supposedly due to potential health and safety concerns. The General Store at Mammoth was run by Hamilton Stores until the end of 2002,when Delaware North won the competitive bid process and took over operation of the park stores. The current Mammoth store is the only remaining building in the park from the Pryor & Trischman operation.

  • Yancey's - Roosevelt Lodge |

    Hotels in the Yellowstone Yancey's - Roosevelt Lodge ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yancey's Hotel in Pleasant Valley 1882-1906 Uncle John F, Yancey ​ This colorful character, the sixth of ten children, was born in Barren County, Kentucky in 1826. Described as the weakly child of the family, he outlived them all. He moved with his family to Missouri while he was still a boy. He journeyed to California in 1849, no doubt following the Gold Rush and later spent time on the Santa Fe Trail. Yancey returned east and fought for the cause of the South in the Civil War. After the war he removed to the Bozeman area and Crow country in 1866 and was employed by the government much of the time. Sensing opportunity in the Yellowstone Park, he made arrangement to settle himself along the road from Mammoth Hot Springs to Cooke City. Jack Baronett built a bridge over the Yellowstone River, that was located near Yancey’s site. John Yancey settled into Pleasant Valley in 1882 and built a cabin and mail station to serve the stages and miners enroute to the mines of Cooke City. The area was located near the junction of the Lamar and Yellowstone Rivers, not too far from Baronett's Bridge. The mail route from Gardiner to Cooke City generally took two days in good weather, and mail carriers used Yancey’s as the overnight stop. Yancey had reportedly received verbal permission from Supt. Patrick Conger to establish the mail station to accommodate traffic to Cooke City. Left: Bridge built by Jack Baronett in 1871 over the Yellowstone River, just above its junction with the East Fork of the Yellowstone (Lamar River). [F. Jay Haynes Stereoview] ​ Right: Sketch of John Yancey made by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1897. [From Recreation Magazin e, "ElkLand," Vol. 7, 1897] Yancey received a 10-year lease on 10 acres of land on which to construct his hotel and mail station. He opened the "Pleasant Valley Hotel" in 1884 with a 1-1/2-story log cabin measuring 30' x 50'. It could supposedly accommodate 20 guests in the upstairs bedrooms at a rate of $2/day or $10/week. Yancey erected a 1-1/2-story saloon nearby in 1887 that measured about 20’x20.’ The story goes that his whiskey glasses were undefiled by the touch of water. Yancey knew all the good fishing holes and had plenty of tall tales to amuse people. His establishment attracted fishermen, hunters, and others interested in this quiet part of the park. ​ By 1885, $25,000 had been spent on the construction of a road from the Yellowstone Falls via the east trail over Mount Washburn to Yancey's on the Mammoth Hot Springs road. This road allowed traffic to and from Yancey’s into the heart of Yellowstone, providing addition business traffic. To deal with the increased business, Yancey enlarged his hotel Above Right : Yancey's Hotel & saloon, ca1896. From Burton Holmes Travelogues Below : Yancey's Hotel, undated stereoview, photographer unknown. One Acting Superintendent described Yancey as a “peculiar and interesting old character . . . popular among a large class of people in this section, and also has a few powerful friends in the east . . .” It was also noted that Yancey’s place had “attractions, for a number of people, probably for the very reason of its roughness, and because it is a typical frontier establishment.” Of course that roughness did not appeal to everyone and superintendent Pitcher commented in 1902 that “it is so wretched as to prevent many people from going to his place who [would] do so if he would furnish [them] with a fairly decent fare." ​ Owen Wister ​ That same year, Owen Wister, who later authored The Virginian , was in Yellowstone on a sheep and goat hunting trip. He stopped by Yancey’s and was treated to one of Uncle John’s special elixirs. Wister described the old man as one, ​ “of that frontier type which is no more to be seen; the goat-bearded, shrewd-eyed, lank Uncle Sam type. He and his cabins had been there a long while. The legend ran that he was once a Confederate soldier, and had struck out from the land of the Lost Cause quite unreconstructed, and would never wear blue jeans because blue reminded him of the Union army. He was known as Uncle John by that whole country . . . And then Uncle John led me across the road to—not his wine, but his whisky cellar. Handsome barrels. I came to know it well. He had some sort of fermented stuff made from oranges, which he obtained from California. Mingled properly with whisky, the like of it I have never elsewhere tasted.” Burton Holmes Travelogues ​ World traveler Burton Holmes expressed a similar opinion in his Yellowstone Travelogue during a visit in 1896: “A visit to “Uncle John Yancey’s” ranch is an experience that will be remembered but which will not be repeated. A comic writer might find food for profitable study in the peculiarities of Uncle John, but the ordinary traveler will find neither palatable food nor decent accommodations while at the old man’s “Hotel.” The tenderfoot should not remark the unwashed condition of the two historic glasses into which the proprietor pours the welcoming libation of “Kentucky tea,” for it is Yancey’s boast that his whisky glasses have never been polluted by the contact of so alien a liquid as water. That water is not held in good repute at Yancey’s is evidenced by the location and condition of the “bathing establishment” maintained for the inconvenience of guests who are so perverted as to require more than a pail that serves the needs of the habitués of the primitive caravansary. On the whole it is wiser to leave the park with the impressions of its glories undimmed by memories of Yancey’s Ranch.” Somehow, despite Holmes' unfavorable review, he did devote a fair bit of space to Yancey in the Yellowstone Travelogue, along with a wealth of photos not found elsewhere. Yancey's "dough-wrangler" and all-around helper cooking "Grub," and John Yancey in his corral ca1896. Yancey maintained a small herd of horses, beef and milk cows to help maintain the operation. [ From Burton Holmes Travelogues] I n 1897 Ernest Thompson Seton, sometimes Ernest Seton Thompson, and his wife traveled to Yellowstone and rented and fixed up one of Yancey’s cabins. They spent the next few months studying wildlife nearby Yancey’s Hotel and then ventured through Yellowstone to see and photograph other wildlife. That visit formed the basis on some of his many books. ​ [Recreation Magazine , December 1898] Uncle John traveled to Gardiner in late April to attend the dedication of the new stone arch near the Northern Pacific RR depot. “Teddy” Roosevelt was on hand, along with numerous other dignitaries, and dedicated the arch on April 24. It came to be known as the Roosevelt Arch and still proudly stands today on the edge of Gardiner. ​ John Burroughs, in his Camping and Tramping with Roosevelt , remarked that during Roosevelt’s trip through Yellowstone in 1903 with Burroughs and others, “We spent two nights in our Tower Falls camp, and on the morning of the third day set out on our return to Fort Yellowstone, pausing at Yancey's on our way, and exchanging greetings with the old frontiersman, ​ Yancey took sick after attending the dedication of the new arch in Gardiner in 1903. The Anaconda newspaper reported on May 6 that, “Word was received late Monday night, first by telegraph and later by telephone, that "Uncle John” Yancey, pioneer in the Yellowstone park, having lived there more than 30 years . . . was dying. Both messages were directed to Assistant County Attorney Daniel Yancey, nephew of the pioneer. The telegram stated that '‘Uncle John" was sick, confined to bed, but the word over the 'phone was urgent and to the effect that the old settler was sinking fast.” Yancey passed away the next day, on May 7th at age 77. Above Right: John F. Yancey Photo taken at the C.E. Finn photographic studio in Livingston, Mt. [YNP #939] ​ Left: Photo of Yancey's headstone in Gardiner's Tinker Hill Cemetery. [Photo by the author] Right: Headline from the Butte Miner, May 8, 1903. The Gardiner Wonderland reported on the 14th, that the funeral procession was the largest ever seen and most of the businesses had closed their doors for the funeral and procession. At the funeral service held at Tinker’s Hill cemetery, where the Rev. E. Smith of Livingston, offered a prayer and eulogy. The minister expressed the generally held opinion that, “The esteem in which “Uncle John” Yancey was held in this community [Gardiner] where he was best known, was shown in the very great concern of people who paid a last tribute to his memory. From everywhere around came those who had known him in life, until the procession was much the largest ever seen here. Nearly all business houses closed and as the procession filed by the government and railroad works, all business was suspended.” Described as among the class of men renowned as “pioneers, first settlers, old timers, etc. . . [they lived a] hardy, rugged, rough and ready life . . . [where] the hardships born; the stalwart purposes developed can not be too extravagantly spoken of. All of this has brought peace, comforts, and prosperity to this present generation and insures the same to succeeding generations.” The End is Near for Yancey's Hotel ​ On April 16, 1906 fire destroyed the hotel building. The Butte Daily Post reported soon after that; “A fire originating in a defective flue is reported to have completely destroyed the old Yancey hotel property in the Yellowstone park Monday night. Uncle John Yancey built and opened the hotel over twenty years ago, and it was a very popular resort for park tourists. The loss is about $5,000. Dan Yancey, who succeeded to the ownership and management of the hotel upon the death of Uncle John, says a new hotel will be built on the site of the old [one] this summer, and tents will be used in the interim for the accommodation of travelers.” The following year Dan applied for permission to continue the business at a location closer to where a new road was being constructed. Permission was denied and the original lease was revoked in November of that year. However, a lease was issued to the Wylie Permanent Camps Co. to establish a camp nearby. The camp was located at the junction of the Mammoth-Cooke City-Mt Washburn/Canyon roads. the camp became the Roosevelt Lodge in the 1920s. The saloon and remaining buildings were razed in the 1960's. Camp Roosevelt & Roosevelt Lodge 1917 - Present Wylie Camping Company ​ Roosevelt Tent Camp was established by the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. in 1906. A bathhouse was built at nearby Nymph Spring, which had been used since at least the 1870s as a bathing/soaking spring by early pioneers and explorers. The guest accommodations were wood-floored tents covered with red and white candy-striped canvas and furnished with simple, rustic furniture. The camp could handle up to 125 guests. A communal dining tent served family-style meals. The area appealed to those who desired a more isolated area and catered to fisherman, wildlife enthusiasts, and horseback riders. Above: Roosevelt Lodge in 1923, surrounded by a combination of tent cabins and wooden cabins. [Yellowstone Park Camps Co brochure, 1923, courtesy Univ of Wyoming Library] Right: Wylie Camping Co., Camp Roosevelt, ca1907. [Underwood & Underwood stereoview] Camp Roosevelt ​ Camp Roosevelt was originally named by the Wylie Camping Co. to honor President Theodore Roosevelt, who was rumored to have camped on the site during his camping trip in 1903. The actual camp site was located at the old Tower Soldier Station, about one and a half miles south of the camp and the Roosevelt Lodge. The rustic log lodge show above was built on the site of the former Wylie Camp in 1919-20 by the Yellowstone Parks Camps Co. and was originally known as Camp Roosevelt. Construction began in the fall of 1919 and was completed the following year. The 1-story building rested on a rubble-stone foundation and utilized unpeeled logs for the walls. It measured 90’ by 50’ with an “L” extension of 29’ by 59’. A covered porch extended across the front of the building and wrapped around the southeast side. In 1924, Vernon Goodwin bought the camp from Howard Hays and Roe Emory in 1924, retaining the same company name. Around 1927 Goodwin renamed the company the Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. The "Camps" at Mammoth Hot Springs, Lake, Canyon, OF and Roosevelt became 'Lodges.' Left: Camp Roosevelt, ca1920, Real-Photo postcard. Right: Camp Roosevelt, 1922. [Haynes PC #22738] The lodge featured two stone fireplaces, a dining room lounge, kitchen and rustic furnishings. Roosevelt Lodge was not a part of the standard tour package and tourists had to pay extra to include that area in their trip. Therefore visitation here was never as great as in other locations, but was a favored location for fishermen and horseback riding. Left: Camp Roosevelt, interior and stone fireplace, 1922. [Haynes PC #22740] During the years 1920-29, 37 cabins and 26 tent cabins were constructed, along with other utility buildings. By 1929, three groups of tourist cabins had been established at Camp Roosevelt. These included: six log cabins and one "rustic-frame” cabin located south southeast of the Lodge; 18 board-and-batten, rustic-frame, tent cabins located southeast of the lodge, and 18 rustic-frame cabins located northeast of the Lodge. In the 1920s, bathroom and shower facilities were added to the Camp Roosevelt complex. Two bathrooms were constructed adjacent to the southeast and northeast cabin groups. These were simple buildings, of frame construction with wood-shingled gable roofs. They also served as a public wash room for transient guests — people who come in only for lunch and did not have a cabin. Left: Log & board rustic cabins at Camp Roosevelt. Facing the lodge, these would have been somewhere to the right side. [Undated Real-Photo postcard] Right: Tent and wooden cabins located to the left of the lodge, 1925. Note the larger bench surrounding the "Roosevelt Tree." [ YNP #36505] Upper Left: The "Roosevelt Lodge" name appears on this Haynes postcard in 1927. [Haynes PC #27468] ​ Lower Left: Roosevelt Lodge ca1930, with the local bear entertaining two young ladies. Note the log bench has again been changed. [ YNP #185328-270] ​ Right: Article from the Anaconda Standard , June 1, 1919, describing the naming of "Camp Roosevelt." This was an official government name now, as opposed to the corporate name from the Wylie days. Click to enlarge. The lodge was closed in 1933-34 due to the Great Depression and the housekeeping cabins at the Tower campground were closed in 1934. A few years later about 70 cabins were moved in to Roosevelt from Mammoth Lodge. By 1939 running water was provided to all of the cabins. World War II again closed the lodge from 1943-46. The southeast section of the lodge building was removed around 1947. ​ All of the tent cabins were removed by 1950 and in 1962 thirteen cabins from Old Faithful Lodge were hauled in. The lodge and about 97 cabins units are still available for guest use and are operated by Xanterra Parks & Lodges. Yellowstone Forest and Trail Camp for Boys and Young Men ​ This camp was established in 1921 at Roosevelt to provide outdoors’ skills to young boys. It opened July 1 for a seven-week term. Alvin G. Whitney of Syracuse University of New York was the Director. The staff was composed of naturalists, foresters, and artists who instructed the students in photographing wild game, studying the fauna and flora, fishing, and mountain climbing. Informative auto tours were conducted to study the many park features and wildlife. The camp was designed for boys 12 to 18 years of age and emphasized character building. Meals were served in the Camp Roosevelt Lodge. There were tent cabins, simple wooden cabins, council house, shower baths, and a swimming pool. The boys were expected to provide for themselves, pocket kodak, flashlight, small sheath-knife, binoculars, knapsack, canteen, hand lens, compass, pocket notebook, fishing tackle, hatchet, and waterproof matches, in addition to a proscribed collection of varied clothing and boots.. A brochure from 1921 made the pitch that, “Every boy should have the opportunity to experience the simple and elemental in wild nature at the most imaginative and plastic age, while life-long interests are being developed. During that golden period of altruism a deepening interest in nature may well serve to mould his character and direct his pleasures permanently in the noblest channels.” Although the project seemed to be a noble venture, it unfortunately was short-lived and after the 1923 season, it closed due to financial losses. Upper Left: Boy's Camp main lodge building. [YNP #31831] ​ Lower Left: Advertisement for the Forest and Trail Camp. Click to enlarge [ Newspaper ad from 1921, author's collection] ​ Upper Right: Boy's Camp lodge building with tent cabins. [YNP #193429-75] Stage Rides & Cookouts The now famous stagecoach rides and steak cookout at Yancey’s Hole n Pleasant Valley began in the summer of 1959. An article from the Spokesman Review of Spokane Wash. proclaimed, “For the first time in many years, old-fashioned stagecoaches and tallyhos (horse-drawn sightseeing carriages) will operate in Yellowstone park from Roosevelt lodge to Pleasant valley. Morning and evening rides to Yancey s Hole will be featured where breakfasts arid barbecue dinners will be served.” A Yellowstone Park Co. brochure from the early 1960s invited guests to, “Clamber aboard a stagecoach for an exciting jaunt into the past . . . The sturdy Concord coaches, luxurious vehicles at their time, [1886-1916] may in the softness of the present seem like Roosevelt rough riders.” At that time, a mere $1.75 allowed one to step back into Yellowstone’s past. By 1966, five bucks would gain one a coach ride with steak, French fries, a vegetable and coffee at the historic Yancey’s Hole. The Boston Globe that year waxed, “Barbecue smoke and the aroma of coffee hang heavy on pine-scented air while the sun falls behind the nearby Rockies. Later the stage rattles home, fording a stream, trailing a cloud of dust that glows red in the dying light of day.” The Concord Tally-Ho ruled the road there for many a year, but in later times rubber-wheeled wagons did most of the hauling of guests. They were safer and easier for less-experienced wranglers to drive. The days when a jehu who knew how to wield the ribbons of four or six horse teams and expertly crack the whip had rapidly faded. Although in recent years a replica Talley Ho was built in the Xanterra garage/shop for use at Roosevelt. ​ One visitor in 1966, who seemed to have enjoyed his journey into the past, related his impressions: ​ At Roosevelt Lodge we climbed aboard a yellow stagecoach for a steak fry in the peaceful surroundings of Pleasant Valley. The 30-minute ride with steak, French fries, vegetable, coffee and dessert comes to $5. Children go for half price. Barbecue smoke and the aroma of coffee hang heavy on pine-scented air while the sun falls behind the nearby Rockies. Later the stage rattles home, fording a stream, trailing a cloud of dust that glows red in the dying light of day. [24Jul1966 Boston Globe ]

  • Cinnabar |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Cinnabar, Mont. & The Northern Pacific RR ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Valley of Cinnabar, ca1883. A Boudoir-Series Cabinet Card by photographer Carleton Watkins. The Early Days . . . . The small community of Cinnabar was located three or four miles north of Gardiner and was the temporary end-of-line station of the first railroad service to Yellowstone National Park. It was the primary gateway to the park from 1883 to 1903. The town’s name derived from nearby Cinnabar Mountain, named during the mid-1860s by miners who originally thought the ‘red streak’ on the mountain was the mercury ore cinnabar. In August 1870, the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition observed the formation and named it The Devil's Slide. ​ . A traveler in 1874 noted that Cinnabar Mountain was, “prominent for its height and isolation from it compeers, and significant from the fact that the Devil took a slide down its Eastern slope when he was apparently red-hot, leaving in his wake a well-defined trail that can be seen for fifty miles, having the appearance of fire-clay.” [Bozeman Avant Courier, 4Sep 1874] Devil's Slide, photographed by Wm. Henry Jackson in 1871. The Bozeman Weekly Chronicle published a Song of Cinnabar Waters on April 18, 1883, based on an unfortunate drunken row, when David Kennedy shot his boon companion James Armstrong. The "Vanderbilt" was a silver watch willed to “Davie” in the event of James’ death. It may have been penned by William Davis, who was deemed "The Poet Laureate of Yellowstone." A portion of the song follows: CINNABAR. Long, long ago, one could easily see, Yellowstone Valley had been on a spree: The mountains were raised, the canyons were sunk, And old Mother Earth got terribly drunk. The devil got as drunk as a devil could be And slid to the bottom of Cln-na-bar-ee! Fill up your demijohn, fill up your can, A health to the devil, damnation to man ! Give Davie my Vanderbllt, let him go free, To slide when he pleases down Cln-na-bar-ee! Not long ago, It was Sunday, and we Sent three of our boys down for Cln-na-bar-ee Mad-day Is moon’s-day, each emptied his cup, Reason ran down, and our passions ran up. Bullets were flying, and two entered me, Perhaps I am dying, from Cln-na-bar-ee. Beginnings of Cinnabar City . . . Abel Bart Henderson, who began prospecting around Yellowstone in 1867, started building a road in 1871 from Bottler’s Ranch near Emigrant to Mammoth Hot Springs. He acquired land around Stevens Creek and he and his brothers established a ranch in 1877. Clarence Stevens, George Huston, and Joe Keeney all owned parts of the land at various times. Huston and Keeney purchased part of the Henderson Ranch at Stephens Creek Nov. 19, 1883, which totaled 116.45 acres. Apparently Keeney retained some land for himself and built a ranch, and they resold the rest later that year to Carroll T. Hobart, a Northern Pacific RR Superintendent and manager of the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. A plat map was created and the site became the town of Cinnabar. Construction on the Northern Pacific's Park Branch Line began in April of 1883 from Livingston to Cinnabar and was open for business on September 1 of that year and in 1884 began in earnest transporting tourists to enjoy the breathtaking beauties of Wonderland. The Cinnabar Town Site Co. was later incorporated in 1895 by J.D. Finn, H.J. Hoppe, and A.J. Campbell. Reportedly, Hugo Hoppe and family moved into the Cinnabar area ca1883, where Hugo created his freighting company to haul goods from the new railhead in Cinnabar to and from the mines at Cooke City, Montana. He also engaged in other enterprises over the years. During 1884-1885 Hugo managed the new National Hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs. He managed the Cinnabar Hotel from Jan.-Jun. of the following year. More of that later. Cinnabar Townsite in 1884. The town is still quite desolate at this point. The building behind the rail car at left may have been the Wakefield-Hoffman stables. The first year or so, the NPRR used two sleeping cars and a dining car for travelers until other accommodations were available. [F. Jay Haynes photo, Montana Historical Society ] Undated photo of the H.J. Hoppe Ranch, just south of Cinnabar. The view is toward the Yellowstone River. [Billings Gazette, 7Sep1958] The Northern Pacific RR Moves in . . . . A land dispute regarding Buckskin Jim Cutler's mining claims between Cinnabar and Gardiner prevented the railroad from extending the line to Gardiner, the desired destination. A small town quickly grew up around the Cinnabar depot and provided basic visitor services. The post office opened in 1882, in anticipation of the railroad's arrival and a small depot was soon built to accommodate travelers to the park. The Butte Miner announced on Aug. 29, 1883 that, "The Yellowstone National Park branch of the Northern Pacific railroad is now completed to Cinnabar, 51 miles south of Livingston, and will be open for business on Sept. 1st, after which time parties can go directly to the park without staging." ​ GARDINER DEFEATS CINNABAR FOR THe YELLOWSTONE LINE Gardiner, located within a few Inches of the line of the Yellowstone park, is to have a railroad within a few weeks, the Northern Pacific having decided to extend Its park branch from Cinnabar to that town at once. These two towns are only four miles apart, but ever since the park branch was built, the Cinnabars have had the best of It. There are only 250 of them when they are all at home, which is not often, but notwithstanding the small number they have been up and doing. Think of a town of 250 persons having its own electric lighting plant and water works! Gardiner has both, and in their possession the place bears the distinction of being the only one of its size in the United States that can afford such high class luxury. Heretofore Cinnibar [sic] has been the jumping-off place for Yellowstone park tourists, but hereafter it will take off its hat and with bland smile and a low courtesy exclaim, “After you, my dear Gardiner! [Butte Daily Post, 13 May1902] Beginnings of the Stagecoach Era . . . George W. Wakefield and Charles W. Hoffman of Bozeman established the Wakefield & Hoffman stage line early in 1883 and provided service from Cinnabar to Mammoth and into the park under an exclusive agreement with Yellowstone Park Association (YPA). The Helena Independent Record announced on July 2, 1884, that, “this week, the coaches, jerkies, and single and double "buckboards, numbering about forty vehicles in all, belonging to Wakefield & Hoffman, were moved from Bozeman to Cinnabar and Mammoth Hot Springs, to be in readiness for the accommodation of park tourists.” They had previously operated from Livingston to Cinnabar until NPRR’s line was open to Cinnabar. Top Right: Wakefield & Hoffman's Stage Line ad. 25Jan1884, Livingston Daily Enterprise . Bottom Right: Geo. W. Wakefield's Bozeman and National Park Stage Line letterhead from Dec. 16, 1883. Top: Northern Pacific RR train at the station in Cinnabar, 1894. The locomotive in number 418. [F.J. Haynes photo, Montana Historical Society ] Bottom: Passengers alighting from train and loading on coaches for a trip to Wonderland, ca1896. The Depot is in the background. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905 version] Top: Passengers unloading from a Northern Pacific RR car Cinnabar, ca1896. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905 version] Bottom: Train passengers loading on coaches for a trip to Yellowstone, ca1896. The building on far left appears to be Wakefield & Ennis office, who conducted camping excursions into Yellowstone 1896-1897. White bldg on far right is the W.A. Hall Store, with the Cinnabar Store to its left. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905 version] Beginning in the 1884 Yellowstone summer season (June to mid-Sept), trains ran daily from Livingston to Cinnabar, in both directions transporting tourists in and out of Yellowstone. (During the off-season trains ran one to three days a week, depending on demand) Wakefield bought out Hoffman at the end of 1885, and was the primary stage operator until he was squeezed out late in 1891. Most visitors utilized the services of the authorized transportation carrier of the Yellowstone National Park Improvement Co. (Yellowstone Park Association in 1886 and Yellowstone Park Transportation Co in 1892). With these companies passengers would ride in Tally-Ho stagecoaches led by a team of six horses from Cinnabar to the National Hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs. From there smaller 4-horse, 8-10 passenger Abbot Downing Concord coaches would carry the guests around the park, staying at different hotels for 5-6 nights before returning to Cinnabar and the train to Livingston. Other transportation/camping companies for the traveling public were also available, including, A.W. Chadbourn in 1884, the Wylie Camping Co. by the 1890s, a number of smaller private coach companies and by the late 1890s, the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Wylie and Shaw & Powell utilized portable tent camps with all the comforts possible, and were located at all the major points of interest, with Lunch Stations along the route. Some tourists opted to hire their own carriage and these “sage brushers” traveled the park on their own accord. These companies all operated out of Cinnabar until 1903. W.W. Wylie Camping Co . Cinnabar ad in the Helena Independent Record , 14Aug1896 A.W. Chadbourn information from the Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 1Jan1900 Shaw & Powell Camping Co. information from the Livingston Enterprise Souvenir, 1Jan1900 With the formation of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co (YPTCo) in 1892, and their pressure to create transportation monopoly in Yellowstone, Chadbourn and many of the other small, private transportation operators were kicked out of the park after the 1893 season, however Wylie managed to continue his operation and Chadbourn and a few others managed to regain their privileges. Freight operations also developed to service the hotels in the park, the Army at Ft. Yellowstone, and the mines at Jardine, Cooke City, and Horr. Hugo and W.M. Hoppe were operating the Cinnabar & Cooke Transportation Co. at least by 1886, hauling freight from the railhead at Cinnabar to the mines in Cooke City and stops in between. They also hauled freight for YPA. National Park Hack & Express Line Frank M. Hobbs and Lawrence Link Livingston Enterprise , 9Sep1884 Cinnabar and Cooke Transportation W.M. Hoppe Livingston Enterprise , 4Dec1886 Cooke Transportation Line A.T. French Livingston Enterprise , 30Nov1889 Geo. Eastman of Rochester, New York, together with his mother, Mr. and Mrs. Walter Scott Hubbell and Dr. E.W.. Mulligan and wife passed through town [Yakima WA] on the west bound overland Saturday morning, The party has been on the road for the past three weeks stopping at all points of interest, but remaining most of the time in Yellowstone Park. Their itinerary for the next three weeks will be via Portland, Vancouver, Bampf Springs [Banff] and St. Paul thence back to Rochester. Eastman has a national reputation derived from the great kodak which he perfected and Walter Scott Hubbell is considered one of the greatest lawyers in Western New York. [Yakima Herald, WA, 22Jul1902] ​ Mr. George Eastman of Kodak fame is now touring the west accompanied by a party of friends. The party is traveling on the private Pullman car Pilgrim. Mr. Eastman was to have come west over the C.P.R. [Canadian Pacific RR], but owing to the recent suspension of traffic he came west from Rochester, New York, over the Northern Pacific. He returns East over the C.P.R., making stops at Banff, Field [Yoho Nat'l Park] and the various other mountain resorts ls on the line of the railway in this province. [The Province, Vancouver, 15Jul1902] Coaches on road between Cinnabar and Gardiner, July 1902. One of the few known images of stages on that section of road. [Courtesy Eastman Museum , 2006.0126.0072] Coaches on road between Cinnabar and Gardiner, July 1902. The carriage at left appears to be from one of the various camping companies. [Courtesy Eastman Museum , 2006.0126.0069 & 0070] Northern Pacific Pullman Cars at Cinnabar, July 1902. The building at right may have been a freight depot at the east end of town. [Courtesy Eastman Museum, 2006.0126.0069] ​ Left: George Eastman and Walter Walter Hubbell along the road from Cinnabar to Gardiner. Hubbell was a close friend and vice-president of the Eastman Kodak Co. [Courtesy Eastman Museum, 2006.0126.0065] Right : Maria Eastman, George Eastman's mother, and her nurse aboard Coach 38, Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., at an undisclosed location in Yellowstone. [Courtesy Eastman Photographic Collection Y119] ​ A Lady's Trip to the Yellowstone Park By O.S.T. Drake ​ A Brief Description of the Cinnabar Hotel in 1887 ". . . Livingstone, on the Northern Pacific Line, is the station whence we took our departure for the National Park, by a short line 57 miles in length, which deposited us at Cinnabar, ten miles from the Mammoth Springs . . . Cinnabar, where the line terminated, consisted of a wayside saloon and a few huts. From here we drove to the Mammoth Springs" "That night [after leaving Canyon on their return] we slept in tents at Norris' Camp, breakfasted early and departed, reaching the Mammoth Springs again at noon ; then on to Cinnabar; the scenery very lovely. High on a sharp rock above the Yellowstone river we spied the eyrie of an eagle, which resembled a mass of sticks on the edge of a perfectly inaccessible rock. There sat the eagle, showing her white throat, sunning herself in her majestic solitude. The hotel at Cinnabar turned out to be a little timber house, consisting of a bar and back parlour, and two or three bed-rooms above. A married couple kept the house ; the wife said she had never had a lady under her roof before. They gave me a very clean bed-room, provided with the only jug and basin in the house. There was no door, but she nailed a sheet over the door-way and unnailed it in the morning ; the food was excellent, and the good woman waxed quite pathetic in her regrets over the fact that we were hardly likely again to meet in this world. Next morning we took the train at Livingstone, and pursued our journey to New York." From: "Every Girl’s Annual" 1887. Edited by Alicia A. Leith Reminisce from Al H. Wilkins, Yellowstone stage driver, as told to Grace Stone Coates Great Falls Tribune, 23 Feb 1933. IN 1885-86 the little town of Cinnabar was a lively place. It was the terminus of the Yellowstone park branch of the Northern Pacific railroad, where tourists transferred to horse-drawn coaches. Just across a little divide four miles away the town of Gardiner was coming into being. At Cinnabar the late Hugo Hoppe was in business. He ran stage lines in the park and on the Cooke City road on the side. Joe Keeney was keeping one of the two or three saloons In the place and running a boarding house. The late Billy Hall was running a store there, as were the Hefferlin brothers. There were a few other business houses and a few private dwellings. It was a lively place. A man could get anything from a black eye to a horse race. These were wild and wooly days, with little law and less order. Horse racing was the common Sunday amusement and sometimes the races resulted In a “drunk” being killed. But no one thought much about it. When an accident happened, the body was burled and the program went on. A man could get quick action on his money in Cinnabar, whether in a stud poker game, a foot race or a horse race, and the sky was the limit. Affairs of Business . . . A number of business operations were conducted in Cinnabar between from 1883 - 1903. Although the community got off to a slow start, businesses increased their presence as tourist crowds increased. Some of these businesses are listed below, in no particular order. Obviously not all operated at the same time, and several are the same but with different owners/managers: ​ Hugo J. Hoppe, among the earliest gold miners at Virginia City Mt., he came to Cinnabar in the mid 1880s and received title to 160 acres of land in the area. He formed the Cinnabar and Cooke Transportation Co. and by 1885 had reportedly established the somewhat crude log Cinnabar Hotel that came under the ownership of several individuals over the years including his son Walter, who had been managing the saloon associated with the hotel. A stable and blacksmith shop was also a part of the hotel operation. Cinnabar Hotel The history of the Cinnabar Hotel(s) is confusing at best, with a multitude of owners/proprietors over the years. Joe Keeney, one of the original land owners in the area, established a hotel with related stables, barns, etc., at least by 1885, also and guided early visitors through Yellowstone. He also maintained a saloon in connection with the hotel. The Livingston Enterprise noted in June 1886 that H.J. Hoppe had been leasing the hotel for the first six months of 1886, and that Keeney was regaining proprietorship at the end of Hoppe's lease. A year later the paper again announced that Keeney was operating the hotel, when the Livingston Enterprise described him as, "the irrepressible proprietor of the Tourists’ Pleasure Resort.". He was again noted as running the hotel in 1887 in conjunction with a saloon and livery stable. In December 1888, the Enterprise disclosed that, "Joe Keeney, of Cinnabar, has sold his hotel and saloon business, at that place, to A T. French. The deal was conciliated in Livingston on Thursday, both parties being here." French later passed it on to M.T Williams in December 1889, who sold it to John F. Work in April 1890. In May 1891, Work "disposed of his interest in the Cinnabar hotel, furniture and fixtures. to William A. Hall for a consideration of $900. Mr. Hall, who has been manager of that hostelry during the past year, will make material improvements in the service to accommodate the increasing business." As noted in a photo below, the author believes Hall made substantial physical changes to the hotel/store, both interior and exterior. In June 1892, H.J Hoppe was listed as 'managing' the hotel. The article also mentioned that Joe Keeney was running a lodging house and eating house that was "liberally patronized." Confused yet?? It has been written that sometime after 1892, the Hoppe family gained control of the Cinnabar Hotel (which one?) and operated it through 1903. Some sources say it was run by the family after that point in time, perhaps to sagebrushers or other travelers not using the railroad. Lee B. Hoppe , Hugo’s son, operated the Cinnabar Store, advertised in 1892 as the only store in town. T.J. Loughlin & F.R. Brazil operated a restaurant and saloon in the mid-1880s. W.A. Hall , Golden Rule Cash Store beginning in 1892 and operated camping outfit with teams, wagons & drivers. The W.A. Hall Co. housed a general store, a beer hall and a restaurant. Hall closed the store down and moved his stock to Gardiner in 1903 He also operated a store at Aldridge. O.M. Hefferlin of Livingston operated the OK Store for time. Larry Link , later of Gardiner fame, ran a saloon and pool hall with Alfred R. Christie. He reportedly also operated the Link & George saloon. ​ Smith & Holem Stage & Transportation , "a specialty of catering to the desires of tourists in furnishing local camps with hacks, carriages and saddle horses for their conveyances. Competent drivers and guides are provided, with headquarters at Cinnabar, Montana." 1903 ​ M.A. Holem , "This general store has had a successful business career, first starting in August, 1897, with a small stock in a room at the corner of Main street and South avenue. By trying to please the public in honest prices and just deal ings, M. A. Holem was forced to establish herself in larger quarters, now occupying the post office building near the Park line depot. ​ Hobbs & Link , National Park Hack & Express Line, 1884 Earley & Holmes , Livery Feed and Sale Horses, ca1883-84 W.W. Wylie , who operated the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. into and around Yellowstone, maintained a barn and livery for his equipment to transport visitors on tours of the park. Shaw & Powell arranged camping trips into the park from the Cinnabar Depot and no doubt had some transportation facilities in the area. A.T. French operated the Cooke Transportation Line in the late 1880s. A.W. Chadbourn provided passenger service to Yellowstone in 1884 and later operated a park camping company in conjunction with his business. Wilbur Williams , Daily Stage & Express, Yellowstone, Gardiner, Cinnabar ​ Wakefield & Hoffman , Yellowstone Park stagecoach operations. ​ Wakefield & Ennis , operated camping tours into Yellowstone for at least 1896-1897. ​ M.T. Williams , ran the Cinnabar Hotel for a time. During 1898 the Report of the Acting Superintendent of Yellowstone listed the following parties from Cinnabar licensed to guide camping parties into the park: AW Chadbourn, CC Chadbourn, EC Sandy, CT Smith, Frank Holem, Adam Gassert, WJ Kupper, Henry George, JW Taylor, HM Gore, RH Menefee and GW Reese. 1900 Census . . . The Census of 1900 listed 94 persons living in Cinnabar. Occupations was were varied, but many falling into the category of Teamsters, Park Guides, and Day Laborers. There were, of course a smattering of bartenders/saloon keepers, store clerks, a couple of blacksmiths, a hotel keeper, carpenter, coal miner, and a barber. Many folks did not list an occupation. Cinnabar Hotel ads from the Livingston Enterprise in Jan 1886, 1889, and 1891 respectively. Left Top: Cinnabar Hotel (center left) and O.K. Store on right, ca1890. [Courtesy Autry Museum] Left Bottom: Cinnabar Hotel, ca1890. [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , iJan1900] Right: W.A. Hall General Merchandise store, ca1895. There is a restaurant in the building and the A-B-C Saloon. The Cinnabar Store is to the right. [Livingston Enterprise , 20Jun1933] Below: Cinnabar townsite, ca1890. The taller building right center is the Cinnabar Hotel. The white building to its right may have become the O.K. Store a few years later. The image has been cropped for better visibility. [Photo courtesy of the Doris Whithorn Collection, Yellowstone Gateway Museum] Upon careful study of the windows and door of the store to the immediate left of the Hotel (above left), and the W.A. Hall store, the author believes that building later became the W.A. Hall General merchandise store (above right). It would have been added on to the left and upper floor and front remodeled. In May of 1891, the Livingston Enterprise noted, "John F. Work has disposed of his interest in the Cinnabar hotel, furniture and fixtures. to William A. Hall for a consideration of $900. Mr. Hall, who has been manager of that hostelry during the past year, will make material improvements in the service to accommodate the increasing business. Left Top: Lawrence Link Saloon and Pool Hall [Livingston Enterprise, 4Jun1892] Left Bottom: Loughlin & Brazil Saloon and Restaurant [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 25Apr1885] Top Left: Earley & Holmes Livery & Stables [Livingston Daily Enterprise , 24Apr1883] Top Right: Frank Holem, Blacksmithing & Horseshoeing. [Livingston Enterprise, 26Mar1903] The Coal Mines . . . Horr (named Electric after 1904) was the site of the coke ovens of the Park Coke and Coal Company. The name was bestowed upon it in honor of either Harry Horr, the discoverer of the coal mines in the vicinity, or Major Jos. L. Horr, who in 1884 opened up, the coal mines. On Oct 22, 1887, The Livingston Enterprise announced the shipment of the first three carloads of coal on the Park train to Livingston and Butte. The village itself came into existence in 1888 as a result of the commencement of operations there by the Park Coal & Coke Co. The coal was mined nearby in a community that acquired the name of Aldridge in 1896. On July 1, 1888 the Horr post office opened with Laura A. Pinkston as postmistress. During the nineties the Montana Coal & Coke company became the owners of the property and by the year 1900 quite rapid advancement was made in the little village owing to the increased activities of the company. [An Illustrated history of the Yellowstone Valley, Western Historical Publishing Co., Spokane WA, 1907] Cinnabar was also an important rail station for the gold mines of Bear Gulch/Jardine and Cooke City areas. Mining supplies were carried to Cinnabar from all over the country and delivered by various freight carriers in Cinnabar for transport to these areas. Gold, silver, and other ores and bullion were likewise transported by rail from Cinnabar, as was travertine from the quarries above Gardiner. Left: Post card view of Electric, formerly Horr, with the coke oven in front. The Yellowstone River is in the far background. Cinnabar was a few miles up the valley to the right. Closing of the mines at Aldridge spelled doom for the town of Electric and by 1915 the post office closed. Right: Post card view of the town of Aldridge, located up in the mountains and situated along a lake. The town of Lake was in existence by 1894. It had also been called Little Horr and The Camp at the Lake, and was later renamed Aldridge. Labor problems closed down the mines in 1910, with the post office closing by the end of the year. The Final Days . . . . In 1902 the land dispute with Jim Cutler was finally settled and the rail line continued on to Gardiner as originally planned. This move rang the death knell of the town of Cinnabar, and the small community quickly faded away after that time and the once bustling town turned into a ghost town. Cinnabar was removed as a station stop on May 3, 1903, and the post office was closed shortly after on June 15. An effort was made by the railroad to change the name of Gardiner to Cinnabar, to maintain the existing 20-year legacy of that station name, but the proud residents of Gardiner soundly defeated that effort. Many of the Cinnabar buildings were moved into Gardiner, while others were transported to Horr. The rail depot was loaded onto a flatcar and hauled into Gardiner where it was used as the freight depot. The only remaining evidences of the site today are some depressions in the ground, a few foundation stones, and broken pieces of glass and ceramics scattered over the flats. Billings Gazette , 10Apr1903 Butte Miner , 30May1903 1920 View of Gardiner. The Cinnabar Depor can be seen at left within the circle. Cinnabar - The Western White House . . . In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt engaged on a grand western tour, taking him to Chicago, north through Wisconsin, Minnesota and North Dakota. Roosevelt and his companion, famed naturalist writer John Burroughs, arrived at Gardiner, Montana by train on April 8, 1903. The two men were greeted by their host, acting-superintendent Major John Pitcher. According to the Livingston Enterprise on Aug. 7, “President Theodore Roosevelt will arrive in Livingston tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock from Billings. He will leave Billings at 5:40 o'clock. The president and his party will remain in Livingston only fifteen minutes and will then proceed to Cinnabar, at which place he will arrive at 12:30 o’clock and vyill be met by Troop C of the Third cavalry, Major Pitcher commanding. All of the party traveling with the president, with the exception of John Burroughs and Dr. P. M. Rixey, surgeon general of the navy, will remain in the private train at Cinnabar.” While the President was making merry on his wanderings in Wonderland, the remainder of the party left stranded in Cinnabar seemed to not be particularly thrilled with their plight and the area. The Butte Daily Post commented on the 10th that, “Cinnabar, near the entrance to the Yellowstone National park, the present seat of the executive offices of the nation, isn't an attractive place. It has no public parks, no theaters, no extensive society, no charming homes, no palatial hotel. In fact, there isn’t much at Cinnabar except a depot, a few houses, a store, a livery stable, two saloons and, at present, a bunch of exceedingly bored gentlemen from Washington. The president's special train stands on a siding near the depot, and in it the aforesaid bunch lives and eats and drinks and smokes and wonders what on earth to do. All hands sit around all day and deplore in fervid language the fate which keeps them tied up at a place like Cinnabar. They look down on the river towards Horr and the Devil's Slide meets their eyes—but the devil refuses to slide for their edification. They look up the river and they see only bare hills, with some snowpeaks rising in the distance, but there no longer is anything interesting in the view. Now and again some miners come over from Horr and whoop things up a little at one of the two saloons, but they refuse to go to the length of fighting or doing anything actually exciting.” Roosevelt and his party, guided by Thomas Elwood Hofer, headed out the next morning for a tour of Yellowstone. On April 16, after a return to Fort Yellowstone, the presidential party again packed up the camp and traveled to the geyser basins in a horse-drawn sleigh, accompanied by Park concessionaire Harry Childs. The sleds eventually reached Norris Geyser Basin, where the party spent the night at the Norris Hotel. Proceeding the next day to the Fountain Hotel, they continued on to the Upper Geyser Basin where he watched the eruption of Old Faithful geyser. After viewing the famous geysers in the Upper Geyser Basin, Roosevelt returned to the Norris Hotel for another night’s stay, working their way from Norris to the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone The President's Western Trip Harper's Weekly, 4Jul1903 Click to enlarge. President Roosevelt's Special Train at Cinnabar, Montana Underwood & Underwood Stereoview Click to enlarge. As the trip ended, Roosevelt returned to Mammoth Hot Springs, where he agreed to speak at the Masonic cornerstone-laying ceremony on the 24th for the future archway located at the northern entrance to Yellowstone, which would later bear his name. In his speech dedicating the arch, Roosevelt praised Yellowstone. “The geysers, the extraordinary hot springs, the lakes, the mountains, the canyons, and cataracts unite to make this region something not wholly to be paralleled elsewhere on the globe,” Roosevelt proclaimed. “It must be kept for the benefit and enjoyment of all of us.” Boarding his train after the ceremony, he headed north to Livingston and east toward Washington D.C., making a multitude of 'whistle-stops' along the route.bound east for Omaha. It had been a proud and exciting few weeks for the folks of Gardiner and Cinnabar Post Script: The Cinnabar & Clark Fork Railroad Late in 1883 efforts were made by the mining interests in Cooke City and the NPRR to extend the Park Branch line beyond Gardiner to the mines in Cooke City. This feat would have required passing through the northern border areas within Yellowstone Park. It became a volatile issue and stirred 10 years of debate in Congress. Cooke City, the greatest mining district of Montana, as described by the Livingston Enterprise , reported on Jan 5, 1884, “... It is believed that Congress will grant the right of way through the park with little opposition, as the road will run along the ... border of the park and interfere with no point of interest. This would be a great boon to Cooke City and would increase the value of her mineral discoveries to an incalculable extent. ... Cinnabar would also have a great accession of prosperity ... even without the ore reduction works the township proprietors propose to erect.” Two weeks later the Enterprise noted incorporation of the line, “The company is to build and operate a railroad from Cinnabar to Cooke City ... and it also has for an incidental object the erection of ore reduction works at Livingston. The names of the incorporators as they appear in the certificate are Col. Geo. O. Eaton and Geo. A. Huston, of Cooke City, D.E. Fogarty and Major F.D. Pease, of Livingston, and George Haldorn, of Billings, and beside those a glittering array of Eastern capitalists, some of them of national fame, are connected with the company.” The Bozeman Daily Chronicle reported on the situation on 23Jan1884, “It was known as the “Bullion Railroad Company” with Capital Stock of $1,000,000 and Articles of Incorporation were filed in Jan 1884 at Helena. By February 1885 a bill was working its way through Congress that is to segregate the northern tier of Yellowstone Park into private lands so that the railroad from Cinnabar to Cooke City could build along that section of land. Many miners, speculators and profiteers in Gardiner were awaiting news that the bill passed so that they could file claims on the most valuable pieces of property for themselves; either as homesteads, mining claims or for speculative purposes to resell to the railroad or other potential businesses. Although the bill had merely passed the House and had not yet been considered by the Senate, through some communication error, word was put out that the bill had passed and rapidly spread through the local community. Dozens rushed out to file location notices, including, George Huston, Joe Keeney, A.L. Love, C.T. Hobart, Hugo Hoppe, Park Supt. R.E. Carpenter and assistant park superintendent S.M. Fitzgerald. Needless to say, none of the property claims were valid as the bill never did pass the hallowed halls of Congress.” Various controversial efforts to build the railroad that were hotly debated continued until 1892. Finally, Thomas F. Oakes, president of the NPRR, finally declared at the end of that year, “his company had thoroughly examined the mines at Cooke City and the various routes to them, and that under no circumstances would his company build a road to them.” Case closed – much to the relief of Yellowstone enthusiasts.

  • Yellowstone Bios C-D |

    Yellowstone Biographies C-D ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Calamity Jane . Calamity Jane was the nickname for Martha Jane Canary, who was skilled with a horse and a rifle. She followed the mining camps and railroad towns in the west during the late 1880’s. She served as a scout for the 7th Cavalry in the Black Hills. Calamity was permitted to sell postcards of herself in the park in 1897 by authorization of Col. S.B.M. Young. She was known to hang out in the park, Gardiner, Livingston, and other towns in Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota. [31;405n32] Calfee, H.B. Henry Bird Calfee was born Jan. 3, 1848 in Arkansas and first settled in Bozeman, but moved to Missoula in 1885. He came to Montana in 1867, engaging in painting and prospecting. He entered the park as early as 1871, and spent time from 1872-81 taking photographs in the park. He set up a crude tent store at Upper Geyser Basin in 1881 to sell photos. He opened up a Photograph Gallery in September of 1875 where he was ". . . prepared to make the latest styles of Pictures, Rembrandt, Victorie, Cabinet, Promenade. . ." He also sold albums and stereo views of Yellowstone and other points of interest in the West. In 1877 he helped Mrs. George Cowan and her injured husband get back to Bozeman following their harrowing escape from the Nez Perce. Calfee accompanied Supt Norris on his 1880 trip through the park, and Norris named Calfee Creek after him. William Wylie used many of Calfee’s photographs in his 1882 guidebook “Yellowstone National Park or the Great American Wonderland. Calfee also toured the country giving lectures illustrated with lantern slides. Calfee was also a member of the 1873 Rosebud gold prospecting expedition. The party of 149 prospectors and trappers traveled from Bozeman along the Yellowstone R. to Rosebud Creek in search of gold. The group had several violent encounters with the Sioux and wound up with no gold for all their efforts. [113] [79u] [25g] [97s;H.B. Calfee Stereograph Collection] [119b] [97p;119] [Bozeman Avant-Courier 5/27/1875] [56m;1301] Cammerer, Arno B . Arno Cammerer was Stephen Mather’s assistant director from 1919 to 1929 after Horace Albright left the position to serve as superintendent of Yellowstone. Cammerer continued in that position when Albright became NPS director following the death of Stephen Mather. Cammerer became National Park Service director from Aug. 10, 1933 to August 9, 1940. He was born in 1883 in Arapahoe, Nebraska and received his law degree in 1911 from Georgetown University Law School. Under his administration the Historic Sites Act was passed, the National Park Foundation was established, and parks visitation increased from 2 million to 16 million per year. He suffered a heart attack in 1939 while under a tremendous work load and resigned in 1940. Newton B. Drury replaced him as Director. Another heart attack April 30, 1941 took the life of Arno B. Cammerer. [25;23] [National Park Service: The First 75 Years - Biographical Vignettes] Cannon, William C . Wm. Cannon, nephew to a powerful House member, was appointed by Secretary Teller in 1883 as one of the 10 first assistant superintendents. He served under Supt. Conger. [10;236] Carpenter, Frank & Ida . Frank Carpenter and sister Ida were members of the Radersburg party of 1877 that were attacked by Nez Perce in Aug. After being held captive for two days, Frank and his sisters Ida and Mrs. Emma Cowan, were released across the river from Mud Geyser and led to safety by Poker Joe. Frank later wrote a book of his experiences during the ordeal, titled “Wonders of Geyser Land,” later republished by McWhorter and Guie as “Adventures in Geyser Land.” [16a;112-19] Carpenter, Robert . Robert Carpenter was the 4th Park Superintendent serving in 1884-85. He was removed from office when he conspired with the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. to privatize certain tracts of the park for private and personal use. He opened up the Shack Hotel at Old Faithful with Carroll Hobart in 1885. Carpenter and Hobart also opened a crude hotel at Lower Geyser Basin, near Marshall’s Hotel. Feuding over financial matters with the Hobart brothers caused Carpenter to leave the scene after 1885. [16a;136] [25L;25] Carson, Christophe r 'Kit' Carson was a famed Rocky Mountain explorer who prospected across the Yellowstone area in 1849. The party included Jim Bridger, Lou Anderson, Soos and about 20 others. [97p;16] Chadbourne, Allen Wright A.W. Chadbourne was born in Ohio in 1843 and later drove cattle on the Chisholm Trail and operated bull and mule teams. He married Dolly Masoner in 1879 and came to Montana around 1880. In 1882 they purchased a ranch in the area that would become the town of Cinnabar. He began hauling tourists into the park from the Northern Pacific railhead at Cinnabar in 1884. He also ran camping and saddle outfits in the park until 1901. His company was known as the “Yellowstone Park Transportation & Camping Outfit.” It was noted in 1893 that he added $2,000 worth of Concord coaches and surreys to his outfit. With the formation of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co in 1892, Chadbourne and many of the other small, private transportation operators lost some of their transportation rights after the 1893 season. In 1901 he traded his business to George Wakefield for his Shields Valley Ranch. The small town of Chadborn was named after him. Dolly died in June of 1943 and A.W. followed soon after in September. [LE; 6/24/1893] [117] [71c] See my Smaller Camps webpage for more info on Chadbourne! ​ Chambers, William . He was appointed one of the first assistant superintendents, serving under Supt. Conger. [10;236] Chestnut, Col. J.D . Col. Chestnut founded a small tent camp at Boiling River in 1871 for invalids to soak in the ‘medicinal waters’. The area became known as Chestnutville. Matthew McGuirk took over the area the following year. Chestnut discovered a vein of coal in 1873 in Rocky Canyon, about 8 miles from Bozeman. [25L;26] [97p;70] Chief Joseph . He was one of the leaders of the Nez Perce who accompanied the Indians on the 1877 raid and journey through Yellowstone during their flight from injustice in their homeland of Oregon. He generally avoided violence with the white men whenever possible. He and many of his followers surrendered to the army on Oct. 4 of that year in the Bear Paw Mountains. It is there that he was reported to have stated “… from where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever,” although the speech is generally credited to an enterprising reporter on the scene. [25L;27] ​ Child, Adelaide . Adelaide Child, nee Adelaide Dean, born in October 1861, became the wife of Harry Child in 1883. She was sister to Anna Dean, who married Silas S. Huntley, Child’s partner. Their children were Ellen dean and Huntley. Adelaide died Oct. 17, 1949. [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004] Child, Ellen Dean . Daughter of H.W. Child, Ellen Dean Child married William Nichols in 1905. Upon his death in 1957, she got involved in company management, becoming Chairman of the Board by 1960. She remained a member of the board until the sale of Yellowstone Park Co. to Goldfield Enterprises/General Baking Co. in 1966. [25L;27] Child, Harry W. Harry Child was born in San Francisco in 1856 and arrived in Montana in 1876. He was considered the “Father” of the lodging and transportation operations in Yellowstone until his death in 1931. Child was a businessman in Helena prior to his arrival in Yellowstone, working in the mining, banking and transportation fields. By 1882 he was managing the Gloster and Gregory silver mines, with his father apparently bankrolling the operations. He married Adelaide Dean in 1883. He formed the Helena, Hot Springs and Smelter Railroad Co. in 1889 with Edmund Bach and two other men. The business was forced into receivership and sold at public auction in 1891. For a time he was also an agent for the Gilmer & Salisbury Stage lines. He began his Yellowstone career in 1892 with the creation of the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. (YNPTCo) with Edmund Bach and Silas Huntley, along with Aaron and L.H. Hershfield. In 1898 Child, Huntley, and Bach formed the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) that took over the operations of the YNPTCo. All of the transportation operations in the park were consolidated into YPTCo under Child’s control after the 1916 season. Child got involved in the hotel business in 1901 when he, along with Bach and Huntley, purchased the YPA. By 1905 Child owned 50% of YPA and the NPRY owned the other half. He formed the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. in 1909, and bought out the camping/lodge operations in 1928. Child purchased a large interest in the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. in 1905, but was forced to give up his holdings with the consolidations of 1916-17. He took over the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. in 1911 and created the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. He ran all of these businesses until his death in 1931 at La Jolla, Calif., at age 75. Son-in-law Wm. Nichols then took over and all of the operations, which were merged together to form the Yellowstone Park Co. in 1936. The family continued to own the operation until 1966 when the company and assets were sold to Goldfield Enterprises. [25g] [YNP Archives, A17, Box YPC153] [62k; Helena, Hot Springs and Smelter RR Co. files] Child, Huntley . Huntley Child, son of H.W. Child, served as vice-president of Yellowstone Park Hotel Co in 1909 and held a 2% share of the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co in 1916. During that time Harry Child became ill and Huntley was trying to manage the business for him. He was an impetuous youth and ran into trouble with NPS Director Mather in 1917. His father soon recuperated and banished him from the park business. He moved to New York, then on to Seattle, eventually dying in La Jolla, Calif. [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004] ​ Child, Huntley Jr. Huntley Child, Jr., son of Huntley Child and grandchild of Harry Child, came to work for the family business in 1938. He became manager of the Lodge Division of Yellowstone Park Co. in 1949 after Ed Moorman retired at the end of the 1948 season. He became a vice-president of YPCo in the 1950’s, along with John Q. Nichols, son of William Nichols. [25L;27] [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004] ​ Chittenden, Hiram . Hiram Chittenden was in charge of road design and construction from 1891-93, and 1899-06. He designed the original Chittenden Bridge at Canyon, the Roosevelt Arch and the original Fishing Bridge. During his tenure the Sylvan Pass and Craig Pass roads were completed, the Tower Bridge constructed, and the road over Washburn was completed with a spur to the top. By the time of his departure, over 100 miles of road were being sprinkled with water for dust control. In 1895 he published “The Yellowstone National Park”, a classic history of the early days of the park that is still in print. [25L;28] Chittenden was born Oct. 25, 1858 in Yorkshire, New York. He graduated from West Point in 1884 and joined the Army Corps of Engineers. He later published a 3-volume tome entitled "The American Fur Trade of the Far West." He also published histories on early steamboat travel on the Missouri River and on the life of Father de Smet. He suffered a stroke in 1910 and retired from the military as a Brigadier-General. He died in Seattle Oct. 9, 1917. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Clark, James A . James Clark constructed a small tent hotel at the base of Capitol Hill in 1885 and was granted a 4-acre lease for 10 years that permitted him to build a hotel and necessary outbuildings. He also established a transportation and guide service that year for his guests. It was a partnership with E.O. Clark and was known as the ‘National Park Hack & Express’. They advertised renting carriages, hacks, and saddle horses, with or without drivers. The Livingston Enterprise noted in 1885 that “Clark’s Town" is located at the foot of Capitol Hill and contains five houses and a number of tents.” By 1886 Clark was operating the ‘Cooke Stage & Express Line’, and received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail and stage contract in 1887. Two years later he was making tri-weekly trips to Cooke, with an overnight stop at the Soda Butte Stage Station. James sold his transportation business in 1889 to A.T. French, who received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail route franchise. Clark was never able to build the hotel as promised in his lease and sold out his hotel interests in 1888 to George Wakefield and the firm of White, Friant & Letellier. Early in 1889 Clark applied for a lease to erect a hotel at Soda Butte, but was turned down by Interior due to his past record. Clark was also involved in several mining ventures at Cooke City. [43m] [LE; 5/15/1886; 6/13/1885; 6/21/1885; 5/28/1887; 6/16/1888; 10/27/1888; 5/29/1889; 12/21/1889] [YNP Army Files Doc. 85] [25g] Clark, John. John Clark was Postmaster at the Firehole PO from 1886-91. [25L;29] Clawson, Calvin C . Calvin Clausen was a member of the Raymond-Clawson tourist party of 1871. He was accompanied by Rossiter W. Raymond, A.F. Thrasher and others, and was guided by Gilman Sawtell of Henry’s Lake. The group has been recognized as the 1st commercial tourist party to enter Yellowstone. [25L;29] Clause, Joe . Joe Clause (Joe Claus) built the first cabin around 1906-07 in the area that would later become West Yellowstone. For a number of years he took camping parties into the park with horses and wagons. In 1918 he offered 5-day trips that included transportation, board, and lodging for $25.00. It was $2.50 extra for each day if a guest wanted to stopover at a given location. Saddle horses were an extra $1.00 per day. [18t] [Ed. Frank Allen, A Guide to the National Parks, 1918] Cody, William. Wm. Cody, also known as Buffalo Bill Cody, helped to found the town of Cody in 1896. He built the Irma Hotel there in 1902 and also established the town’s 1st newspaper. He opened up the Pahaska Tepee Lodge at the east entrance in 1903-04, and the Wapiti Inn about midway from Cody, serving both tourists and hunters in the nearby forest areas. He applied to the park to take over the business of the ailing Holm Transportation Co. in 1915. However, Holm’s business improved and Cody’s request was denied. He died in 1917 on the way to Denver and was buried there, much to the chagrin of the residents of Cody. [25L;29] Colpitts, George . George Colpitts was born in 1855 in New Brunswick, Canada, he and his wife Mary arrived in Coulson Mt. (present day Billings) in 1880. They moved to Livingston in 1882, following the progress of the Northern Pacific RR. Within a few years he had opened a blacksmith shop at Gardiner, and later became employed by the Army at Mammoth. He also opened a blacksmith shop in Castle (NE of Livingston) in 1889. Later that year his shop in Gardiner burned down, along with other businesses. George followed old gold miners to Alaska in 1897-98 to seek his fortune. He returned to Livingston in 1898 and eventually set up a shop with Al Robertson - "Colpitts & Robertson, General Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights." Colpitts received a blacksmith contract in December of 1903 for work on the new Old Faithful Inn, which was under construction. He and his helpers made all the wrought iron work for the Inn, including the massive front door hardware, the fireplace clock, screens, tongs, popcorn maker, iron candelabra, and all the guest room door numbers and locks. The job necessitated his opening a second shop in Livingston and using Frank Holem's shop in Gardiner. [18p] Colter, John . John Colter was born ca1774 near Staunton, Virginia and enlisted with Lewis & Clark's expedition October 15, 1803 and became one of their favorite hunters. He traveled with the Lewis & Clark expedition in 1804-06 and on the return trip, met up with Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock. Lewis & Clark allowed him leave to quit their party and join the two trappers. They returned to the Greater Yellowstone area, probably settling in on the eastern side of the Absaroka Mountains for the winter. Colter later received credit for being the first white man to set foot in Yellowstone. He became a fur trapper and discovered what became Yellowstone Park and Colter’s Hell (near Cody Wyoming, along the Shoshone River) in the winter of 1807-08. A few years later he was forced to `run for his life’ from the Blackfoot after his trapping partner John Potts was killed while traveling near Three Forks, Montana. He is reported to have covered over 300 miles in eleven days – naked and on foot. His only gear was a blanket and broken spear point. In 1810 Blackfoot again attacked him while he was in the company of Andrew Henry and members of the Missouri Fur Co. Eight of the men were killed. He decided afterwards he had enough of the Rocky Mountains and left the country April 22, 1910. He returned to St. Louis, Missouri, taking 30 days for the trip. He married and became a farmer, settling near the famed Daniel Boone. He died in 1813 of jaundice. [25L;30] [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Comfort, N.W . N.W. Comfort and his wife were permitted to graze cattle in the Blacktail Plateau area in 1879. They had driven and team and 400 head of cattle from Oregon via Henry's Lake and through the park. [25L;30] [1879 Supt's Report] Comstock, Theodore Bryant . Theodore Comstock was a geologist for the Capt. W.A. Jones military expedition of 1873. He was born at Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio on July 27, 1847 to Calvin J. and Amelia M. (Hanford) Comstock. He graduated from Cornell in 1870 and accompanied an expedition to Brazil as an assistant geologist. Comstock was a professor at a number of institutions between 1871 and 1889, teaching natural science and history, and geology. He participated in geological surveys in Kentucky, Arkansas and Texas. In 1891 he became the founder and director of the Arizona School of Mines in Tucson and served as president of the University of Arizona in 1893. He was involved in numerous mining operations and was a member of a variety of professional societies. [16a;105] [The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, Johnson, Rossiter & Brown, Howard, eds., 1904] Conger, Patrick A . Patrick Conger was the 3rd Park Superintendent who served from 1882-84. Hiram Chittenden described his administration as weak and inefficient. Conger resigned July 28, 1884. [16a;136] Cook, Charles W . Charles Cook was a member of the Folsom-Cook-Peterson expedition of 1869. He first headed west to the Colorado gold fields in the early 1860s before moving on to Virginia City, Montana in 1864. He moved to Confederate Gulch the following year and began managing the Boulder Ditch Co., which supplied water to the mines in Diamond City. He hired William Peterson to work for him and later hired David Folsom in 1868. After the Yellowstone Expedition he went into ranching and raised a family near what is now White Sulfur, Montana. He lived a long life and was able to attend the Park’s fiftieth anniversary in 1922. He died five years later at age 88. [31] Cooke, Jay. Jay Cooke became head of the Northern Pacific RR in 1868 and led the company until his bankruptcy in 1873. Prior to the Washburn Expedition, Cooke hired Nathaniel Langford as a sort of publicity agent to help spread the word of the wonders of the western lands that the railroad would be passing through. Cooke City was named after him in their attempts to attract a rail line to the gold mines there. [25L;31] Coulter, John Merle. John Coulter, a member of the Hayden Expedition of 1872, became one of the scientific community's greatest botanists. He accompanied geographer Henry Gannett, ethnologist Wm. H. Holmes, zoologist C. Hart Meriam and others. [10;29] Cowan, George . George Cowan and his wife Emma were members of the Radersburg party of 1877 that was attacked by Nez Perce in late Aug. While being forced to travel up Nez Perce Cr. with Indians, George was shot in the thigh, the head and was left for dead. The shot to the head did not penetrate the skull and Cowan came to and tried to crawl to safety. He was again shot in the thigh and left for dead. He later revived and spent four days crawling to one of the party's abandoned camps. There he found matches, coffee and other staples. He was rescued by Gen. Howard's scouts, but not before his campfire spread and burned him. It was a month before Cowan made it back to Bozeman, but not before the wagon carrying him overturned, dumping him down the slope. Upon finally entering the hotel, his bed collapsed, dropping him to the floor. He managed to survive all these incidents. He wife was released unharmed by the Ne Perce several days after George was first shot. George was born Feb. 10, 1842 near Columbus, Ohio and raised near Oshkosh, Wisconsin. In 1865 he moved out to Montana and settled in Last Chance Gulch in Helena where he engaged in mining and legal work. He was admitted to the bar in 1872 and moved to Radersburg, Montana, where he married Emma J. Carpenter in 1875. The family moved to Spokane in 1910 where George Cowan died in the late fall of 1926. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [16a;118-20] [30;220-36] Cowan, Emma J . (Carpenter) Emma J. Carpenter (Emma Cowan) was born in 1854 somewhere in the East and moved to Alder Gulch, Montana with her parents during the Gold Rush and Vigilante era in 1864. She first visited the Yellowstone region and the geysers in 1873, making her among the earliest women to visit Yellowstone. She moved to Spokane in 1910 with her husband George and died there on Dec. 20, 1938 at age 84. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Crandall, Jack . Jack Crandall was a gold prospector who had worked the Crevice Gulch area in 1867-69 with Arch Graham and Findley. Crandall and Findley were killed by Indians in Aug. of 1869 in the Crandall Creek area east of the park. [97p;76] has this to say about Crandall: "Jack Crandall was a roaming prospector, who traveled extensively in the area [Greater Yellowstone]. While in route with a partner to a rendezvous to meet several prospectors’ friends at the headwaters of the Clarks Fork, they were tracked and murdered at their camp while eating by a marauding band of Indians. Their heads were found severed and stuck on one end of their picks with the other end in the ground. The cups belonging to the men had been placed in front of their spitted heads. Their bodies were not found until the following year. This happed near the mouth of Crandall Creek on the east bank. Through the generosity of Caroline Lockhart, a bronze plaque was mounted on a large boulder to mark the graves of these hardy mountaineers." Crissman, Joshua . Joshua Crissman was born in 1883 in Madison Ohio, and came west in the late 1860’s. He was in Bozeman by 1871 and accompanied the Hayden expedition into Yellowstone that year as photographer. He took photos alongside Henry Jackson and had prints made of Yellowstone on his return to Bozeman. His prints were actually produced prior to those of Jackson and became the first publicly viewed photos of Yellowstone. He returned to the park in 1873 and 1874 to take additional photos. By 1879 his photos and stereoviews were being sold by Wm. I. Marshall and others. E.H. Train and C.D. Kirkland also sold Crissman’s views under their own names. Many of his early views were mistakenly attributed to Jackson and he never received the fame or respect due him. He moved to Salt Lake City in the mid-1870’s. By 1880 he had setup a photo shop in Laramie City, Wyoming, but eventually moved to Southern California to do business. He died in 1922. [79u; Joshua Crissman] [119b] Culver, Ellery Channing E.C. Culver was born April 28, 1842 in Shoreham, Addison County, Vermont. He enlisted in the 34th Ohio Volunteer Infantry in 1861 and served in the Civil War for 4 years. Sometime after his discharge, he moved west to Montana seeking gold and was well established in Virginia City by 1871. By 1881 he lived in the areas surrounding Billings and became a businessman in that city in 1884. He married Mattie Gillette (nee Martha Jane Shipley) on April 6, 1886. Mattie was born September 18, 1856 in Lowell Mass. They had a daughter named Theda born in Billings June 22, 1887. Culver came to the park in 1887 with E.C. Waters as ‘Master of Transportation’, holding that position until 1892. He and Mattie spent the summers of 1887-88 at the Firehole Hotel (Marshall Hotel) and Ellery became winterkeeper for the hotel during the winter of 1888-89. Mattie suffered through the winter from tuberculosis and died March 2 of that spring and was buried nearby. Her grave and headstone can still be viewed at the Nez Perce picnic area. She was 30 years old at the time. Daughter Theda was sent to Spokane to live with relatives. In 1892 Culver was appointed US Court Commissioner for Wyoming, with headquarters at Mammoth, serving for 2 years. He was in charge of the Norris Lunch Station in 1893 and went to work for the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) in 1894. Culver served as the train agent for YPTCo riding the rails from Livingston to Gardiner, giving impromptu talks along the way. He later traveled throughout the country for the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) giving promotional lectures. He became postmaster in Gardiner on Oct. 4, 1897 and ran the nearby Post Office Store. He gave up those enterprises early in 1904 because of his health. Later in the year he returned to work as the train 'runner'. Health problems again forced him to retire in July 1908. In 1909 he moved to the Sawtelle National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers in Southern California He died April 17, 1922 and was buried in the National Soldier's Home Cemetery. [LE 4/3/1892] [31;23,65] [15b] [100e;87-122] This story about E.C. Culver comes from the New Zealand Star, April 3, 1897 YELLOWSTONE PARK. Perhaps the most popular man connected with the Yellowstone Park Transportation Company, is Captain E. C. Culver, of Gardner. In addition to the duties of justice of the peace, he makes a daily trip on the park train, and personally interviews every man, boy, woman and child who travels on it. He is a walking encyclopedia of park information. He knows the height of every peak, the altitude of every important location, and can give you Professor Hayden's theory of the park's geological formation. Besides all this he is a prince of good fellows, and has a fund of humor which sometimes carries him away when touching up descriptions and legends of the park. Some time ago the captain had an experience which was too good to keep, and he gave it away to a friend in town. He was going from the Springs to Cinnabar, and there were three very bright young ladies on the coach. One of them asked if it were customary to have so many mosquitoes in so high an altitude. The captain assured her that it was not unusual, that they were increasing year by year; that no mosquitoes were ever known in the park until, about eight years ago, a New Jersey schoolma'am had carelessly enclosed some in her trunk and let them out at Mammoth Hot Springs, when, like rabbits in Australia, they became an increasing pest. All agreed that it was remarkable, but one girl seemed to carry a smile of incredulity. As the conversation continued, Mr. Culver was asked what he considered the most remarkable thing in the park. He said that if beauty and grandeur were to be left out of the count, he thought the most remarkable thing was Alum Creek, a little stream putting into the river between the falls and the lake. Originally, he said, the distance between the hotels at the lake and the falls was twenty-six miles, but when they commenced to sprinkle the road between the two places with water taken from Alum Creek some years ago, they soon found the distance between the hotels shortened by about eight miles. As the hotels were then only about eighteen miles apart and the road still shrinking, the superintendent ordered them to use no more water from Alum Creek. And then the captain told another little legend about the creek that was quite well authenticated. Last year, he said, a party went through the park on a camping tour, and a young lady with them came into the park wearing No. 8 shoes. After camping on Alum Creek two days and bathing her feet, she went home wearing a pair of No. 2 gaiters. At this point the girl with the incredulous smile said to him, "Don't you think it would be a good plan to bathe your head in that creek a time or two?" Curry, David A. David Curry was a teacher who began guiding tourists with his wife into Yellowstone using covered wagons in 1892 out of Ogden, Utah. He conducted two tours that first summer. The first was to leave June 27th for 17 days. The $65 cost included everything. His ads solicited "Teachers, students and anybody of good character." Twenty people was the desired number of travelers for the trip. Apparently business was slow that first summer, as on June 26 an ad appeared cutting the rate to $50 with a scheduled departure of July 4th. In 1895 he led a trip consisting of 37 tourists, transported in five 4-horse wagons, one 2-horse wagon, three 4-horse baggage wagons, along with nine teamsters, a cook and four assistants. An ad in 1897 touted an 18-day trip for $76.40, leaving from Ogden. He conducted tours every summer until he and his wife left Yellowstone in 1899 to found the famous Curry Camp in Yosemite National Park. [25L;33] [98; Ogden Standard Examiner: 6/15/1892; 6/26/1892; 8/3/1895; 7/1/1896;] Check out my Curry Camping Co. page for mor info!! Cutler, Robert Eugene. ‘Buckskin Jim’ Robert Cutler's stubbornness and various mining claims around Gardiner prevented the NPRR from reaching the town of Gardiner for 20 years. The railroad was forced to stop at Cinnabar in 1883 because they were unable to obtain the right-of-way through Cutler’s properties that had been leased from James McCartney. Cutler also sublet parcels of the land to other residents, who later claimed to have purchased them from Cutler. NPRy eventually obtained right-of-way and the line continued to Gardiner in 1902. Cutler also had a homestead in Lamar Valley around 1882 with George Jackson that in later years became the site of the Buffalo Ranch. Representatives of Supt. Carpenter forcibly removed Cutler, Jackson and Jack Rutherford in November of 1884. Cutler drew his gun on the two men, but Rutherford stopped him from shooting. Cutler was arrested and received a $75 fine for his actions from the judge in Evanston, Wyoming. He was later elected Justice of the Peace for Cooke City in 1889. Cutler was also involved in a shooting in Gardiner in 1907. After arguments and a fight with Axel Hill and others regarding contract work for Cutler, Hill left and later returned with a gun and shot at Cutler. He missed but Cutler returned fire hitting Hill in the chest and leg. Hill died and Cutler was later acquitted of a murder charge on grounds of self-defense. [31] [LE; 10/12/1889] [115] Curl, John F. John Curl was among the earliest businessmen in the mining camp of Cooke City in 1883 and later moved to Gardiner to operate a hotel in that burg. Curl was born in 1853 in Pennsylvania and moved to Cooke City in 1883 where he operated the Curl House hotel and was involved in the mining business and was in partnership in various mining properties with George Huston and Adam "Horn" Miller. Curl and his wife Zona sold their properties in Cooke City and moved to Gardiner around 1915 and ran the Cottage Hotel on Main Street. The family moved after 2-3 years to Bozeman so that his children Mary Margaret (born 1898) and Thomas (born 1902) could attend college. John died October 1, 1924 at 71 years of age and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston. His pallbearers included W.A. Hall and Herb French. Mary Margaret Ingram died Feb. 9, 1959 and Thomas died in 1961. ​ Dean, James H. James Dean was one of the assistant superintendents under Supt. Conger in 1883, serving until June of 1885. He spent the summer of 1884 with his family at Norris in a small house built for them by the government. However it was unsuitable to withstand the cold, harsh winters and they moved to Mammoth to live that winter. He became clerk at the Firehole Hotel in 1885, serving there for several years. In 1888 he was hired to manage the Cottage Hotel at Mammoth, the year before the GL Henderson family sold the operation to the Yellowstone Park Association. Dean managed the National Hotel in 1891 and was appointed Superintendent of YPA in 1892, having supervision of all the park hotels. His office was located in the National Hotel. He served as president of YPA from at 1896 (or 1898) until 1901, when Harry Child, Edmund Bach and Silas Huntley bought out the company. Around 1902 he resigned from the company and went to live with a nephew Mr. Charles Picken (or Pickings) near Harmony Grove in Maryland. By 1910 James and Rebecca had moved to California and were living in Coronado Beach, near San Diego. James died October 17, 1919 in Coronado Beach after being in ill health and suffering a stroke the previous year. He was about 75 years of age and was survived by his widow. James H. Dean was born around 1844 in New Market, Frederick County, Maryland. His future wife Rebecca T. Pickings (or Picken) was born in Maryland around 1845. By 1869 Dean was living in the town of Frederick, MD and went to work as a steward at the Maryland school for the Deaf and Dumb. The school had just opened the previous year and served about 60 students, 25 of them that had never received any formal schooling. The school taught sign language, the finger alphabet, writing, speech, lip reading, along with vocational skills such as shoemaking, carpentry, printing, dressmaking, sewing, and housework. He held that position until 1877. At that time he went to work for a hotel and restaurant called the Old Dill House in Frederick. By 1879 the hotel became known as the Carlin House, after proprietor Frank B. Carlin. Around 1898 it was renamed Hotel Burgess, after the new owner. In 1883 he traveled to Yellowstone with Rebecca to work as an assistant superintendent. [LE;7/18/1885;10/10/1891; 4/2/1892;12/19/1896; 4/9/1898] [30;300-02] [10;172] [The News, Frederick, Md; 3/1/1888; 5/3/1890; 10/19/1889; 7/30/1894; 12/12/1898; 1/10/1899; 9/29/1902; [Frederick Post; 10/30/1919] Deckard, Frank. Frank Deckard was born December 6, 1874 at Ranier, Oregon, Frank began freighting in Yellowstone at age 17. He married Susan Elnora Hanson on 11/29/1876, but was later divorced. He owned a ranch near Jardine for 35 years that he sold to the government in 1929, but continued to live in Jardine. He was found dead Sunday, Oct. 26, 1930 in his cabin on Buffalo Flat near Jardine. He had a bullet hole through the head above the right ear. A .38 Colt revolver was found in his hand and it was determined that the death was self-inflicted. Services were held in the Gardiner Eagles Hall with Clarence Scoyen officiating. Burial was in the Gardiner Cemetery. [YNP Vert. Files: Deckard; Park County News, 10/30/1930] DeLacy, Walter W . W.W. DeLacy was the leader of a gold-prospecting expedition in 1863 (he called his companions the ‘Forty Thieves’) that discovered Shoshone Lake and its drainage to the Snake River. He compiled the first accurate map of the park two years later. Unfortunately his findings were not published until 1876, long after other maps and charts had been produced by various other expeditions in the early 1870’s. His historical ‘claim-to-fame’ was thwarted by his delay in publishing his findings. DeLacy Creek is named after him. DeLacy was born Feb. 22, 1819 at Petersburg, Virginia. He graduated from St. Mary's College in Maryland and became a railroad surveyor in 1839. He taught for the Navy and spend much time at sea before retiring and returning to civil engineering in 1846. He participated in the war with Mexico, helped engineer the Mullan Road in Montana, and laid out the site of Fort Benton on the Missouri River. He was in the Sioux War of 1867 and participated in numerous other surveys in Montana and Idaho. He later became a city engineer in Helena and died there May 13, 1892. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [25L;34] DeMaris, Charles. In 1886 Charles DeMaris discovered and developed the hot springs on the western edge of Cody that still bear his name. DeMaris was born in Ottawa, Canada in 1827 and moved to Chicago with his parents at age nine. He became involving in the building contracting trade and lumber business in Chicago and Michigan. He relocated to Louisiana at the close of the Civil War, but dissatisfied with the area, headed north on a steamboat to Fort Benton and pushed on to Leesburg Basin in Idaho to mine for gold. His efforts were successful and in 1871 he bought cattle and entered the stock raising business. DeMaris sold his mining interests in 1879 and drove his cattle to Montana to graze on lands where Billings now stands. He removed to the DeMaris Hot Springs in 1886 and touted the purported healing qualities of those waters. Around 1895 the future town of Cody was plotted around the Springs area, but various problems caused the town to be moved east to its present location in 1896. DeMaris married Nellie Fitzgerald of Cody in 1898, who assisted Charles greatly in the development of the hot springs. The couple had a son named Charles, born around 1901. Charles Sr. died June 26, 1914 at his home at the Springs. He was 87 years of age and was buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Cody. [Park County Enterprise, 6/2/1914] Dewing, Jennie Henderson Jennie Henderson was the daughter of G.L. Henderson and wife of John Dewing, she operated a general store at Mammoth from 1883-1908. (See ‘Ash, Jennie’ and ‘Henderson, Jennie’) Click Here to read the article I wrote on Jennie Henderson Ash and her General Store for the Spring 2005 issue of Yellowstone Science. ​ Dietrich, Richard. Richard Dietrich was a member of the Helena party during the fateful summer of 1877 when the Nez Perce made their forey through the park. Escaping from a skirmish at Otter Creek, Dietrich, along with Andrew Weikert and Leslie Wilkie made it safely back to Mammoth Hot Springs, but their friend Charles Kenck was killed. Weikert and James McCartney went back to Otter Creek to look for Kenck while Dietrich remained at McCartney's cabin at Mammoth. Yellow Wolf, a member of the Nez Perce, later told what happened to Dietrich, a music teacher from Helena: "It was coming towards sundown when we saw a white man standing in the doorway of a house. We stopped not far from him but did not dismount. We sat on our horses, six or seven of us, thinking. Chuslum Hahlap Kanoot (Naked-foot Bull) said to me, 'My two young brothers and next younger brother were not warriors. They and a sister were killed at Big Hole. It was just like this man did that killing of my brothers and sister. He is nothing but a killer to become a soldier sometime. We are going to kill him now. I am a man! I am going to shoot him! When I fire, you shoot after me.' "Dietrich was killed August 28, 1877 and his body was returned to Helena for burial. [Billings Gazette, 8/26/2002, "Wrong Place, Wrong Time for Music Teacher"] Dingee, William A . William Dingee was a member of the ill-fated Cowen-Radersburg party that visited Yellowstone in the summer of 1877 and was attached by the marauding Nez Perce Indians (see George Cowen). Dingee and A.J. Arnold managed to escape when other members of their party were taken captive. He was born Jan. 1, 1834 at Highland Falls, New York and joined the Colorado gold rush in 1859. He left for Montana during its gold rush and arrived in Bannack on May 17, 1863. He eventually moved to Helena and became a merchant. He died in Helena November 13, 1899 at age 65. [Society of Montana Pioneers Register, Vol. 1, 1899; The NY Times, 11/14/1899 ] Doane, Lt. Gustavus C . Gustavus Doane was born May 29, 1840 at Galesburg, Illinois. He traveled with his parents by ox train to Oregon in 1846. He graduated college in California and enlisted in the Army in 1862 and commissioned first lieutenant in 1864. He retired from the military after the war and served briefly as mayor of Yazoo City in Mississippi. He re-joined the Army in 1868 and was appointed 2nd Lt. in the US Regulars and stationed at Ft. Ellis in 1869. Early in 1870 he was a participant in the massacre of a Piegan village on the Marias River in which 173 Indians were killed, only 33 of which were men. He accompanied the Washburn Expedition of 1870 with a small contingent of soldiers (one sergeant and four privates). The following year he guided the Hayden Expedition into the park. Doane was with the first command to reach the devastated Custer battle site in 1876 and assisted with burial duties. Late that year he and a small crew attempted to float the Snake River from its source to the mouth at the Columbia River. The boat capsized early in the trip and the attempt was given up. He volunteered for Arctic duty late in 1877. In 1878 he married the daughter of the founder of Hunter Hot Springs in Springdale, Montana. He became a captain in 1884 and died in Bozeman May 5, 1892. [15b] [25g;19,26] [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] Dobson, David. David Dobson and Wm. Ramsdell approached Jennie Henderson in 1883 to have her sell coated specimens in her post office store on a consignment basis. The two men had received permission to coat various articles in the mineral-laden waters of the Mammoth Terraces. By 1888 Dobson was serving as the mail carrier for the Cooke City route. [25j] ​ Douglas, Henry F. Henry Douglas was the post trader at Fort Yates in the Dakota Territory and apparently had political connections in Washington DC. Douglas and Carroll Hobart filed an application in July 1882 for a 10-year lease on 4400 acres of park land for their exclusive use in constructing and operating a hotel and transportation system. In January 1883 the two men formed the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. with Rufus Hatch as financier. In March the Secretary of Interior negated their lease, changing most of the exclusive terms and lowering the lease acreage to 10 acres, divided between seven areas. The company went bankrupt in 1885 and was replaced by YPA. [25L;35] Drury, Newton Bishop Newton B. Drury served as NPS Director from Aug. 20, 1940 to Mar. 31,1951. He was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt due to his uncompromising attitude toward anti-conservationists and commercial interest groups. Earlier on he was with the Save the Redwood League in California and served as a research associate with the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1938-43). He resigned in 1951 over differences with the secretary of Interior under President Truman. Drury returned to the Save the Redwoods League in 1959 and was instrumental in the creation of Redwood National Park in 1968 in California. Drury was an honorary vice president of the Sierra Club. He died December 15, 1978. [25L;35] [Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian naturalists and Environmentalists, ed. by Sterling, Harmond, Cevasco, & Hammond] Ducharme, Baptiste . Baptiste Ducharme was born March 15, 1781 near Montreal and joined Gen. Ashley’s expedition of 1822 as a trapper. He trapped for Bonneville in 1823. He became a free trapper in 1824 and claimed to have gone up to the head of the Yellowstone River. He crossed over to the head of the Snake River and came down the Firehole River past the geysers. Ducharme lived in the Rocky Mountains until the early 1840’s. E.S. Topping talked to Ducharme prior to his writing his book in 1885 and Ducharme was still able to describe the many geysers he saw. [97p;14-15] [2] Duret, Joseph . Joseph "Frenchy" Duret was born in France around 1862. He arrived in Stillwater County in 1885 and in the early 1890s owned property in both Gardiner and Cooke City. For five years he hunted and fished, and operated a butcher shop in Gardiner, providing fresh meat to Fort Yellowstone. He moved to the Slough Creek area, just outside of the park boundary around 1899. He was known to poach park animals and seemed to be in trouble with authorities on a regular basis. His wife claimed he had killed upwards of 200 bears in his 20 years on Slough Creek. Frenchy was killed by a grizzly June 12, 1922 that was caught in one of his traps. He apparently shot the bear to finish him off, but as Frenchy approached, the griz came back to life, broke the chain and mauled Frenchy to death. Rangers discovered his body the next day and buried him on his ranch. An article from the Roundup Record Tribune, dated August 4, 1922, described the events surrounding Duret's demise: "Yellowstone park rangers are trailing a huge grizzly bear that recently killed and partly devoured Joseph Duret, sixty, and old-time Montana trapper. Duret's body was found on Slough Creek, near the park, with an arm and a leg partly chewed off. Signs indicated the bear had been caught in one of Duret's traps, but had broken loose when the trapper came by on his rounds. Horace M. Albright, superintendent of the park, said there were evidences of a terrific battle, and a rifle, clawed and chewed, was found near the broken trap. One shot had been fired from the rifle and a bloody trail showed that the man crept a mile and a half after receiving his injuries." [Doris Whithorn, Twice Told on the Upper Yellowstone, Vol. 2] Dwelle, Harry F . Harry Dwelle moved from Ohio and settled in an area on the south fork of the Madison River about 5 miles from the West entrance in the early 1880’s. In 1884 he established Dwelle’s Stage Stop to service the Bassett Bros. stages that were running to the park from Beaver, Idaho. In 1898 Dwelle’s Inn (also known as Dwelle’s Madison Fork Ranch and the Grayling Inn) became an overnight stop for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. that transported tourists to the park from Monida. Monida & Yellowstone ceased using Dwelle’s Inn after the 1907 season when the Union Pacific RR (UPRR) reached the West entrance of the park. By that time Dwelle was also running a general store. He married Sarah Burnside in 1903. Acting park superintendent S.B.M. Young complained in 1907 that Dwelle’s “. . . place has been a resort of park poachers . . . the principle merchandise he deals in is intoxicants.” [18t]

  • | Yellowstone National Park History

    NEW!! "Geyser Bob Site Search" is live. Located on the Geyer Bob Home link. Search the whole site for your research needs. CLICK HERE to Begin Welcome to . . . ​ Geyser Bob's Greater Yellowstone History Athenaeum ​ Providing a bounty of historical information and archival photographs of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and the surrounding gateway communities in Montana, and Idaho. The most complete source of information on the historic hotels, camps, stores, gateway communities, and early concessionaires in Yellowstone! Heading 6 * athenaeum : (ath·e·ne·um) noun 1) an institution for the promotion of literary or scientific learning. 2) a library or reading room. ​ This new website is a work-in-progress, and will eventually replace my web site. Unfortunately, for the second time in 20 years, I (and others) are essentially being booted off from HostGator. The first time was when Yahoo dis-banded their Geocities web platform. This current issue is due to the Plesk Parallels platform no longer being supported by HostGator. Eventually my .org web site (mine and many others) will be turned off, but no timeline has been made available at this time. ​ So, bear with me as I slowly try to recreate and improve my Yellowstone histories with Luckily this new platform is much simpler and easier to use, and will create a more consistent theme across the many pages. Happy Trails, Robert V. Goss, aka Geyser Bob Email Me [Note: This is not a link, you will have type the address into your email.] About ​ For those of you new to my web site, it has very little (if any) information about Geysers. There are any number of web sites out there that can help you out with that sort of information. This is about Yellowstone's vast history of the tourist industry and those persons and companies that supported it. ​ Geyser Bob was a stagecoach driver for 30 years (1883-1913) in Yellowstone National Park. He was known as a teller of tall tales and a prevaricator extraordinaire, with just enough truth thrown in to cause many greenhorns, pilgrims, etc., new to the West, to actually believe him. ​ A newspaper writer in 1888, once described him: "There was until recently a driver in Yellowstone Park named Geyser Bob, whose reputation as a liar had gained him great renown. He was rocked in the cradle of prevarication, nurtured on distorted facts and arrived at vigorous manhood the champion all-round liar of the Rockies." ​ He seemed a likeable enough sort of fella, so I purloined his moniker as my web nom de plume. I hope he won't find offence. Ole Bob (Robert Edgar officially), once related a story of how he got his name (there are many): "One day a cultured lady from the East, who was receptive to any story told of the park, plied Bob with innumerable questions. She asked Bob if any one had ever fallen into a geyser and lived. ‘I told her that one time I was walking near the Giant geyser at Old Faithful basin and slipped in,’ said Bob. ‘The water carried me through the channel underground so fast that I did not have time to get burned and washed me up into the crater of Old Faithful and then threw me out. The lady believed the story and thought it was so good that she pointed me out as a world’s wonder and the boys christened me ‘Geyser Bob.’”

  • Yellowstone Postcards - 2 |

    Yellowstone Post Cards Vol. 2 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my Postcards Page that has been saved at ​ Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Bears-in-Circles Logo |

    Yellowstone Hotel & Transportation Companies ​ Bear-in-Circle Logo Through the Years Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yellowstone Park Association 1886-1909 Created in 1886 by the Northern Pacific RR to take over the properties and operation of the bankrupt YPIC. The heads of the company included Charles Gibson, Nelson C. Thrall, Frederick Billings, and John C. Bullitt. Harry Child, Edward Bach, and Silas Huntley purchased the company in 1901 with financing from the Northwest Improvement Co. Child acquired full ownership in 1907, and on December 9, 1909, Child had the name of the company changed to the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co . Top Left: This decal is 4" diameter. The photo for these decals was taken by F.J. Haynes in the early 1890's at the Fountain Hotel garbage dump. You can still see the cans in the foreground. In later years the foreground was stylized to represent small trees, logs and ​ Top Center: Paper decal, 1 inch,seen on envelopes, stationary, luggage, etc. ​ Top Right: Paper decal, 1 inch, for use on mailing envelopes. ​ Bottom Left: Paper decals, 1 inch size, perforated like stamps. ​ Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. 1909-1936 Formed Dec. 9, 1909 by H.W. Child to take over the operation of the Yellowstone Park Association, which he also owned. Son Huntley Child was chosen as vice-president and son-in-law William Nichols became secretary. Child remained head of the YPHCo until his death in 1931, when Wm. Nichols took over the helm. At that time Vernon Goodwin became vice-president and Hugh Galusha was retained as controller. The company remained in control of the park hotels until 1936, when the company was merged with the Yellowstone Park Boat Co., Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., and Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. to form the Yellowstone Park Company. Left: Paper decal, 1-1/2 in to 4 inch, used on luggage, envelopes, postcards, stationary, etc. Right: Metal pinback, about 1-1/4 inch diameter. Very prolific, even these days. Left: Paper decal, 1-1/2 in to 4 inch, used on luggage, envelopes, postcards, stationary, etc. Right: Brass watch fob from 1912. Stamped on back: Mid-West Delegation Chicago Special Yellowstone Park Company 1969-1979 Formed in 1936 under the direction of Wm. Nichols, with Vernon Goodwin as vice-president, Mrs. Harry Child was a principle stockholder. The company was formed by the mergers of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., Yellowstone Park Hotel Co., Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co., and the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. The company received a 20-year lease in August. The Child-Nichols family sold the company to Goldfield Enterprises on February 4, 1966 for 6.5 million dollars. Goldfield became a part of General Host, Inc. The Park Service, increasingly frustrated by General Host’s dismal record of service in the park, canceled the contract in October of 1979 and paid 19 million for all of YPCo’s park buildings and assets. TWA Services received the new concession contract later that year and changed the name of the company. Very common paper decal, found in sizes 1-1/2 and 4 inch. 12 inch water-transfer decal were used on the side door panels of company vehicles. Soft cloth patch that could be sewn on to employee uniforms. Linen iron-patch used on employee uniforms TW Services, Amfac, and Xanterra Parks & Resorts. In 1979, the government bought out all the Yellowstone Park Co. assets in the Park, and a new short-term lease was granted to TWA Services, with extensions and renewals based on performance. The name was changed to TW Services in 1984 and TW Recreational Services in 1988. Amfac Parks & Resorts, who had purchased the Ferd Harvey Company in 1968, bought out TWR Services in 1995 and was renamed Xanterra Parks & Resorts in 2002. The top three items are all cloth patches for employee uniforms. To the left was a sew-on patch, about 4 inch size, while the other two were iron-on patches, about 3 inches in length.. ​ Bottom left is Amfac logo, using dark green lettering. To the right is a TWR paper decal about 3 inches long. Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. 1898 - 1936 Formed in 1898 by Harry Child, with brother-in-laws Silas Huntley and Edward Bach to take over the operation of the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co.. They received a 10-year lease on March 31. Huntley died about three years later and his shares reverted to NorthWest Improvement Co. Bach sold his shares to NWIC in 1902, leaving Child in full control. In 1917 the stagecoaches were put out to pasture and White Motor Co. buses took over the roads. William Nichols, who took over the company in 1931 after Child’s death, merged the YPTCo with the YPHC, YP Lodge & Camps Co., and the YP Boat Co. in 1936 to form the Yellowstone Park Co. YPTCo decal, 1-inch and 2-inch are known YPTCo brass badge, or driver's cap emblem. This dates to the 1920s - early 1930s. Yellowstone Park Co brass badge, or driver's cap emblem, about 2-inch in size.. This dates to the post-1936 era. Notice the 'T' missing in the center. Variations on a Theme From the 1890s to 1940s Top Left: Logo of the Lander-Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., who drove tourists from Lander, Wyo. to Moran Jct. near the Tetons. They began business in 1921 when a new highway opened over Togwotee Pass. The image is of Dick Washakie, son of famed Shoshone Chief Washakie. ​ Top Center: Logo for the Summit Hotel in Monida, Mont. It opened in 1898 when the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. began hauling tourists from Monida through the west entrance of Yellowstone, ​ Top Right: Logo for the Monida Line & the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Line. The company operated 1898-1913. ​ Middle Left: Logo for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co., 1898-1913. ​ Middle Right: Logo for the Milwaukee Road RR, and the Gallatin Gateway route to Yellowstone. Service was provided through the west entrance of the park by the YPTCo. beginning in 1928. ​ Bottom Left: W.A. Hall Store in Gardiner, Mont., at the north entrance to Yellowstone, located next to the Roosevelt Arch. ​ Bottom Right: Logo for the Cody Road to Yellowstone, traveling through Wapiti Valley and over Sylvan Pass into Yellowstone. Cody was home to Buffalo Bill. ​

  • Larry's Lunch Stations |

    "Out to Lunch" in the Yellowstone Larry's Lunch Stations ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Larry Mathews (sometimes spelled Larry Matthews) was quite a colorful Irishman who managed establishments in Yellowstone from 1888 to 1904. Larry was born in Drogheda, Ireland in 1854 to parents Patrick and Elizabeth Fredigan McMahon. Larry immigrated to the United States in 1882 and it is assumed that he changed his name to Mathews at that time, to appear less 'Irish.' He moved to Minneapolis and in 1886 married Bridget Clinton. In 1887 Larry went to work in Yellowstone for Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) at Mammoth. Larry was moved to manage the Trout Creek Lunch Station in 1888. That tent operation was established along Trout Creek in Hayden Valley. It served the crowd coming over the Mary Mountain road from the Lower Geyser Basin to visit Yellowstone Lake and the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. He married Mary Brennan Slatterly in 1890 and the following year daughter Elizabeth, or "Lizzie," was born. When the new road over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb opened in 1892, Larry moved his business to Thumb to serve visitors traveling from Old faithful, over Craig Pass, and down to the Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. Thumb was about the halfway point between Old Faithful and Lake Hotel and served as the required lunch stop. "The Wild Irishman." F.J. Haynes Cabinet Card The 1st Norris Hotel, Spring of 1887. [F.J. Haynes Stereoview, YNP #345] The new hotel at Norris opened up in the spring of 1887, even though construction was apparently incomplete. A workman started a fire in an unfinished chimney that set the hotel ablaze on July 14. The Livingston Enterprise reported that there were many guests in the hotel, but that all were saved. ​By the end of 1887 a temporary wooden hotel was completed with 20 sleeping rooms. It was long and narrow, built with 1" board siding. It also had a relatively short life of six years. ​ The second hotel at Norris burned down in May of 1892 and Larry moved to Norris the following season to establish his third lunch station. He entertained guests at this new station until the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) opened the second Norris Hotel in 1901. Matthews worked at the hotel the first year, then was sent by YPA to manage the crude Shack Hotel/tent operation at Old Faithful. He spent two years at the Shack, and when the new Old Faithful Inn opened in 1904, Larry became manager there. The Shack Hotel was torn down, probably during construction of the Inn. When YPA refused to increase his pay after 15 years of service, he left the park. Trout Creek Lunch Station - "Hotel de Elk" 1888-1891 Larry Mathews (also Larry Matthews) was an entertaining Irishman who managed establishments in Yellowstone from 1888 to 1904. Trout Creek became the first Larry's Lunch Station in 1888. The operation began in 1888 by YPA under the management of Larry Mathews. The Trout Creek Station, located in Hayden Valley, was the halfway point between the Fountain Hotel and Yellowstone Lake and Grand Canyon. From Fountain Hotel, the road traveled east over Mary Mountain and Mary’s Lake and down into Hayden Valley. Larry’s offered travelers a break in their journey to have lunch and freshen up a bit. The Lunch Station went by many names, including Hotel De Elk, and the Trout Creek Dinner Station. This was the main route of travelers visiting Canyon and Lake until 1892 when a new road was completed over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb. Numerous travelers to this station commented on the flag that Larry flew above his tent. He also had a large stack of elk antlers near the entrance. That year YPA and Mathews moved the operation to West Thumb to provide lunch services along the new road. Map ca1905 showing the hotels in the main part of the loop in Yellowstone. Trout Creek was located to the west of halfway point between Canyon & Lake. Click to enlarge. [NorthWestern RR Brochure, 1907] One group in 1891 had just ascended Mary Mountain, mostly on foot to ease the load on the stage team. The writer speaks of the "Hotel de Elk.". Ready to descend, "All clambered into coaches, we bowled down its opposite side, for the road was now good and less precipitous, at a lively pace, and landed at the Hotel de Elk at the foot in the best of humor and with the most ravenous appetites. The Hotel de Elk is only a tent where a mid-day meal is served, but to its honor be it said, it is the only place in this park . . . that the stars and stripes were floating. A good meal is set here too, and the wit and contagious spirits of rolicking Larry Matthews, a genuine son of the "ould sod," makes it one of the most enjoyable we have eaten" [Vallec Harold, Portsmouth Daily Times, OH, 3Sep1892] May A Haslehurst, in her book Days Forever Flown , published in 1892, describes part of her trip in September, 1891: “We passed over "Mary's Mountain," a very precipitous climb, one bit of road being so narrow and rough, that Jamie and I walked up it, and found afterwards that we had climbed, not " the golden stairs," but the " Devil's Ladder." . . . After driving about sixteen miles, we came to a hollow in between the hills, and there found a little collection of tents, and were informed that it was "Larry's Lunch Station!" It was a most remarkable place, one tent for a dining-room, one for a waiting-room, a kitchen, and all the necessary requirements; and elk-horns, with their great branches, ornamented every available space in front of the entrance to this remarkable abode. On the white canvas were grotesque drawings, two of which we photographed. The owner of this quaint lunch station, was a roaring Irishman, with a fund of ready wit and humor, really remarkable and truly amusing. He acted the part of host to perfection, in his shirtsleeves and little round skull cap, and although "his guests" sat down at his bountiful board as strangers, they arose as friends, for his remarks, as he walked back and forth from one to the other, to see that all were waited upon, produced such an uproar, that we lost all formality and ceremony while in that tent. A long wooden bench stretched down each side of the table, and one either had to go in at the end, or climb over. As one lady climbed to her place at the table, Larry exclaimed, "Please, lady, don't soil the upholstery," and soon perceiving some haste on the part of one person present, he shouted, "You have one hour and a half to eat; this ain't no twenty minute lunch counter." Just as we were all seated and had opened our Japanese napkins, and prepared for our meal, Larry electrified us all, by shouting at the top of his decidedly loud voice, "Let her go, coffee," and to our surprise, from another tent near by, there came a young man, with an earthenware pitcher full of really excellent coffee. It was surprising how good things did taste to us all.” One of the few known images of the Trout Creek Lunch Station. Larry was known for flying a U.S. flag on his main tent. Above the entry reads: "Welcome." [YNP #109730] In July 1890 Edith Alma Ross, accompanied by her father, trekked to Yellowstone National Park. The journey was to collect botanical specimens, in addition to touring the park. Leaving the Firehole Basin, their stage struggled up the Mary Mountain Road: “Having summited the Devil's Stairway, surviving passengers once again climbed aboard the coach and continued westward. About ¾ of the way from the Firehole Hotel to the Hayden Valley road was the midday rest stop called the Trout Creek Lunch Station - Larry Mathews, proprietor. Kipling's group, "pulled up disheveled at Larry's for lunch and an hour's rest. Only "Larry" could have managed that school-feast tent on the lonely hillside. Need I say that he was an Irishman? His supplies were at their lowest ebb, but Larry enveloped us all in the golden glamour of his speech ere we had descended, and the tent with the rude trestle-table became a palace, the rough fare, delicacies of Delmonico, and we, the abashed recipients of Larry's imperial bounty. It was only later that I discovered I had paid eight shillings for tinned beef, biscuits, and beer, but on the other hand Larry had said: "Will I go out an' kill a buffalo?" And I felt that for me and for me alone would he have done it. Everybody else felt that way. Good luck go with Larry" [Edith A. Ross, A Trip to Wonderland: Yellowstone National Park] A party in 1892 described Larry’s: “It was way out in the heart of the Yellowstone National Park. We were traveling through there with an excursion party of newspaper men, and one warm day in July, while passing over from the Upper Geyser Basin to the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone River, our stage slopped for lunch at the “Hotel Elk,” a summer hotel, consisting of two big tents and kept by Larry Mathews, one of the jolliest sons of Erin we ever met. His place received its name from a big pile of elk horns in front of the entrance, built up like a monument. Larry's main circus tent was the sitting and waiting room, with some curtained nooks for dressing rooms, and the other was the dining hall with kitchen attached.” [West Virginia Argus, 16 Feb. 1893] West Thumb Lunch Station - 1892 The Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) was granted a lease in 1886 to operate boats on Yellowstone Lake, but did not exercise that option until 1891. At that time a new road was being built over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb. Ferry service would eliminate the tedious and dusty ride from the Thumb Lunch Station to the Lake Hotel. E.C. Waters, who had been manager of the National Hotel, accepted the offer to manage the ferry service. The Zillah, a 40-ton steamship, began running that route in 1891 and was licensed to carry 125 passengers. Waters would pay the stagecoach drivers fifty cents for each passenger convinced to take the ferry. Larry Mathews managed the tent lunch station in 1892 after the Trout Creek station closed. Larry moved to Norris the following year. "Lunch Station at Thumb, Yellowstone Lake" Stereoview #1300 High Grade Original Views [Thanks to Bob Berry, Cody, Wyo., for sharing this photo.] Larry Mathews and his daughter Elizabeth - "Lizzie." This photo was said to be 1893, however since Lizzie was born June 1891, this would date it to 1892, thus the West Thumb Lunch Station. [Thanks to Pat Perry for sharing this photo!] Carrie Belle Spencer, a young school teacher from Nebraska, Yellowstone National Park in July and August, 1892. She was in the company of her older brother Alvah and his wife Adaline. They were “traveling on their own dime,” as they say, and not with the transportation company. She had this to say about Larry’s: “. . . we were soon on the beautiful waters of the Yellowstone sailing smoothly along toward the Thumb. After a delightful ride of 1 1/2 hr. we landed at the dock on a beautiful beach and saw on a slope not far distant five tents in a row, this is what is known as the Lake Side Lunch station; as we were about ready for lunch and desirous of finding some place to leave our luggage we started in that direction. When not more than half way up the slope a gentleman, with skull cap, white apron, towel etc. started toward us saying "Good morning ladies, good morning", & before we had time to reply he had our luggage in his hands saying "Right this way to the waiting room." & entering this tent, he took me by the arm & pointing out of the tent in an opposite direction he says "Ladies toilet just ahead. . . The waiting room was a tent about 20 ft. sq., dirt floor & contained a few chairs, stove, cigar case & slat benches around the room. The "toilet" was out doors & too cute for particulars, ta ta. After arranging our "twilight" and entering the waiting room this man "Larry" Mathews as he proved to be began asking questions & entertained us in a royal manner until we heard the rattle of approaching hacks, which were of course the expected tourists. "Larry" no longer had time for entertaining individuals as each new comer was greeted in the same manner. It was not long until we heard the call "All register" & "Right this way to hash". Soon 40 ladies & gentlemen were seated on slab benches at long home made tables, and the bill of fare was soon commenced; it was not very extensive but every thing was enjoyed, being season with Larry's Irish wit. "Run in the hens." "Let 'er go pie." It was not long after lunch until the tourists were on the steamer & we were left in our glory with "Larry, wife and baby Lizzie.” Norris Lunch Station - 1893-1901 Larry established a new "Larry’s Lunch Station" at Norris Geyser Basin in 1893 after the second hotel there burned down in 1892. He entertained guests there in tent facilities through the year 1900. The following year, YPA opened a new Norris Hotel, that Larry managed for the first year. The Norris Lunch Station was located southwest of the Gibbon River, across from the Norris Ranger Station (current Museum of the NP Ranger). A small bridge eventually crossed the river around this spot (shown above). The currently road passes through the middle of the old site and a large wildlife viewing pull-out now lines the river. The view to the right shows passengers making the "leap" from the carriage to Larry's porch. Norris Tent Hotel in 1896. Photo by FJ Haynes, courtesy Montana Historical Society Charles Maus Taylor describes his experience at Larry’s in his book, Alaska and the Yellowstone, published in 1901. As the stage stops in front of a spacious tent, we are met and heartily greeted by the famous “Larry,” or more properly Mr. Lawrence Matthews, and his pretty daughter Lizzie. With cordial hospitality, Larry invites us into his tent: but this is no “Will you walk into my parlor act,” for within we find all conveniences, by means of which we may make a respectable appearance at the lunch table. We are introduced to Larry’s wife, a sensible woman, who attends to the comfort of the ladies, while Larry offers to the men, with his ever ready joke, “a wee drop under the rose,” which proves to be only a mild lemonade. Our whole party is soon seated at a long table, abundantly provided with good fare, well cooked; and we ail do justice to the repast. Meanwhile Larry entertains us with Irish and Yankee songs, and comic anecdotes, interspersed with serious reflections and some valuable suggestions. He “mix’d reason with pleasure, and wisdom with mirth.” Larry’s daughter Lizzie collects specimens of the native flowers of the Yellowstone, and arranges them in small albums, with such graceful and pretty effect, that they find a ready sale among the visitors to the Norris Basin. Having made our selections of these, and finished our lunch, we are ready for the tour of the Basin.” Larry Mathews and his daughter 'Lizzie.' [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905] George E. Hardy remarked upon Larry’s Lunch Station in The Rosary Magazine in 1896: “Lunch at Norris Basin can never be a serious matter as long as Larry is its presiding genius. Larry is one of the characters of the Park. He is an auburn-haired Celt, whose mirth-provoking sallies and lavish hospitality have endeared him to every visitor to the Yellowstone. In the absence of any definite information as to his original surname he has been dubbed by the tour ists, Larry ** Norris,” and as such he is known far and wide. “ Welcome to Norris Basin, senator! ” was his salutation to the doctor as with dignified courtesy he grasped the latter’s hand.—"A man of more than ordinary penetration anti intelligence,” remarked the doctor, reflectively, when we were discussing Larry’s merits some time later. “Did your sister enjoy the trip? ” Larry slyly inquired of the boyish groom, as he assisted his wife out of the coach. “This way, your Riverence,— I mane your Grace, was his unblushing greeting to Father Moran, the jovial senior member of a party of three Dominican missionaries, as he ushered them into the tent where a bountiful lunch was being served to the hungry tourists.” The Cheery Irishman A writer for the Burton Homes Travelogues noted in 1896: "What traveler does not remember Larry Matthews and his canvas palace? Who can forget his cheery welcome when lifting the ladies from the coach . . . And who can forget the honest Irish face of landlord Larry Matthews? His ready wit is remarkable. Every day he is expected to be funny from 11 to 2 o'clock, during which hours he must not only delight the inbound tourists, but carefully avoid repeating himself in the presence of those outward bound who lunch here the second time . . . We never know what we are eating at Larry's busy table d' hote. He never gives us time to think about the food. He is able to make the people laugh so much and eat so little that the company should meet all his demands for an increase in salary." Over the years, though, he became a bit haughty when it came to dealing with the independent 'sagebrushers', who traveled through the park on their own, and not with the established transportation companies. He could be become rude or unpleasant with them and try to overcharge them for his services. Aubrey Haines, in his "Yellowstone Place Names", observed that ". . . Larry became over conscious of his importance and less often polite and courteous; also he was more likely to yell at such people . . ." "Larry's Lunch Station at Norris, 1896. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905] Top Left: Real-Photo postcard of Larry's Norris Lunch Station, undated. Top Right: Larry with Calamity Jane in 1896. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905] The Yellowstone Park Association opened a new hotel in 1901 at Norris Geyser Basin, after their previous two hotels had burned in 1887 and 1892. Larry was chosen to manage the new lodgings. It served as a lunch station and also provided 25 sleeping rooms. According to a Rochester, Minn. newspaper, the hotel officially opened Friday evening August 2, 1901. They touted that, "A 5 o'clock dinner will be served, after which a grand ball will be given. Ice cream, lemonade and all kinds of fruit will be served during the evening. This hotel is built on the formation, where all the large geysers of the park can be seen from the front porch, is a large affair costing $150,000. including fixtures. A large silk flag 80x47 feet will be erected over the center of the building. 'Mr. Mathews will have the management of the hotel, and is considered by the park association as the best manager in the park. [Post and Record (Rochester, Minn), 2Aug1901] Postcard from the Wylie Camping Co. Illustration by Charlie Russell BEARS IN YELLOWSTONE PARK Furnish Imaginary Adventures for Larry’s Tenderfoot Guests Colorado Transcript, Nov. 9, 1898 Among the stories which Horace C. Du Val brought back from, his trip to the Pacific coast was one about "Larry," the proprietor of the luncheon station at Norris, in the Yellowstone Park, which everybody will appreciate who knows the witty Irishman, and few people have made the trip in tie last few years to whom he is unknown. ​ "The park is full of bears, cinnamon and silver tips," said Mr. Du Val, "and the after-dinner hour at the hotels is always spent by the guests in watching the big clumsy brutes come lumbering out of the woods to feed at the refuse heaps. Larry's is only a luncheon station, a big tent, at which tourists stop in the middle of their day's journey for rest and refreshment. All Larry's supplies come from the hotels, and one day, a short time before our visit, the luncheon hour had almost arrived, and the bread wagon from the hotel had not made its appearance. There was not a slice of bread in the tent. Larry is proud of the reputation of his table; something has to be done, and done at once. Already he hears the rumbling of the wheels and the hoofbeats of the horses that tell him that his guests are at hand. An inspiration comes to him. He hastily summons his entire force, waiters, cooks, scullions, and all and imparts a few words of instructions. As the coaches draw up at the front of the tent out dashes Larry at the other end, shouting at the top of his lungs, out comes the table and kitchen force at his heels, waving tablecloths, napkins, anything at hand, and scattering in all directions. “There he goes!” yells Larry. “Head him off, kill the murtherin’ beast! O, the thafe of the world. There he is behind the corn, now we’ll run him down by the fence!” and away they all go dashing about in all directions, the amazed guests still sitting in the coaches and wondering what it is all about. One by one Larry’s people return. Larry at their head – hot, crestfallen. “Och, whatever shall I do,” says Larry, “the thievin’ devils; sorra crumb of bread, barrin’ crackers, have I got in the place, the brutes have stolen the whole of it.” The guests assemble around him with words of comfort, but it is long before Larry will be pacified. He’ll have the life of the whole tribe, whether the government protects them or not. Sure, how can he set a decent table if the black marauders steal it all? Little by little the guests calm him down. They “like crackers,” they wouldn’t “eat any bread if they had it.” Larry had gained his point, and material had been furnished for an adventure of no ordinary kind, and many members of the party will doubtless entertain their friends with the story of how the bears stole their bread at Larry’s.” Another Bear Story from the Norris Lunch Station Archives: ​ Larry Matthews at the lunch station had a midnight raid made on him. Larry is one of the most eloquent, polite and persuasive orators of the Great National Reservation. But all his colloquial powers were insufficient to persuade one of Uncle Sam's bears that there is a limit to human endurance. They got on a regular spree one night, upset the stove and cleaned out the larder. It was a regular bread riot. Larry is a law abiding citizen aud of course went in search of the law in such cases made and provided. While in search of the riot act, Uncle Sam’s proteges got away with whole skins and full bellies. Sundance Gazette (Wyo) November 25, 1898, page 1 Shack Tent Hotel & Old Faithful Inn - 1902-1904 After working at the new Norris Hotel in 1901, the YPA sent Matthews to Old Faithful to manage the crude Shack Hotel/tent operation.. He spent two years at the Shack, and when the new Old Faithful Inn opened in 1904, Larry became manager there. The Shack Hotel was torn down, probably at the end of the 1903 season, while during construction of the Inn was going on. Once again, he was a successful and popular manager, and after fifteen years of service, felt his talents and effort deserved an increase in pay. When YPA refused, he left the park for good at the end of the season. During his off-seasons he had been working as an agent in Canada for the Northern Pacific RR. He was also employed by the Gates Touring Co. to lead touring parties to Panama, Cuba, Mexico and Southern California leading and having charge of all arrangements for Gate's Tours. He seems to have retired around 1909. By the late teens he was suffering from cancer, and an operation around 1919 was apparently not completely successful. He had moved in with his daughter for his last years and passed away on Oct. 7, 1922 at age 68. Old Faithful visitor Clifford P. Allen recalled being welcomed by Larry Mathews, first manager of the inn. He recalled the moment when in 1904, church services were held one evening in the Inn’s lobby. After repeatedly checking his timepiece, manager Mathews announced to the assembled worshippers that Old Faithful was about to erupt. In response to the preacher asking for more time for closing hymn and benediction, Larry said, “You cannot have them, the Geezer waits for no mon.” That was the end of the church service, as everyone filed out to watch the geyser play under the illumination of the inn’s spotlights. According to Allen, “Old Faithful geyser came to time to the minute.” Old Faithful Tent Hotel, 1903 [Library of Congress, #90715246] One guest in 1903 related that, "Driving up to the hotel we received the most effusive welcome of the entire trip. Larry Matthews, as wild an Irishman as ever escaped from the Emerald Isle, is in charge there. He meets all guests in the same loud and enthusiastic manner and hustles around amongst them during their stay, inquiring “is iv’rything all might” and cracking jokes he has probably used every day of the Park season during the past dozen years." [The Big Sandy News, Louisa, Kentucky, 21 Aug 1903] Now ‘‘Old Larry” is an interesting Irishman who keeps the “Auld Faithful Hotel.” In the art of talking, he is perpetual motion, never lets up from the time you arrive till you go away and all his geysers are “geesers" hence “Our Geeser Girl. Just after we had all got settled for dinner. Larry, who was every where present, would announce: “Now. ladys and gintlemen. auld Faithful is due in tin minutes, you can see her from the porch, but there's no hurry, ivery body eat all they kin.” Now some were so unkind as to say Larry was afraid we would eat too much. Any how he served a good dinner and the best ginger bread I ever ate. [The Fairmount News, Fairmount, Ind., 03 Nov1903, p4] Larry Mathews and guest at the Old Faithful Inn, 1904 "Jolly'in a Guest." [T.W. Ingersoll Stereoview, 1905] IN A TENTED FIELD. One of the promises of the tour was that we should sleep in tents one night, and at noon on Tuesday we espied in the distance a snowy line of tents adjoining "Larry's" lunch station. Larry is a garrulous Hibernlan noted in the guide-books, whose jokes have delighted tourists for some ten years. Our party took three meals with Larry and found a great similarity between his jokes and his meals; but he is one of the features of the trip. Our tents were almost convenient enough to be ridiculous for tents. They had all the necessities and were actually supplied with stoves. Each tent has six rooms and a hall. In the morning a voice shouted, "All who want hot water put out their small pitchers," and where should this luxury come from but from the "Old Faithful" geyser, a stone's throw away. They have a barrel set on wheels and all they do Is to ladle out the boiling water and bring it to the tents. We are cautioned not to drink it, however. [THE INDIANAPOLIS Journal, SUNDAY. Sept. 7. 1902] It is said that a grouchy old fellow complained to Larry one day about the turkey they had for lunch, and in accents wild asked Larry where they came from. Larry whispered as low as the "groucher" had talked loud, "They came over in the Mayflower and walked here." Larry swears sometimes, and a lady who heard him said: “Larry, if you talk like that-where do you think you’ll go when you die?” “It makes not the slightest difference, ma'am,” replied the jolly Irishman. “I’ve lots of friends in both places.” Top Left: Description of the Old Faithful tent hotel, 1903. [Vicksburg Evening Post, 15Aug1903] Right: Part of Larry's tombstone at Saint Mary's Cemetery, Minneapolis. [Photo from] FUNERAL TODAY ENDS VARIED CAREER OF "LARRY" MATHEWS Lawrence "Larry" Mathews, aged 68, passed away at the home of his daughter Mrs. Ralph L. Kirsch, Elm street, shortly after four o'clock Saturday. Death was due to cancer from which the deceased had been failing for weeks. An operation for cancer three years ago was not wholey successful. "Larry" as his friends called him was born on January 29, 1854 in Droghoda County, South Ireland, the son of Patrick and Elizabeth Matthews. He came to the United States in 1880 and settled in Minnesota. In 1885 he went to Yellowstone National park where he had charge of park hotels for 18 years achieving a wide reputation among thousands of tourists. He spent the winters of these years in Panama, Cuba, Mexico and Southern California leading and having charge of all arrangements for Gate's Tours. Mr. Matthews also was a traveling passenger agent for the Northern Pacific Railroad during part of this time. In 1909 he retired from active business and returned to his old farm near Rochester, Minn., where he lived until 1918 when he came to Crookston. He had resided in the city with his daughter, Mrs. Ralph L. Kirsch since that time. The deceased is also survived by his wife Mary Brennan Matthews. Crookston Daily Times - October 9, 1922

  • YP Camps Companies |

    Camping in the Yellowstone ​ Yellowstone Park Camping Company - 1917-1919 Yellowstone Park Camps Company - 1919-1927 Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Company - 1927-1936 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yellowstone Park Camping Company - 1917-1919 Huge changes were enacted in Yellowstone beginning with the 1917 season when the new National Park Service mandated a concessions consolidation plan. All of the stagecoaches were retired, and replaced with automobiles stages manufactured by the White Motor Co. All transportation would be run by H.W. Child and his Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. The various smaller camping companies were shut down, and the largest - the Shaw & Powell Camping Co . and the Wylie Permanent Camping Co . were combined into one company. This was known as the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. The hotels were mostly unaffected, except that the Fountain and Norris hotels were shut down as unnecessary due to faster travel time in the new auto stages. The general stores were untouched, but Frank Haynes was forced to sell his transportation operation and former stock in the Wylie Co., leaving him in control of the picture shops in Yellowstone. Left: Possibly the 1st newspaper ad for the new Yellowstone Park Camping Co., 22Jun1917, Salt Lake Tribune . ​ Right: Newspaper ads with the new, "The Camp Way" logo showed up early in the summer of 1917. 3Aug1917, Salt Lake Tribune . A.W. Miles gained 51% of stock in the new camping company, while various Shaw and Powell family members shared the remainder. Many of the former camps were abandoned to avoid duplication of services and a new camp at Mammoth was established. Camps located at Canyon, Lake, Riverside, Tower and Upper Geyser basin were retained, while camps at West Thumb, Willow Park, Gibbon Falls, Nez Perce, and the east entrance (Cody Camp) were abandoned. Riverside Camp closed in 1918 due to WWI and never reopened. The company immediately began using the slogan "The Camp Way," a take-off of the Wylie Way motto. The logo itself was reminiscent of the Shaw & Powell logo. The term Camp Way continued to be used in advertising up into the early 1930s. By 1927-28, most of the permanent camps were beginning to be called lodges instead of camps. The “Wylie Way” slogan was no longer used in Yellowstone, but went into use in 1917 at Zion national Park, where Wm. W. Wylie opened up a new camp - the first lodgings in Zion. Photo of a Yellowstone Park Camping Co. truck hauling employees to a camp in Yellowstone for the summer season. A blurb in one of the company’s brochure boasted, "A hostess at each camp look after the comfort and convenience of women guests. The camp atmosphere is clean, informal and pleasurable. There is nothing rough or coarse. There is no “dressing up.” The employees are young folk from private homes—many of them students and teachers. All sleeping tents are framed, floored, wainscoted and heated. The furnishings, while simple, are absolutely comfortable The beds are of the best quality, full sized. A special nightly feature at each camp is the "Camp Fire" and entertainment and dancing in the recreation pavilion. “Camp Roosevelt” is an extra “stop-over" camp for guests who desire to prolong the standard “four and one-half day tour." The government urges prospective visitors to plan if possible, to stay several extra days in the Park. The weekly .rate, American plan, is $30.00." From The Yellowstone News, Spring 1918, published by the Yellowstone Park Camping Co., New method to revitalize your weary bones: “Are you a member of that annual band of tired business men and women, fagged-out teachers and weary hosts and hostesses, worn by the strainn of a hard social season who are looking, during the summer time, for the road which leads to the three “R’s”—Rest. Recreation, and Recreation? . . . You have "nerves?” Can't sleep nights? Then why hesitate longer? Pack your suitcase with a few warm, rough clothes and some stout shoes, wire the Yellowstone Park Camping Company to reserve accommodations for you. and take the first train to Yellowstone National Park, I wager the first morning’sride will smooth the wrinkles from your brow and soothe your tortured nerves; and after your first night’s rest you will awaken feeling reborn and ready for anything.” Yellowstone Park Camps Company - 1919-1927 Howard Hays and Roe Emery purchased the YP Camping Co. in 1919. Walter White of the White Motor Co. was a silent partner and Hays became president of the company. Harry Child, wanting to buy the company very badly, after having to give up his share of the Wylie Co. after 1916, was hoping to get a good deal. While he was waiting for the $150,000 price to come down, Hays unexpectedly came up with the money, with backing by White. Walter White hid his involvement in the business, as he did not want to antagonize Child, who was one of his large customers for White buses. The new owners expanded operations of the camps by building rustic log lodges and recreation halls at all existing locations except Riverside, which closed in 1918 due to WWI and never reopened. A swimming pool was built at Mammoth Lodge around 1920 and a Boys Forest & Trail Camp was established at Roosevelt in 1921 that included a swimming pool, council house, and eight tent cabins. The camp taught boys the fine arts of fishing, mountain climbing, and studying the flora and fauna. For additional information and photos of these camps & lodges, check my "Hotels" web pages: Mammoth ; Roosevelt ; Canyon ; Lake ; Old Faithful . Above: Camp photos from the YP Camps Co. 1922 brochure.. Right: Description of the five camps, from a 1920 YP Camps Co. brochure. From the Director of the NPS, Stephen T. Mather, in his 1924 annual report Vernon Goodwin takes over the helm of the YP Camps Co. The company was sold in 1924 to Vernon Goodwin of Los Angeles, when Howard Hays retired and sold out due to poor health. The Salt Lake Tribune of May 9, 1924 explains: ​ “The Yellowstone Park Camps Company, controlling the camp system in the national playground, has been sold to Vernon Goodwin, wealthy Los Angeles hotel man, according to an announcement received yesterday 'by Daniel S. Spencer, general passenger agent for the Oregon Short Line railroad, from Horace M. Albright, superintendent of Yellowstone park. The consideration was not made public. The property has been controlled by Howard H. Hays, formerly of Salt Lake, and the sale has the approval of S.T. Mather, director of the national parks service, who recently joined with Mr. Albrlght, Mr. Hays and the purchaser in a discussion of the deal in Los Angeles. All officers of the company, with the exception of Mr. Hays, will remain with the organization, it is understood. The sale of the properties was prompted by the ill health of Mr. Hays, who is preparing, on the advice of a physician, for a rest of about six months.” Harry Child kept his involvement in the new company quiet, much as White had done five years earlier. The purchase now cost Child four times what it would cost him in 1919. Goodwin became company President and A.L. Smith served as Secretary/Treasurer. Ed Moorman, who had previously served as Secretary/Treasurer was brought into the deal and became Manager. The company opened the Sylvan Pass Lodge in 1924, located near the East Entrance. The lodge, along the route from Cody to Lake Hotel, provided meals in a log lodge and guests could stay overnight in tent facilities. The lodge operated for ten years. Vernon Goodwin , who had been manager of the Alexandria and Ambassador hotels in Los Angeles, purchased the YP Camps Co. in 1924 for $660,000 with financing by Harry Child. Although it technically became known as the Vernon Goodwin Co. the company continued to be referred to as the YP Camps Co. According to "Greater Los Angeles & Southern California Portraits & Personal Memoranda," Lewis Publishing Company, 1910. Goodwin was "born in Santa Rosa, Cal., Dec. 13, 1871. Chiefly educated in public and high schools. Assistant postmaster of Santa Rosa for three years; resigned to take a law course, and admitted to practice in California Supreme Court, 1894. Principal of grammar school for three years, and later took a special English course at Stanford University. Served as Deputy County Auditor for four years and resigned to accept position with California Gas & Electric Corporation. Came to Los Angeles, 1895; now Secretary of the Bilicke-Rowan Fireproof Building Co., Bilicke-Rowan Annex Co., Alexandria Hotel Co. and Hollenbeck Hotel Co." [Rotarian Magazine, March 1926] The Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. This company came into existence sometime in 1927 when Vernon Goodwin Co. changed the name. When Goodwin’s wife died in January 1927, her obit mention Vernon being President of the Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. The company continued the operation of lodges and camps at Old Faithful, Lake, Canyon, Fishing Bridge, West Thumb, Mammoth, and Roosevelt. Although the name changed, Goodwin remained in management with the Child enterprises and was listed as president of the YPLC Co while Ed Moorman was retained as general manager. This new company (just in name) invested $300,000 on new buildings at Canyon, Lake and Old Faithful. Cafeterias were also built at the public auto camps at Old Faithful and West Thumb. The trend now was to focus on a lodge operation as opposed to tent facilities. Gradually the historic striped canvas sides and tops were replaced with more conventional wood structures. When Harry Child died in 1931, his son-in-law Wm. Nichols took over the operation and Goodwin became vice president of the YP Hotel Co. The company struggled during the Depression, as did the hotel andother park businesses. Some camps closed for a year or more, but that the camps were less expensive than the hotels was a distinct advantage. For additional information and photos of these camps & lodges, check my "Hotels" web pages: Mammoth ; Roosevelt ; Canyon ; Lake ; Old Faithful . Advertising from the company's 1930 brochure: "From many years' experience, the Yellowstone Park Lodge and Camps Company has developed a truly remarkable system and service. The Lodges are located at the main centers of scenic interest. In each lodge, guests come first to a great central building, which house lobbies, dining halls, social assembly rooms, business headquarters, curio shops and many of the usual facilities of hotels and clubs. Surrounding the main buildings are the small lodges—of one-room, two-room and four-room capacity. They are of two types - (1.) log, (2.) rustic clap board - all substantially built, comfortable and well furnished. Each lodge is heated by a rustic wood-burning stove (for nights and mornings are cool in the mountains), the beds are full size and of high quality, the furniture plain but adequate. Lodges are electric lighted, of course. The dining rooms serve wholesome, well-cooked food." Yellowstone Park Company - 1936-1979 In 1936 the Yellowstone Park Lodges & Camps Co. merged together with the other Child-Nichols interests into the Yellowstone Park Company. These interests included the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co., Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., and the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. Wm Nichols was president, Vernon Goodwin vice-president, and Mrs. Harry Child remained a principle stockholder. The company embarked on an ambitious renovation plan which including the razing of the Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel (Old National Hotel). The North Wing was retained and a new lobby/office complex constructed at the end of the wing. A separate restaurant, recreation hall, and cabins were also erected. Many of the tent cabins at Mammoth Lodge were moved to Roosevelt Lodge and the MHS Lodge was shut down in 1940. It was the beginning of a new era for the company in Yellowstone, but the earlier vision of the tent camp operation became a lost relic of history. The National Park Service's Mission 66 plan in the 1950s closed down the beautifully rustic camp at Canyon, and new facilities were constructed at Canyon Village, a mile or two away. Sylvan Closed around 1934, but Roosevelt Lodge, Lake Lodge, and Old Faithful Lodge remain successful operations to this day, under the auspices of Xanterra Parks & Lodges. Top Left: Mammoth Lodge , 1923. Haynes Postcard #23295 ​ Center: Old Faithful Lodge , 1928, Haynes Postcard #28029 ​ Bottom Left: Lake Lodge , 1922. Haynes Postcard #22032 Top Right: Roosevelt Lodge , 1927. Haynes Postcard #27468 ​ Bottom Right: Canyon Lodge , 1922. Haynes Postcard #22032 ​ Of these five lodges, only Roosevelt, Lake & Old Faithful remain.

  • Transportation |

    Coaching in Yellowstone ​ Click on Link above to begin your tour. Development of the Transportation Companies in Yellowstone The earliest commercial transportation venture in the Park seems to be Jack Baronett’s toll bridge, built in 1871 near Tower junction over the Yellowstone River. He built a cabin on the bench above the junction of the Lamar and Yellowstone Rivers, and charged a $1.00 a head for man or beast to cross. In 1873, John Werks, George Huston, and Frank Grounds operated a primitive pack and saddle business at Mammoth. Stagecoach service was started in 1874 with ‘Zack Roots Express’ weekly service on Mondays from Bozeman to Mammoth, carrying both freight and passengers. The construction of a primitive road by Supt. Norris and his crew from Mammoth to Lower Geyser Basin in 1878 allowed Marshall & Goff to start a stagecoach business in 1880 to access the Geyser Basins and Marshall’s Hotel. During the next 36 years numerous companies operated stagecoach lines, including Wakefield & Hoffman, Yellowstone Transportation Co., Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co., Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. (F.J. Haynes), Cody-Sylvan Pass Co., Wylie Camping Co., and Shaw & Powell Camping Co. After the 1916 season, all transportation companies were merged into a monopoly, called the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., headed by Harry W. Child. In August of 1915, automobiles were first allowed into the Park. That year and the following one was a time of transition with both modes of travel operating under strict guidelines. This act of 1915 brought major changes to the entire way of doing business in the Park. With the shortened travel times now available, hotels were no longer needed at Fountain and Norris. Many tent camps were also closed. The increased travel times and freight tonnage available with motorized trucks eliminated the need for the various dairy and slaughterhouse operations inside the Park. Also, with the elimination of the “weed-burners’, the park’s pastures would no longer be needed for the intense grazing that had been necessary. In 1917 the stagecoaches and stock were sold out, and Child, with loans of over $400,000 from the railroads, purchased 117 White Motor buses and various service trucks. These were headquartered at the barns built in 1903-04 at Mammoth. Plans were finalized for new facilities in Gardiner in 1924, but in March of 1925, the buildings at Mammoth burned, along with at least 93 vehicles. It took a giant effort by the White Motor Company to get new auto stages to the park for spring opening. The new garages in Gardiner were completed later that year. In 1936 the YPTC was merged with other Park concessionaires into the Yellowstone Park Company under Wm. Nichols, Child’s’ son-in-law. As automobiles took over, the need for improvement of the roadbeds became a priority. Gradually, the roads were widened, oiled, graveled, and ultimately paved. The maintenance of the roads was and still is a constant problem. The need for auto campgrounds and gas filling stations became apparent, and eventually facilities were established at all major locations. Yellowstone Park Service Stations currently runs the gas stations and is independently owned. The Railroad Era The influences of the early railroad companies, although now lone gone from the local scene, reaches back into the earliest days of ‘official exploration’ of the Park. Nathaniel Langford of the Washburn Expedition of 1870, was an employee of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Through the influence of his boss Jay Cooke, financial agent of the NPRR, Langford was a strong advocate for the railroad interests in park affairs, as were other influential people connected with the park. By 1883, four railroad companies have achieved transcontinental status, receiving vast tracts of lands adjacent to their right-of-ways as their incentive. In order to recover their costs and increase travel along these lines, the railroads needed to create reasons for people to travel west. These included land sales for homesteading, ranching, farming, and business opportunities in the newly established towns along the way. Promotion of resort areas and natural wonders was another ploy to attract travelers from the moneyed classes. Yellowstone was the target of this last type of promotion by the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1882. In that year surveys had been made into the heart of the park in hopes of extending rail lines to all the important points of interest. Also there was a push to run tracks along the northern border to Cooke City in order the service the gold mines there. Eventually, through the actions of the Secretary of Interior, Congress, and various sportsman groups and concerned citizens, these plans were thwarted. The gateway communities became the ‘end of the line’. In 1883 the NPRR extended a line from Livingston to Cinnabar called ‘the Park Branch Line’. It had stopped there instead of continuing on to Gardiner because of lack of access through certain private lands. Construction of the National Hotel at Mammoth had started earlier this year, and was partially open for business in late summer. This was the first hotel built in the park that hoped to cater strictly to the upper class visitors. By 1911 luxury hotels had been constructed at all major locations with financial backing by the NPRy. Other railroads companies joined in the competition for park business with Union Pacific RR entering West Yellowstone in 1907. The Burlington & Chicago reached Cody in 1901, and the Milwaukee extended service to Gallatin Gateway in 1927. Land claims were eventually settled in Gardiner, and the NPRy reached that town in 1902, with the depot and Arch being built the following year. The railroads continued to exert influence on park business into the 1900’s with outright wnership or majority interests in the hotel companies and some of the transportation companies. By 1907, NPRy had sold its stock and direct interests in the hotels, but continued to actively promote the park and provided loans to H.W. Child for construction and improvements. The railroads continued to provide financial assistance to Park businesses until after WWII. Demand for railroad services after that time decreased rapidly with the increase in the use of automobiles for vacation travel. Regular scheduled passenger railroad service ended in Gardiner in 1948, Cody in 1956, and West Yellowstone and Gallatin Gateway in 1961.

  • Yellowstone Park Transportation C. |

    Coaching in the Yellowstone Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. ​ YNPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1892 - 1897 YPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1898 - 1916 YNPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1892 - 1897 ​ Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) transportation privileges were revoked Nov. 1, 1891 after Silas Huntley of Helena received the 10-year transportation franchise on March 29, 1891. He was allowed 14 months to begin operations by the Interior Dept. He brought in his brother-in-law Harry W. Child and Edmund Bach , Child’s brother-in-law. Together they formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. (YNPTCo) which was incorporated May 20, 1892 with capital of $250,000. Aaron and L.H.Hersfield were also partners in the operation, and Huntley became general manager.Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) transportation privileges were revoked Nov. 1, 1891 after Silas Huntley of Helena received the 10-year transportation franchise on March 29, 1891. He was allowed 14 months to begin operations by the Interior Dept. He brought in his brother-in-law Harry W. Child and Edmund Bach, Child’s brother-in-law. Together they formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. (YNPTCo) which was incorporated May 21, 1892 with capital of $250,000. Aaron and L.H.Hersfield were also partners in the operation, and Huntley became general manager. Left : YNPTCo coach at Mammoth Hot Springs, ca1896 [Stoddards Yellowstone Park Travelogue] Right : YNPTCo coach No.46, courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum. In reality, YNPTCo actually began stage operations in March 1891 when George W. Wakefield lost his YPA contract. YPA then leased all of their transportation equipment and facilities to YNPTCo, who appointed Wakefield as President. A year later, the new company purchased the old Yellowstone Transportation Company and the Wakefield & Hoffman operations for $70,000 and was granted exclusive transport of NPRR passengers in Yellowstone National Park. The following February (1893), YNPTCo received leases for six parcels of land in Yellowstone to erect barns, corrals and other facilities. The company began with some 500 horses and 75-100 coaches of various types. In Yellowstone Park How to Travel Through Wonderland Pall Mall Gazette, London, England, July 10, 1897 “The company is divided into departments, and each is presided over by a most competent man. The head stables are at the Mammoth Hot Springs. They consist of several large buildings containing the 550 horses, excepting those which arc going through the park and a number of saddle horses at the various hotels, on which the tourists make short trips. Then there are the long rows of wagon sheds, blacksmith shop, harness shop, saddle shop, repair shop, washing stand, a dozen houses for the drivers, and a hospital for the sick horses. The company employs over 100 men. These include a veterinary surgeon, three blacksmiths, harness maker, wheelwright, washers, painters, stablemen and drivers. The stables and other buildings owned by the company form quite a little settlement of their own, and are always a source of interest to the tourists, who are surprised to see such a plant away up in the mountains. The park season lasts but a little over four months in the year, and the expenses of maintaining such a plant are large. It costs 5.000 dols. a year to paint the coaches, and an equal sum is expended in incidentals, including new tyres, harness, axle grease, horseshoes, etc. The board bill for help alone is 10,000 dols. for the four months and a few days. In that time the horses eat 1,000,000 lb. of oats and the same amount of hay. As the plant now stands, it represents an investment of over 200,000 dols., and with only about a third of the year in which to do business.” YPTCo Stagecoach Operations 1898 - 1916 ​ Harry Child, Huntley, and Bach formed a new company called the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) in 1898 that took over the operation of the YNPTCo. They received a 10-year lease on March 31. Silas Huntley passed away three years later and his shares reverted to the NPRR’s North West Improvement Company (NWIC). Bach sold his shares to NWIC in 1902 due to health concerns and died of Bright’s Disease in the spring of 1904, leaving Harry Child as the prime operator of the company. Above : YNPTCo coaches ca1903. [Yellowstone Park Association brochure, 1904 Above : YNPTCo Tally-Ho coach #12 loaded with tourists leaving Gardiner and headed to Mammoth Hotel Springs. [W.S. Berry Photo, undated, Montana Historical Society] CHANGED HANDS A New Company Will Handle the Yellowstone Business. St. Paul, April 5.—The Yellowstone Park association this afternoon sold out Its entire belongings and interests in the National park to the Yellowstone Park Transportation company, which consists or S. S. Huntley and E.W. Bach of Helena, Mont., and H.W. Childs of St. Paul, the consideration being close to $1,000,000. Among the items transferred were the Mammoth Hot Springs hotel recently built for $200,000; the Fountain hotel, $100,000; Grand Canyon hotel, $100,000, and the Lake hotel, $75,000, besides four lunch stations and other property. J.H. Dean, president of the old company, will be manager of the new and the transportation company is now purchaser of all the property in the great national park. [The Anaconda Standard, April 6, 1901] ​ With the purchase of the YPA hotel system in 1901 and the deaths of S.S. Huntley in 1901 and E.W. Bach in 1904, Harry Child gained control of all the park lodging and transportation concessions, save the various camping company operations. Between 1903 and 1907, four Concord Tally-Ho coaches were purchased for use on the Gardiner to Mammoth route. Previously, two Tally-Ho had been acquired between 1886 and 1889. In 1901, a Northern Pacific brochure printed a schedule for park tours using the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. coaches. Throughout the stagecoach era standard tours were generally 5-6 days duration, beginning and ending at the north entrance. In later years shorter tours were available, and travelers could eventually enter or exit the park at West Yellowstone and Cody, Wyo. The following is a typical tour schedule for 1901 and similar in later years. ​ TIME SCHEDULE IN THE PARK The following approximate time schedule will give a comprehensive idea of the park itinerary: First Day —Leave Livingston at 8.30 a.m., arrive Cinnabar 10.45 a.m.; leave Cinnabar at 11.00 a.m.; arrive Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel 1.00 p.m., taking lunch, dinner and lodging. Second Day —Breakfast. Leave Mammoth Hot Springs at 8.00 a.m., arriving at Norris at noon for lunch; leave at 1.30 p.m., and arrive at Fountain Hotel, Lower Geyser Basin, at 5.50 p.m. for dinner and lodging. Third Day —Breakfast at Fountain. Leave for Midway and Upper Geyser Basins at 8.00 a. m. Lunch at Upper Geyser Basin. Return from Upper Geyser Basin to Fountain Hotel at 4.30 p. m. Dinner and lodging at Fountain Hotel. Fourth Day —Breakfast at Fountain. Leave for West Arm of Yellowstone Lake at 7.00 a.m. Lunch at lake and leave the lake after lunch for Yellowstone Lake Hotel at lake outlet. Dinner and lodging at Lake Hotel. Fifth Day —Breakfast at Yellowstone Lake. Leave for Grand Caiion at 9.30 a.m. via Sulphur Mountain; arrive Grand Canon at 12.30 p.m. Lunch, dinner and lodging. Sixth Day —Breakfast. Leave Grand Caiion at 10.00 a.m., arrive Norris at 12.30 p.m. Lunch. Leave Norris at 1.30 p.m., arrive Mammoth Hot Springs at 4.30 pm. Dinner. Leave Mammoth Hot Springs at 6.30 p.m., arriving at Cinnabar at 8.00 p.m.; leave Cinnabar at 8.15 p.m., arrive Livingston at 10.30 p.m. Left : The new horse and coach barn at Mammoth, 1903 [YNP Black Scrapbook] ​ Right : Gardiner Wonderland article about the barn dance, 4Jun1903 edition. In 1903 the company built a new coach and horse barn and related buildings at Mammoth, near the current Aspen Lodge site. The barn was a beautiful structure designed by Robert Reamer. Construction began in February and on May 7 the Gardiner Wonderland announced that, “The new transportation barn is nearing completion.” By the end of the month it was announced the building was complete and ready for occupation. A barn-warming dance was held the following week. The Tally-Ho coaches were housed in Gardiner to meet the trains, but most of the other coaches were stored at Mammoth and various locations throughout the park. ​ That same year the Northern Pacific RR opened up passenger service at the depot in Gardiner. Now the Tally-Ho coaches would have a shorter drive to Mammoth. A new Reamer-designed depot was built on the edge of town to host the tourist crowds. Above : YPTCo coaches in front of the Northern Pacific RR depot in Gardiner, 1905. [YNP 22954] In 1906 YPTCo constructed a new horse barn and carriage house, along with a bunkhouse/mess hall for the drivers and workers in Gardiner . They were located where some of the current Xanterra Parks and Resorts facilities are located above the Gardiner River. They were designed by Robert Reamer, using local stone and wood construction. The bunkhouse/mess was originally two separate buildings, but later joined by a breezeway. It still stands and is still used as employee housing by Xanterra. Sadly, the unique barns were torn down in 1926 to make way for the new concrete bus storage barn. The Butte Daily Post announced on May 6, 1906, “The Transportation company anticipates a large business. The company is erecting a mammoth barn at Gardiner. There are sixty men now employed on the structure, which will house many of the horses used by the company. The company has a great barn at Mammoth Hot Springs, from where all its passengers make the start throughout the park, but it was found desirable to have stables at Gardiner, where stages meet the trains.” Left : The new horse and coach barn at Gardiner under construction, 1906. [Author's digital collection] ​ Right : YPTCo Tally-Ho barn in foreground, with horse barn to the rear. [1914 NPRR brochure] Left : YPTCo barn on left, carriage barn in center, and bunkhouse & mess hall on right. [Original negative, Copyright: Goss Collection] Left Top : 9-Passenger Abbot-Downing coach. [1905 YPA Brochure] ​ Left Bottom : 11-Passenger Abbot-Downing coach. [1905 YPA Brochure] ​ Right : Map of Yellowstone Park and the hotels and road system. The stages typically travelled in a clockwise direction, usually beginning at Mammoth for the YPTCo coaches. [1904 YPA brochure] In 1915, an event occurred that held huge ramifications for Yellowstone and the country. The Panama-Pacific Exposition was being held in San Francisco from February to November. Visitors flocked to the West Coast to view this stupendous fair. Most travelers relied on railroad travel, yet many folks chose to travel cross-country by automobile, many planning on visiting Yellowstone enroute. Anticipating a heavy travel season, all the stage transportation companies purchased additional coaches and horses to meet the demand. Records show that visitation in 1915 reached almost 52,000 tourists, significantly more than the 20,000 of the previous year. Unfortunately, the investment by the companies would last a mere two years, as in 1917 the stagecoaches and horse wagons were banned from the park roads. Above : Real-Photo postcards of the true-to-size replica Old Faithful Inn built by the Union Pacific RR. The rustic interior was used for fine dining at lunch & dinner, and also for twice-daily orchestra concerts with plenty of room for dancing. [Real-Photo poscards, author's collection] Pressure had been building for many years to open the park to autos, but efforts had been unsuccessful. Mid-season 1915, Yellowstone and the Interior Dept. relented and on August 1, the first auto officially entered Yellowstone National Park. Over the previous year the roads and bridges had been improved to allow for motorized traffic. However, autos shared the roads with stagecoaches during 1915 and 1916. It became quite apparent that such a system would not be successful in the long run. The government mandated the conversion to motorized vehicles of all concession vehicles. Late in the fall of 1916, all of the transportation operations were to be consolidated into one company operating under a monopoly lease. These companies, which included Frank Haynes Yellowstone & Western Stage Co ., Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co., and the Wylie and Shaw & Powell camping company coaches, came under the control of YPTCo and Harry Child. Child arranged with the White Motor Company to purchase 117 10-passenger auto stages to be used in the park beginning in 1917. The Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. kept it same name until 1936, when all the Child and Wm. Nichols' enterprises were combined into the Yellowstone Park Company. Left : Stagecoach passing through the Roosevelt arch in Gardiner, ca1910. [Bloom Bros. postcard #A-6865] Right : YPTCo White Motor Co. auto-stage passing through the Roosevelt Arch in Gardiner, ca1923. [Bloom Bros. postcard YP62] Stagecoach Robberies in Yellowstone: ​ (1) 7/4/1887 - Near Split Rock in Gardiner Canyon - 1 stagecoach. (2) 8/14/1897 - 3 miles west of Canyon Hotel - 6 coaches and 1 military wagon robbed. (3) 8/24/1908 - Near Turtle Rock in Spring Creek Canyon on Craig Pass - 17 stagecoaches and 8 wagons. (4) 7/29/1914 - Shoshone Point on Craig Pass - 15 coaches. (5) 7/9/1915 - 1 mile south of Madison Jct. - 5 coaches. Perhaps the greatest stagecoach hold-up in Yellowstone occurred on Aug 24, 1908, near Turtle Rock, enroute from Old Faithful Inn to Lone Star Geyser and Lake Hotel A single bandit held up 17 coaches and wagons. Upon completetion of his dastardly deed, the hold-up man escaped and was never captured. In an excerpt from the 1908 Yellowstone National Park annual report, the Park Superintendent briefly describes the robbery: "The unfortunate event, the hold-up of seventeen coaches, surreys, and spring wagons on August 24, and the robbery by one man or many of the passengers therein at a point on the main road between Old Faithful Inn and the Thumb of Lake Yellowstone, and about 4 1/4 miles distant from the former, took place about 9 a. m. on August 24 . . . Four of the looted coaches belonged to the Yellowstone Park Transportation Company, five to the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Company, and eight to the Wylie Permanent Camping Company. As near as can be learned by the separate memoranda handed in by the passengers the losses sustained by them in the robbery aggregated $1,363.95 cash and $730.25 in watches and jewelry. Upon being liberated the first coach of those robbed drove rapidly to the camp of the road sprinkling crew, located about 2 miles east of the hold-up point, where notice was given and a messenger dispatched to Old Faithful Inn—distant 6 miles—with news of the robbery." Upon safe arrival at the Lake Camp, members of the Wylie Camping Company involved in the robbery reflected on their escapade as what would no doubt be the most exciting adventure of their lives. Mr. H.B. Mitchell of Great Falls describes their meeting that evening: ​ “That evening [24Aug1908] we had a meeting of the sufferers ait the lakeside hotel, and adopted resolutions which have already been published . . . “The American people have the faculty of seeing the humorous side of even a serious matter, and this case was no exception. The holdup man was hardly out of sight before we were laughing at each other, and the various incidents that had not seemed so funny while the man had his gun upon us. Besides the association mentioned above, the Wiley [Wylie] tourists organized the "Lone Star Involuntary Benevolent association" in memory of the occasion, and for the fun we could get out of it. I was elected president and the ‘Not on Your Life’ girl, as she was called for the rest of the trip, secretary. We had our inaugural meeting around the camp fire with toasts by various members of the suffering party, songs written for the occasion and general jolity." [Great Falls Tribune, 29Aug1908, p5] Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell reached Butte yesterday. He had the honor of being elected president of the “Lone Star Involuntary Benevolent association," a society to which only those traveling with the Wylie company and who were in the hold-up are entitled to membership. This organization celebrated the event with speeches and much merry-making the evening of the affair at the Lake Hotel camp and still look back upon the hold-up as the real event of their trip. Mr. Mitchell said those In the holdup look back upon it as something not to have been missed—the real event of the trip, and one never to be forgotten. The "Not on Your Life" girl mentioned previously is explained by Mr. Mitchell: "In the last coach were five ladies besides the driver. The first one was Miss Stasia Riley, of Austin, Minn. He demanded her money. *Not on your life,” replied Miss Rilev. 'Here’s a dollar,. and that’s all you set from me." Evidently he admired the nerve for he passed to the next without further demands." [Great Falls Tribune, 29Aug1908, p5] Stage Robbery 9Jul1887 Yellowstone Journal Stage Robbery 15Aug1897 Los Angeles Heraldl Stage Robbery 25Aug1908 Billings Daily Gazette Stage Robbery 30Jul1914 Daily Ardmorite, OK Stage Robbery 16Jul1915 Glascow Courier, MT

  • Hamilton Stores |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Hamilton Stores ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Hamilton Stores, Inc. - 1915 to 2002 Charles A. Hamilton moves to Yellowstone . . . . Charles Hamilton was the founder of the Hamilton Store chain that operated in Yellowstone Park from 1915 to 2002. He was born in Winnepeg, Manitoba in 1884 and came out to Yellowstone in 1905 to work for the Yellowstone Park Association. His dedication to his work paid off when in 1915, he purchased Henry Klamer's general store at Old Faithful. The Klamer store had opened in 1897 and operated successfully until Henry's death in 1914. Child’s son Huntley had previously turned down the opportunity to buy the store. Hamilton paid slightly over $20,000 for the business, receiving financial backing from his boss Harry Child . Charles Hamilton was the founder of the Hamilton Store chain that operated in Yellowstone Park from 1915 to 2002. He was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1884 and came out to Yellowstone in 1905 to work for the Yellowstone Park Association. His dedication to his work paid off when in 1915, he purchased Henry Klamer's general store at Old Faithful. The Klamer store had opened in 1897 and operated successfully until Henry's death in 1914. Child’s son Huntley had previously turned down the opportunity to buy the store. Hamilton paid slightly over $20,000 for the business, receiving financial backing from his boss Harry Child. ​ Left : The Klamer general store purchased by Chas. Hamilton in 1915. YNP #22112 Left: West Thumb lunch station that became Hamilton's general store for several years. YNP #31871 Right: Hamilton's gas station at West Thumb, 1917. Museum of the Rockies #25034 Hamilton worked hard and in 1917 went into the filling station business with Harry Child and established a single pump filling station at Old Faithful. In 1919-20 he made arrangements with the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. to use the old Thumb Lunch Station as a general store. He opened up a filling station at Thumb and used the old lunch station until 1924 when he built a new store. ​ In 1919, Hamilton opened up a second store at Lake in the old E.C. Waters building, in front of Lake Hotel. Construction on a new general store, filling station, and residences began in 1920 and were completed for the 1921 season. By 1924 a new, smaller store opened at Fishing Bridge. That year small stores were established in auto campgrounds at West Thumb and Fishing Bridge, which were greatly enlarged the next year. The Fishing Bridge store was replaced by a new store in 1930-31. In 1948 a new gas station was constructed at Thumb. ​ Below: Hamilton's Lake store, as viewed in the 1923 & 1927 editions of the Haynes Guide. Note the unique log trimwork. Bottom Left: Fishing Bridge general store ca1929, built 1924. YNP #29902 Bottom Right: New Fishing Bridge store ca1940, built 1930-31. YNP #29940 More improvements at Old Faithful . . . Hamilton was not content to sit idle and was continually trying to improve and expand on his operations. He erected a huge addition to the old Klamer store in 1923-24. At the time, it was reputed to be the largest store in the National Park system, measuring 110' x 160'. The knotty wood porch was added to the former Klamer store in 1925, and a new filling station constructed nearby in 1927. A small store was erected at the Basin Auto Camp at Old Faithful in 1923 and enlarged in 1925. In 1926, Charles A. Hamilton, H.W. Child and George Whittaker formed the Yellowstone Park Service Stations, Inc., controlling all gas sales and auto repairs in the park. Upper Left: Lower Hamilton Store (former Klamer), 1925. YNP #193429-73. Upper Right: Basin Auto Camp store (BAC Store), 1929. YNP # 31199. Bottom Left: Upper Hamilton gas station, located near the new Upper Basin Store, 1952. YNP #31282. Bottom Right: Construction of the Upper Basin store, ca1929. YNP #31196-1. In 1929 Hamilton built a new store at Old Faithful - the Upper Basin Store. It was located near the Auto Camp and replaced the Basin Auto Camp store. It had 150' of frontage with a 48-person employee dorm in the upstairs. The walls were constructed of concrete made to resemble hewn logs, placed on a masonry stone foundation with stepped stone masonry pilasters and stepped stone masonry columns that support two covered entrance porches. The eaves of the wood shingled gabled roof are wood shingled with exposed log rafter ends; log rafter purlins are used in the roof structure of the two covered entrance porches. A gas station was built next door using the same construction design. ​ Right: Upper Basin Store in 1931. Haynes #311086, Povah Collection, Museum of the Rockies #2009-4-784 Geyser water swimming pools . . . . Hamilton expanded his business in 1933 when he bought out Henry Brothers Bathhouse & Plunge at Old Faithful. It had been established in 1914 in the basin across from the Old Faithful Inn. Hot water from Solitary Geyser was piped in to fill the pools. Brothers Plunge was enlarged in 1923 and a new log building was erected. In 1927 he built a bathhouse at the Old Faithful auto camp, and three years later built facilities at the Fishing Bridge auto camp. This bathhouse included tubs, showers, laundry and irons. Hamilton razed most of the old buildings and rebuilt/remodeled the structure that year, creating a peaked roof with log beams and skylights. There were 147 dressing rooms and 'sand porches' for sun bathing. After a prolonged political battle, the structure was razed in 1951 after the government determined it was inappropriate for a National Park. Left: Brothers Bathhouse & Plunge, as pictured in the 1928 Haynes Guide. Right: Hamilton's _lunge & Bathhouse, ca1935. HABS Photo Hamilton takes over all the park general stores . . . . C.A. Hamilton had controlled all the general store business in the south end of the Park for many years, and his dream of having control over the whole park (excluding Haynes Photo Shops) would be fulfilled in 1953 when Anna Pryor and Elizabeth Trischman retired and put up the Pryor Stores operation for sale. Hamilton purchased the businesses at Mammoth and Canyon for $300,000. George Whittaker originally owned the general stores and filling stations in those two locations, but sold out to sisters Anna Pryor and Elizabeth Trischman at the end of the 1932 season. (For more information, see my Pryor & Trischman page ) The 1953 sale to Hamilton gained him the Mammoth General Store (established in 1896 by Jennie Ash), the filling station next door, the Pryor Coffee Shop, and the general store and filling station at Canyon. Mission 66 calls for great changes in the Park . . . The store operation at Canyon did not last long after that, as the new Canyon Village was mandated to be constructed for opening in 1957. Hamilton shelled out a million dollars to build a new store, gas station, and employee dorms at the new location at what is now Canyon Village. Charles Hamilton died May 28, 1957 - one and a half months before his new store was to open at Canyon. Daughter Ellie and husband Trevor Povah took over the operations of the stores. The old Canyon store and gas station, located at the current Upper Falls parking lot, were eventually razed, passing into history. ​ Right: Modern, new Hamilton Store at Canyon Village, 1957. Haynes post card #K57157 From the Billings Gazette, May 30, 1957 . . . Hamilton Stores Founder Dies YELLOWSTONE PARK, Wyo. — Charles Ashworth Hamilton, 72, who since 1915 has operated general stores, service stations and curio shops in Yellowstone National Park, died Tuesday night of a "heart ailment. Park Supt. Lemuel A. Garrison said Hamilton was talking on the telephone about his health to his physician in Santa Monica, Calif., when he was stricken about 10 p.m. Hamilton died in his residence above the lower store at Old Faithful. He had been president and operator of Hamilton Stores, Inc., since 1915. His winter residence was at Santa Monica, in one of two apartment buildings he owned there. Hamilton first went to Yellowstone Park in 1905 at the age of 21 as assistant to the purchasing agent of the Yellowstone Park Assn., now the Yellowstone Park Co. He became a concessionaire in 1915 when he purchased a curio shop at Upper Basin. Except for two seasons, Hamilton had spent every summer since 1905 in the park. He was born Nov. 19. 1884, at St. Paul, where his father was the British vice counsel. Survivors include one daughter, Eleanor May Povah of Santa Monica. Her husband, Trevor S. Povah, is vice president of Hamilton Stores, Inc., and general manager of Yellowstone Park Service Stations. These firms jointly operate all stores and service stations in the park and all the lodge curio shops. Top Left: C.A. Hamilton letterhead, 1931, featuring the rustic Lower Store. Image from Minnesota Historical Society. Top Right: Pennant decal for Hamilton Stores, Inc, ca1940s. Author Collection

  • Historic Bridges of Yellowstone |

    Historic Bridges in Yellowstone ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my old Historic Bridges Page at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Yellowstone Post Cards - 1 |

    Yellowstone Post Cards Vol. 1 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my Postcard Page that has been saved at ​ Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Early Stage Outfits |

    Coaching in the Yellowstone The Smaller Stage Companies ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Abbot-Downing Co. J.S. Abbott and Lewis Downing started this stagecoach company in 1826 and built the first Concord Stage in 1827. The company was known by several variations of the name over the years and produced over 3700 Concord Stages between 1827-1899. The coaches typically held 6, 9, or 12 passengers on bench seats. A Tally-Ho coach, with seats atop, could carry up to 20 or more persons. The Wells Fargo Company was among the company’s larger accounts, while the various Yellowstone companies purchased several hundred coaches from 1883-1916. The basic model weighed over 1-ton and the coach rode on twin through-braces made out of rawhide that formed 3-inch thick leather springs and gave a smooth, swinging motion. The coaches were used extensively throughout the west and are considered the finest stagecoaches ever built. One person could sit next to the driver (riding shotgun) and at least one model had bench seats on top. The underbody was painted yellow, while the coach body could be red (Monida & Yellowstone), yellow (Yellowstone Park Transportation Co), green, or other colors at the buyers request. When Yellowstone abandoned its coach fleet in 1917 for White Motor Co. buses, the company turned to making motor trucks for other industries. Above: The Abbot-Downing Carriage Works in Concord, NH ​ Left: The 'Castle' stagecoach, used by the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Co . A typical illustration of a 'Yellowstone Wagon' from the Abbot-Downing catalog. ​ Right: A typical illustration of a Wells Fargo Concord Coach, from the Abbot-Downing catalog. Gilmer & Salisbury John T. “Jack” Gilmer, with brothers Orange J. and Monroe Salisbury formed this stagecoach line in 1868 with the purchase of the assets of the Utah, Idaho, and Montana branches of Wells, Fargo Co. In 1873 this transportation firm was running stages from Fort Benton, Montana to Helena. They bought out the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage, Mail and Express Line in 1876, operating the Deadwood line between Cheyenne and the Black Hills. However, when they took over other stage lines, they generally kept the original names for the sake of customer familiarity, as thus, the Gilmer & Salisbury name itself was not always well-known to the public. The company became one of the most powerful corporations in the Northwest in the late 1800’s and amassed a sizable fortune. In their final days lines ran from the Canadian border to southern Utah and from the Great Plains to California and Washington. Gilmer passed away in May 1892 of Bright’s Disease. Monroe Salisbury died of cancer in May of 1907 while his brother O.J succumbed to heart disease a month later in June of 1907. Left: Gilmer & Salisbury Stage Line advertisement in the New North West. 8Oct1869. It outs service to Corinne Ut and Virginia City, Mt. According to “The History of the Construction of the Road System in Yellowstone National Park, 1872-1966 Historic Resource Study, Volume I,” “The first West Entrance Road, built by Gilman Sawtell , originated in Virginia City, Montana, and reached the Lower Geyser Basin by way of the Madison Canyon in 1873. Sawtell, the owner of a hotel near Henry's Lake in the Idaho Territory, named the toll-free road, The Virginia City and National Park Free Road, in order to differentiate it from the North Entrance toll road. But, by 1877, the road was a barely passable road as noted by a visitor “In 1878, Philetus Norris had the road along the Madison River to the western boundary in his improvement program . . . But two years later, Norris was approached by O. J. Salisbury, a partner in Gilmer & Salisbury Company, mail contractors, to find a new coach and mail route for the west side. The existing route along the Madison River, which required much bridging, was impassable most of the year and many considered the route dangerous. After two days of exploration, an acceptable route, which cut south from the Madison River at Riverside, was found. Salisbury left men to construct a mail station at the Riverside cutoff, while he proceeded east to secure his mail contract. Norris, who once considered the mountainous area south of the Madison River inaccessible, was surprised to find "a dry, undulating, but beautifully timbered plateau, allowing a judiciously located line of wagon-road with nowhere an elevation much in excess of 1,500 feet above the Forks of the Fire Hole. This route, which was shorter by six miles than the Madison Canyon route, would be cheaper to construct and maintain and also would open up new observation points for scenic and geologic interests." Top: Portraits of Jack Gilmer and Monroe Salisbury, undated. Bottom: Gilmer & Salisbury Stage Line pass, 1883 [Steamboat & Stagecoach Era in Montana and the North West, by Carlos A. Schwantes] Apparently, Gilmer & Salisbury was providing stage and Mail service to the Firehole by at least 1879 and perhaps earlier. In 1880 Marshall & Goff began providing that service, taking over from Gilmer & Salisbury. The company later began providing access close to Yellowstone Park as early as 1869 by running stagecoaches to Virginia City and later to Bozeman, where other stage lines (Bassett Brothers) carried passengers into the park. By 1880 they were running stages for mail, freight, and passengers from Red Rock, near Monida, to Mammoth Hot Springs . Marshall & Goff. George W. Marshall received a 1-year mail carrier contract in 1879 for the Virginia City to Mammoth route and formed the Marshall & Goff Stage Co. with John Goff in 1880. They built a house at the Firehole River near Nez Perce Creek. The following year erected a mail station at Norris, possibly in the meadow near the soldier station. Marshall and John A. Goff also built a 2-story hotel along the Firehole River near Nez Perce Creek in 1880. It was the 2nd hotel in Yellowstone; McCartney’s at Mammoth being the first). ​ Left: Marshall & Goff's Mail Station at Firehole, ca1879. [Thos. H. Rutter stereo, courtesy Yellowstone Stereoviews webpage.] The first passenger stagecoach left October 1, 1880 from Virginia City for the Lower Basin. George Marshall drove the first two passengers, one of which was Carrie Strahorn, who claimed to be the first woman to tour the entire Park. She was traveling with her husband Robert A. Strahorn. They traveled up the Madison River to the Lower Geyser Basin to Marshall’s Hotel located at the confluence of Nez Perce Creek and the Firehole River. Marshall began giving tours of the park that same year and his tours were the first known to originate from 'within` the park. ​ The Helena Weekly Herald reported on Aug 26 1880, “This week the coaches on Marshall & Goffs mail and express line to the National: Park were started. The coaches are commodious lour-horse vehicles, and the stations are at convenient distances, so that tourists can now make the journey by easy stages to Fire Hole Basin.” The paper also reported that construction of the hotel was nearing completion and would be ready for visitors the first of September. Board and lodging was $3/day, or $12/week . . . [and] Persons desiring to ride or drive through the Park will be furnished a two or three-seated carriage with driver for $8 per day. Riding horses for ladies or gentlemen, or pack horses will be furnished for $2.50 a day each. Trusty guides to all places of interest for $5 a day when required.” Top Right: Helena Weekly Herald, 26Aug1880] ​ Bottom Left: 1908 Map excerpt showing Virginia City, Monida, Spencer, Henry's Lake and Firehole. [Clason's Map Co.] From “Montana and Yellowstone National Park,” by Robert E. Strahorn, 1881 ​ EXPENSES IN THE PARK. "Mr. G. W. Marshall, at the National Park House in Lower Geyser Basin, will transport parties to various points or outfit them at following rates; Three-seated carriage and driver, $8 per day; single-seated rig and driver, $6 per day; saddle horses, $2.50 per day for 3 days or more, or $3 for single day . . . Bedding, tents and board will be furnished to parties on Park tours at very reasonable rates; board at hotel, $3 per day. Parties who desire to outfit and board themselves while making excursions in the Park, can buy all necessary provisions, ammunition, fishing tackle and bedding of Mr. G. W. Marshall at a reasonable advance (for freightage) over prices at Virginia City, or cooking utensils, bedding, tents, etc., will be leased on favorable terms to proper parties . . . Our estimate of the entire expense of the trip for one person from Omaha to the Park and return, including horse hire, board or provisions, etc., for 10 days in the Park is from $225 to $250." "Crossing Firehole Creek, Lower Geyser Basin" Near Marshall's Hotel early 1880s. The coaches may be those of the Bassett Brothers. [Cabinet Card, F.S. (Francis Shay) Halsted, Photographer] Zack Root's Express Zachary T. Root was born in October 1846 in Maryland. He is known to have been in the Bozeman area by at least the fall of 1873. Around July 1874, Zach Root formed a transportation company in Bozeman that hauled freight and passengers from Bozeman to Mammoth and points in between on a weekly basis. Zack Root's stage connected with George Huston and Frank Grounds at Mammoth Hot Springs, who had been operating a pack train operation into Yellowstone since at least 1873. The New North West newspaper in Deer Lodge, Mt., noted in early August 1874 that, “Zack Root's express, carrying the U. S. mail, passengers and freight, leaves Bozeman every Monday morning for the Mammoth llot Springs, National Park, and connects there with pack trains to the geysers and all attractive points in Wonderland.” A Bozeman paper noted in May 1875, that Zack Root was having his coaches renovated and repainted for the upcoming tourist season. Right: Mammoth Hot Springs stage and pack trips ad. [Bozeman Avant Courier, 18Sep1874] Zack Root only advertised his operation during 1874-75. In 1876 Clark & Arnholt’s Express was being promoted with George Wakefield as proprietor and provided the same services that Root had offered. ​ The following year George Ash and E.L. Fridley bought out Clark’s operation and announced, “Tourists for the National Park and Geyser Land! Headquarters at the Bozeman.” They supplied wagons, carriages, buggies, saddle horses, and pack animals and connected with George Huston’s pack train at Mammoth. The operation changed hands again in 1877 as George Reese took over the venture under the name Clark’s Fork Express, and provided regular service to the burgeoning mining community at Clark’s Fork. There were no references in the Bozeman Avant-Courier that year for guiding or pack train services in the park by Huston or any other guide, nor were there any transportation ads for service to the park in 1878 or 1879 that the author has found. No doubt the Nez Perce and Bannock wars of 1877 and 1878 adversely affected business in the park. By 1880 Marshall & Goff were handling stage operations to Mammoth and Fire Hole from Virginia City, and Gilmer & Salisbury providing service to Virginia City. Left : Ad for Zack Root's Express. [Bozeman Avant Courier, 3Aug1875] ​ Above: Ad for Z.T. Root's Express [The Madisonian, Virginia CIty, Mt, 4Dec1875] James A. Clark James Clark constructed a small tent hotel at the base of Capitol Hill in 1885 and was granted a 4-acre lease for 10 years that permitted him to build a hotel and necessary outbuildings. He also established a transportation and guide service that year for his guests. It was a partnership with E.O. Clark and was known as the “National Park Hack & Express”. He apparently took over the operation of an operation of the same name operated by Hobbs & Link (Frank M. Hobbs and Lawrence Link) that advertised in 1884 and was based in Cinnabar , They operated until Sept of 1885 when the partnership was dissolved. ​ Right: Jas. A Clark - National Park Livery. [Livingston Enterprise, 10Jul1886 The Clarks advertised renting carriages, hacks, and saddle horses, with or without drivers. The Livingston Enterprise noted in 1885 that “Clark’s Town" is located at the foot of Capitol Hill and contains five houses and a number of tents.” By 1886 Clark was operating the ‘Cooke Stage & Express Line’, and received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail and stage contract in 1887. The business was often referred to simply as the White Barn at Mammoth . Two years later he was making tri-weekly trips to Cooke, with an overnight stop at the Soda Butte Stage Station. Above: Advertising Card for Jas. A. Clark at Mammoth, ca1886 Above: The "White Barn" at Mammoth Hot Springs, headquarters for James Clark's transportation operation. It was located at the base of Capitol Hill, about where the current Xanterra Parks & Resorts executive house is located. Livingston Enterprise - Apr 16, 1887 ​ Park Transportation J. A Clark has refurnished his already extensive outfit of horses and carriages, and is prepared to do a general transportation business through the National Park during the coming season. He will also run the Cooke City mail and stage line, for which he has the contract. All wishing to make a tour of the Park will find it to their interest to consult with Mr. Clark before engaging transportation elsewhere. His place of business is the White Barn south of the National Hotel, at Mammoth Hot Springs. Call and see him or address him at the above place. James sold his transportation business in 1889 to A.T. French, who received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail route franchise. Clark was never able to build the hotel as promised in his lease and sold out his hotel interests in 1888 to the firm of White, Friant & Letellier, and eventually landed into the hands of George Wakefield. Early in 1889 Clark applied for a lease to erect a hotel at Soda Butte, but was turned down by Interior due to his past record. Clark was also involved in several mining ventures at Cooke City. "Cooke Transportation Line - A.T. French, Proprietor" [Livingston Enterprise, 30Nov1889] Sale of Clark's hotel site at Mammoth [Livingston Enterprise, 10Dec1887] The Wakefield Stage Companies George W. Wakefield was born in Bangor Maine in 1833 ventured west in 1859, where he prospected for gold in Colorado, California, Mexico, Nevada, British Columbia, Oregon and Idaho. In 1872 he settled in Bozeman, operated a livery barn and took a lease to manage the Northern Pacific Hotel, which he purchased in 1879. Wakefield had been operating stage lines in Montana Territory and between Bozeman and Virginia City before he teamed up with Charles W. Hoffman of Bozeman to establish the Wakefield & Hoffman stage line in 1883. Hoffman, a Montana pioneer, had become Post Sutler at Ft. Ellis in 1868, later Quartermaster, Post Trader in 1878, and was a state senator in the 1890s-early 1900s. The new stage company, Wakefield & Hoffman, provided service from Cinnabar to Mammoth and into the park under an exclusive agreement with Yellowstone Park Association (YPA), effective July 15, 1883. They operated from Livingston to the track's end until the Northern Pacific’s RR’s line was open to Cinnabar. The business started out with four Concord coaches, drawn by four horses. The coaches were named the Mayflower, the Bighorn, the Huntley, and the Queen. According to a Stagecoach information page on the St. Louis arch Museum website, Wakefield and Hoffman purchased Gilmer & Salisbury’s equipment to operate there business in Yellowstone National Park ​ The company also received the mail contract for the Livingston to Cooke City route (tri-weekly) and provided daily mail service (during the summer season) to Mammoth beginning in July 1883. They utilized a cabin at Soda Butte for a mail station and overnight stop, as the trip from Cinnabar to Cooke City took more than one day. Right: Ad in The Yellowstone National Park , Herman Haupt, 1883 The St. Paul Globe noted on July 18, 1883 that, "The stage service by Messrs. Wakefield & Hoffman will be complete and ample for any emergency daring the season. They will have from 80 to 100 horses distributed through the park at various stations. From the terminus of the Park Branch road to the Mammoth Hot Springs, they place Concord coaches, and from the hotel through the park, new two and three-seated spring Concord wagons of Racine manufacture. They will be equipped and prepared with transportation for any number traveling in large excursion parties on short previous notice. Their whole outfit will be in the park in a few days." ​ The following April the Livingston Daily Enterprise revealed that Wakefield had just returned from a trip back east (probably Concord, NH) and had purchased, “an elaborate outfit of wagons of new and unique design.” It was reported that in1884 the company maintained about 40 vehicles, including Concord coaches, jerkies, buggies, elegant spring wagons, and single and double buckboards. In Dec. of 1885, C.W Hoffman sold out his interest in the stage company to F.J. Haynes, the park photographer. The new business was called Wakefield & Haynes Stage Co. In March of 1886 Wakefield traveled to South Bend, Indiana, ”purchasing carriages and stages for the park tourist business this season.” [Indianapolis Journal, 31March1886] The company however was short-lived and Haynes sold out in July of 1886 for $2400, for reasons not entirely clear. The concern then became known as Wakefield Stage Lines. Left: Portrait of Chas. W. Hoffman [History of Montana , H.F. Sanders] Right: Livingston Daily Enterprise, 25Jan1884 "Notice of dissolution of partnership.—Notice is hereby given that the co partnership heretofore existing between Geo W. Wakefield of Bozeman, Gallatin county, Mont., and F. Jay Haynes of Fargo, Cass county, Dak., under the firm name and style of the Wakefield & Haynes Stage Co., has by mutual consent been dissolved, and all persons indebted to said firm, or having claims against the same, are hereby notified that all the debts of said firm have been assumed by the said Geo. W. Wakefield, who will pay the same as they become due, and that all credits in favor of said firm have been purchased by said Geo. W. Wakefield, who is hereby authorized and empowered to collect the same. Hereafter the business of said firm will be continued by Geo. W. Wakefield Stage Co. In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our hands this 23rd day of July, A. D. 1886, at Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming. GEO. W. WAKEFIELD. F. JAY HAYNES Witness: W. W. Livingston. [The Livingston Enterprise, 07 Aug 1886, Sat • Page 1] In 1887 Wakefield began tri-weekly stage service from Livingston to the mining city of Castle. The following year he bought James Clark’s hotel operation at Mammoth and in 1889 the business incorporated as the National Park Transportation Co. with members Charles Gibson, E.C. Waters, G.W. Wakefield, and Thomas Oakes. An inventory conducted at that time revealed that the company owned three 11-passenger Concord wagons, eight 7-passenger Concord wagons, eight 5-passengers surreys and wagons, three 3-passenger Studebaker surreys, and eight other miscellaneous wagons and coaches. In a series of behind-the-scenes political maneuvers, schemes, and contrivances, the Wakefield company lost the transportation contract late in 1891, and the physical possessions were purchased by Harry W. Child and his associates. The Helena Independent Record announced on May 22, 1892 that, “George Wakefield and the National Park Transportation Co. lost the YPA contract in late 1891, and the operation was purchased by the YNPTC in 1892. In carrying out this object, a company has been incorporated under the laws of Montana entitled the Yellowstone National Park Transportation company, 'the incorporators are S.S Huntley, H. W. Child , E.W. Bach, L. H. Hershfleld and Aaron Hershfield. Silas Huntley will be the genera! manager of the company. The capital stock is $250,000. The contract given Mr. Huntley by the government is for ten seasons, beginning Nov. 1, 1901. The season opens June 1 and to start it the company has 500 horses, from seventy-five to 100 vehicles. and will employ about 100 drivers in addition to the stock tenders.” By 1894, Wakefield had teamed up with John A. Ennis and were delivering mail by stage from Livingston to Cinnabar under the name Wakefield & Ennis. D.I. Donovan took over the route in 1895 and Wakefield went into the camping business in Yellowstone, and received a permit in to operate a camping coaches and wagons from the Interior Dept His operation originated from Cinnabar , Montana, using 10-passenger Concord coaches. Passengers on the 10-day camping tours visited all the major attractions in the Park. The service cost $40 and all the visitors camping needs were provided for. Wakefield continued with this concession through at least 1901. Left: Billings Gazette, 11Aug1896 Above: George Wakefield standing in front of one of his camping coaches, ca1898. [Courtesy Univ. of Montana - Missoula] Yellowstone Transportation Co. (YTC) This firm was organized by Charles Gibson and Thomas F. Oakes (in 1886, under the auspices of the Yellowstone Park Association. Gibson was a St. Louis hotel businessman and co-founder of the Yellowstone Park Asso . (YPA) and Oakes was vice-president of the NPRR and held 10% of share in YPA. However, the YTC was unable to acquire a lease from the Army authorities, so they subcontracted with Wakefield & Hoffman to provide stagecoach service for YPA. That year Gibson issued a notice that "the drivers of the stage should act as guides in showing guests all the curiosities of the park." YPA`s transportation privileges were revoked November 1, 1891 and were taken over by the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co.

  • West Yellowstone |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ West Yellowstone & The Union Pacific RR ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Early Days . . . . The West Entrance of Yellowstone was used by many of the earliest tourists to Yellowstone. Gilman Sawtelle, probably the area's earliest settler, homesteaded a ranch in the Henry's Lake area in 1867. The following year he built a road from his ranch to Virginia City. Five years later he was instrumental in constructing the first road from Virginia City into Yellowstone through the West Entrance. The road was known as the Virginia City and National Park Free Wagon Road. In the 1880's travel to the park was also accomplished by the UP's line that extended from Brigham City, UT. to Butte MT. The train stopped at Beaver, near the Idaho and Montana border, and there stagecoaches made the trip through the West Entrance. The route traveled through Centennial Valley, past Henry's Lake, with an overnight stop at Dwelle's Inn. The passengers arrived at the Fountain Hotel the following day in time for lunch The jump-off point was later moved to Monida, where the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Line began service in 1898 and traveled a more direct route to the west entrance of Yellowstone. In 1905, E.H. Harriman, President of Union Pacific RR, made plans to extend their rail line to the west entrance of Yellowstone. The line was completed in Nov. of 1907 and the following June the line was open for regularly scheduled train traffic. Right Top: Dwelle's lodge, later known as the Grayling Inn. In 1884 he established Dwelle’s Stage Stop to service the Bassett Bros. stages that were running to the park from Beaver, Idaho. In 1898, Dwelle’s Inn became an overnight stop for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. that transported tourists to the park from Monida until 1908. [Montana Historical Society] Right Bottom: Gilman Sawtelles cabin in 1872, when he hosted F.V Hayden Expedition Hayden standing to right and Sawtelle sitting on the right. Photo by Wm. H. Jackson. Bottom Left: The Sawtelle Ranch in 1872. Photo by Wm. H. Jackson. The Union Pacific RR Moves in . . . The UPRR incorporated the Yellowstone Park Railroad Company on September 12, 1905 to build a line from St. Anthony, Idaho to the west entrance of Yellowstone. Construction began October 3, 1905 and was completed November 12, 1907. The line was almost immediately closed by winter snows, but was ready to provide service the following June. The town at the Boundary was founded in 1908 with the name of Riverside, even though the town site was two miles from the Madison River. The UP began providing passenger rail service to the town on June 11, 1908. A road was cut through the forest in 1907, to the Madison River two miles distant, where the Wylie Permanent Camping Company and the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Company built barns and other facilities required by their stages engaged in transporting the tourists into the Park from the Union Pacific RR depot. The townsite was located on Forest Service lands and permission was needed for any homesteaders. The original settler was Joe Claus, who built a cabin in what is now the townsite during the winter of 1906-1907, probably in the hope of profiting from construction of the railway. The first residents were issued permits for stores and homes late in the fall of 1907, but did not actually own the land. They were Charles A. Arnet, Sam P. Eagle, and L.A. Murray. A Forest Service survey in June 1908 created a town site consisting of 6 blocks and the town was officially named Riverside on Oct. 23, 1908. Prior to that time the area was referred to as ‘the Boundary’, or ‘at the Boundary'. ​ Yellowstone Hotel ​ Hotel Yellowstone, usually referred to as the Yellowstone Hotel, or Yellowstone Inn in later days, was a 2-story hotel was built around 1907-08 by L.A. Murray. Adjacent buildings were a small pool hall and a corner barber shop run by Osh Hedgecoach in the early years. I believe it came into possession of the Bryant Way, a camping outfit that toured Yellowstone. Around 1913, Shaw & Powell Camping Co. bought the hotel for use by their guests. After reorganization of the camping companies in Yellowstone in 1917, it came into possession of the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. In 1926, the property was sold to Sam Hurless, who constructed a cabin camp on the lot. T op Left: Hotel Yellowstone, photo taken perhaps soon after construction. Top Right: Yellowstone Hotel with the pool room at right and barber shop on far right. Bottom Right: The Inn at the Gate: The Yellowstone Hotel, ca1914 when used by the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. [Photo from University of Wyoming] Eagles Store, ca1910 ​ Samuel Peter Eagle, then in partnership with Alex Stuart, opened a general store in 1908 which operated for two years, after which the Stuart family went into business for themselves. On November 17, 1909 Sam Eagle was appointed Postmaster, taking over from Chas. Arnet. The store was enlarged in 1913. [Photo from Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea] The Town's Beginnings . . . The name Riverside had already been applied to an area 4-5 miles east of the park entrance in the 1880’s, where a mail and stagecoach station and a soldier station were located. To avoid confusion, the name was changed to Yellowstone on Jan 31, 1910. Confusion continued for years with the town named the same as the park. The name was changed for the last time in 1920 to West Yellowstone. In 1913 and 1919 lands were removed from the Forest Service jurisdiction for use as the town site and residents were then able to actually own their land. In 1920 additional areas were surveyed and platted, enlarging the town. The original blocks were renumbered and 22 additional blocks created. Charles Arnet, one of the original founders, built the Yellowstone Store, around 1907-08. It was the first store in town and located in the middle of Park Street. It also housed the first post office. He sold out to Alex Stuart in 1910. L.A. “Dick” Murray built the Yellowstone Hotel in 1909, located across the street and west of the Eagle Store. It later became the Yellowstone Inn, and then the hotel for the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Around the same time, Sam Eagle also operated a general store with Alex Stuart. When Stuart bought the Yellowstone Store, Eagle and his wife continued their operation. In the late 1920's they built a new 'Eagle Store'. The Eagle family continues to operate the store to this day. Early Street Views of "Yellowstone" T op Left: Real-Photo postcard with Hotel Yellowstone behind the horses, probably pulling a Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co., undated. ​ Top Right: Park St. in 1912. Alex Stuart's General Merchandise Store. ​ Bottom Right: Street view ca1917 showing buses of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. Behind are the madison Hotel (left) and Madison Cafe to its right. The building on the right advertises Park Tour and Permanent Camps, no doubt an old Shaw & Powell Camping Co. building. [Yellowstone Historic Center, #2016.4] Union Pacific Depot The depot was designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwood and opened in 1909 by the UPRR, replacing temporary facilities. The Union Pacific RR described it as, “built of stone, very substantial, spacious, and artistic. It is electric heated by steam, and provides large waiting rooms, an individual dressing room for ladies, two large fireplaces, drinking fountains, etc. In it are the usual ticket and Pullman offices and the office of the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Co. Upon the railroad's arrival to West, the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Line moved their operations from Monida to an area a few miles inside the park's boundary called Riverside. They picked up passengers from the depot and took them on the tour around the park. In 1972, major changes were made throughout the depot to convert its use to a privately-operated museum. The building currently houses the Yellowstone Historic Center Museum ​ Union Pacific Dining Lodge The Dining Lodge was built in 1925 by the UPRR with Gilbert Stanley Underwood as architect. The dining hall incorporated a large central eating space (the Mammoth Room) with a massive, arrowhead-shaped fireplace, a kitchen large enough to prepare over 1,000 meals per day; a large service wing containing the employee dining hall, a bakery, butcher shop, scullery, linen room, coal room, manager’s office, and walk-in refrigerators and freezers. Visitors would arrive in the morning and have breakfast prior to their journey into the park. Diners were served in the Mammoth Room, a dining room with 45' ceilings, large windows, and a fireplace large enough for a man to stand in. Several hundred people could be seated at once. Visitors returning from the park would have supper before boarding the train for their trip home. T op Left: The Beanery, built in 1911 to replace the original crude facility. [Photo from Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea] ​ Top Right: Mammoth Room in the new UP Dining Lodge, constructed in 1925, replacing the Beanery. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] ​ Middle Right: The Depot with the Yellowstone Special in front. [Postcard Bloom Bros. #4270, Author collection] ​ Bottom Right: Early view of the Union Pacific Depot. [Real-Photo postcard] ​ Bottom Left: Trackside view of the Union Pacific Dining Lodge (left), Baggage Bldg., and the Depot, late 1920s, Tammen Postcard #4520 Early Businesses Stuart's Garage Alex Stuart, one of towns founding pioneers, started out in business with Sam Eagle. Stuart bought Arnet's Yellowstone Store in 1910 and started a general merchandise store. They incorporated as the Stewart Mercantile Co. in 1915. According to the Butte Miner, Oct. 24, 1915, “The Stuart Mercantile company, organized to conduct a general retail merchandise business at Yellowstone, in extreme southern Gallatin county on the Park boundary, has been Incorporated by papers filed with the county clerk and recorder last Thursday. The capital stock is $25,000. The directors are Matthew A. Stewart and Emma Stewart of St. Paul. Minn., and Alex Stuart and Laura Stuart of Yellowstone. [See stereoview of the store on the "Street Views of Yellowstone above) Right: Stereoview of Stuart's General Merchandise Store, 1912. With the advent of the 'horseless carriage' in Yellowstone, he entered into an agreement with the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. to service their new White Motor Co. buses beginning in 1917. He built Stuart's Garage, selling gas, tires, oil, and other automotive supplies. He obtained the service contract in 1917 for the White Motor Co. touring buses of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. YPTCo took over operations from the Yellowstone-Western stagecoach company when motor cars began ruling the roads in Yellowstone in 1917. Alex’s son Walt, reportedly the first baby born in West Yellowstone (1909), began working at the station in 1919, purchased it in 1936 and eventually sold it in 1977. Alex Stuart died in 1961. Top Right: Colorized postcard of Alex Stuart's Service, undated. Top Left: Walt Stuarts Texaco after rebuilding/remodeling, ca1940s. Real-Photo postcard. Madison Hotel Built by Jess Pieman in 1912, the Madison Hotel is the only remaining early hotel in West Yellowstone. This rustic log hotel was soon after purchased by Charles M. "Roxy" and Dolly (Bishop) Bartlett. It was conveniently located across from the UPRR depot. There were originally 6 rooms upstairs with a downstairs lobby. Fourteen more rooms and a card room were added in 1921 and running water a few years later. Eventually the Hadleys bought the operation in 1959, adding a large gift shop. The business is still open during the summer season. Top Right: Ad for the Hotel Madison in 1915. [Road Logs Salt Lake City to Yellowstone Park, 1915] Bottom Right: Lobby of the Madison Hotel, undated. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] Bottom Left: Madison Hotel, located across from the UP Depot, ca1920. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] Kennedy Bldg - Menzel’s Curio The Kennedy Building was built in 1911 on a lot owned by Madison Basin Forest Ranger Louis J. Kennedy. It originally served as a dance hall in the town that would become West Yellowstone. Equipped with a piano, the building hosted Saturday night dances for the entertainment of tourists, railroad employees, and locals. It then housed a summer restaurant from 1913 to 1916, and in 1919, local students used its lofty space as a basketball court. Sam Eagle, one of the town’s founders, acquired the building in 1933 and opened a curio shop managed by his daughter, Rose. In 1941, Rose married Herm Menzel who promptly went off to war. Upon Herm’s return in 1946, the store became Menzel’s Curio Shop. The building still stands on Yellowstone Avenue today. Top Left : Kennedy Building, that later housed Menzel's Curio Shop in 1933. Rose Eagle managed the business until 1946, when she married Herm Menzel. [Real-Photo postcard, probaby ca1933.] ​ Top Right : Later view of Eagle's Curio Store, ca1940s ​ Bottom Right : 1981 view of Menzel's Curio Store. It is still in business to this day. It is one of the few original businesses in town remaining from the 1910s era. [NPS Photo #284] Eagle Store Samuel Peter Eagle, then in partnership with Alex Stuart, opened a general store in 1908 which they operated for two years, after which the Stuart family went into business for themselves. On November 17, 1909 Sam Eagle was appointed Postmaster, taking over from Chas. Arnet. Eagle took over the actual operation of the post office in January of 1910, which was the beginning of his 25 years of tenure. The West Yellowstone Post Office was housed in the store from 1910 until 1935. Also, a soda fountain was added to Eagle’s Store in 1910. The store was rebuilt/enlarged in 1913. The present 3-story building was built in the years between 1927 and 1930. Sam purchased Joe Claus’ cabins in the early 1920s and used them as employee housing. Small shops to the side of the store were replaced by a store addition in 1966. The Eagle Family has continued to operate at 3 Canyon Street in its original location to this day. Top Left: 1913 view of the early Eagle Store. [Photo from Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea] Top Right: View of the Eagle Store after it was rebuilt in 1927-30. [Schlechten Photo] Tepee Inn The Tepee Inn (also Tee Pee Inn) was built by Paul & Dorothy Strieder in 1919. It was a large two-story log structure that housed a bar, dance floor, cafe, and rooms. Paul died in the early 1920s and later Dorothy married Val Buchanan, and continued to operate the hotel. J.H. Venable sold the Tepee to A.K. Clawson in 1952. A fire caused by a burning grease trap burned the Tepee in 1965, but the exterior rock wall and interior back-bar survived the fire. The building was rebuilt as a single story structure, and Clawson added the Tepee Motel to the building. ​ Right: Lobby of the TePee Inn, 1934. [Schlechten Photo] Bottom Left: The Tepee Inn, ca1920. Real-Photo postcard. Bottom Right: The Tepee Inn, alte 1920s after the Inn was greatly enlarged. Real-Photo postcard. Doc’s Bar - Doc’s Club Horace G. “Doc” Bartlett was the brother of Roxy Bartlett, who opened the Madison Hotel. Doc opened a grocery store called the Log Store around 1920. A few years later he opened Doc’s Bar, later called Doc’s Club. Gambling was not unknown in the bar and occasionally newspapers, somewhat unfavorably, reported on the matter. In the late 1930s, Doc was involved in the startup of the Chalet Theater. In later days the club featured the Starlite Lounge, for drinks, dinner and dancing. It was listed for sale in newspapers in 1956 and 1968. Above: Newspaper ad for Doc's Club, from the Idaho State Journal in 1959 ​ Left: View of Yellowstone St., late-1930s. Doc's is in between the two cafes on the left. [Photo from, Images of America - West Yellowstone , by Paul Shea ​ Smith & Chandlers ​ Transcription of sign from the West Yellowstone Historic Walking Tour "In 1927, two pioneering entrepreneurs from Las Vegas, Nevada, Carl Smith & Ken Chandler, built a large general mercantile across the street from the Union Pacific Depot. Train passengers walked across the dirt street for their group photos. Tour bus riders bought western hats and dusters. Auto travelers picked up postcards and curios. “Smith & Chandler Indian Traders” brought Navajo, Zuni and Hopi jewelry makers and rug, blanket and basket weavers to the store for decades. Alice Chandler was quite a memorable sight, too. She dyed her hair a bright red and was dressed in the finest western dresses and boots. She graced the store with her style and presence for 50 years. By 1972, the Smiths and Chandlers had retired and sold the store to the Hamilton/ Povah family. In March of 1973, suspected static electricity and leaking propane gas sparked a tremendous fire. Without the help from modern fire hydrants to extinguish the flames, the store and adjoining coffee shop burned to the ground. The family quickly built this new store and kept the same name" Bottom Right: Postcard view of the Smith & Chandler store in West Yellowstone, ca1940s. They also produced many postcards, many of which were Real-Photo postcards of the "Yellow Buses" filled with tourists heading into Yellowstone. Top Right: Early view of Smith & Chandler [Schlechten photo, Museum of the Rockies, #x80-6-3098] The Town Grows Up . . . This area collects tremendous amounts of snow in the winter and spring and the business season here is typically very short. The railroad shut down service during the winters. Many residents left the area for the winter, and the few that stayed were generally snowed-in for the duration. It was not until 1936 that the road to Bozeman was kept open through the winter. The area’s first airport opened in 1935 on forest lands south of town, cleared by Yellowstone pioneer George Whittaker. Private-owned snowplanes entered the park through the West Entrance in 1948-49. Private snowmobiles were 1st allowed into Yellowstone in the 1963-64 seasons and the area has since developed into a very popular winter resort area for snowmobiling, snowcoach tours into Yellowstone and cross-country skiing. Snowmobile rental businesses have begun using snowmobiles with 4-stroke engines that pollute less and are quieter. Although the Park banned individual snowmobile travel in Yellowstone, there are vast areas that be explored outside of the Park. ​ Regularly scheduled railroad passenger service ended in 1960, but a new airport was built in 1963-64, allowing for larger aircraft to bring visitors into the area. The town was incorporated in in 1966 and three years later the UPRR donated the Depot, Dining Lodge, and other service buildings to the town. Postcard Views of Motels of 1930s -1950s T op Left: The Hayward cabins and gas station, built by former Yellowstone storekeeper George Whittaker in the 1930s-40s. ​ Top Right: The Stagecoach Inn, built in 1948. A Sanborn Real-Photo postcard. ​ Middle Left: The Sleepy Hollow Motel. ​ Bottom Left: Circle R Motel, ca1940s. ​ Bottom Right: THerk's Modern Cabins, ca1940s. Street Views T op Left: View from near Park entrance looking east. From the right: Collette's Coffee Shop, Old Faithful Tavern, barber shop, drug store, cafe, Smith & Chandler's, and Madison Hotel & Gift Shop to the left. Ca1940s. YNP #185327-497. ​ Bottom Left: Looking north, Purdy's Frontier Club and Knotty Pine Coffee Shop ​ Click to enlarge photos Top Right: Yellowstone St., looking west from the corner with Stuart's Texaco gas station on right. A cafe is to the right of the Texaco, then the Frontier Club. A Sanborn postcard. ​ Bottom Right: Looking north from near Yellowstone St. A Pegasus/Mobil Oil gas station on right, Peterson's on left, with the Log Store and a Tavern next to it. A Linen-Style postcard, ca1940s. Click to enlarge photos Off to Wonderland . . . Be sure to visit the highly-rated Yellowstone Historic Center Museum, now the Museum of the Yellowstone, on your next visit to West Yellowstone

  • Shaw & Powell |

    Camping in the Yellowstone Shaw & Powell Camping ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Shaw and Powell Camping Company were permitted to operate 'movable camps' in Yellowstone in 1898. The firm was started by Amos Shaw and J.D. Powell (John D. Powell) with headquarters in Livingston, Montana. Many members of the Shaw family were involved, including son Walter Shaw, Leo Chester, and Jesse Shaw. ​ Shaw & Powell initially brought guests into the park from the north entrance and in 1909 officially opened the Shaw Hotel in Gardiner to serve their guests after their arrival on the Northern Pacific train and prior to their departure. They had been leasing the lot since 1907, and the Sanborn Insurance map of Gardiner in 1907 showed a "Gardiner Hotel" on the site at that time. Previously, the corner was occupied by C.B. Scott. In later years the hotel name changed to the Shaw Hotel, owned and operated by Walter Shaw and his wife. Early camping wagon, emblazoned with L.C. Shaw Camping No. 7. The "L.C." standing for Leo Chester Shaw, son of Amos Shaw. [Undated glass slide] 1903 camping wagon with guests picnicking at an unknown location. The wagon now sports the Shaw & Powell name. [Courtesy Library of Congress, #2016648961] Shaw & Powell transported guests in wagons and coaches around the park to view all of the major scenic attractions. Carrying all their camping materials with them, they setup nightly camps in various locations that featured good grass for grazing and adequate water resources, not to mention in close proximity to renowned natural features. Description of the Shaw & Powell Transportation Co. Livingston Enterprise Souvenir (Montana) in 1900 The firm of Shaw & Powell, hunting camp outfitters and Yellowstone Park guides, are prepared to take parties of any size from five to one hundred, through the National Park, or on hunting trips through Jackson Hole country, Hell Roaring region, Buffalo Fork or Suce creek - in fact to any and all points in Montana or Wyoming where there is an abundance of game, such as elk, bear, deer, mountain lion and sheep, antelope, chicken and grouse. Their pack trains are made up of good horses and plenty of them, who are well able to stand the high latitude and long trips. These outfits include cots to sleep on, which means sleeping off the ground and everybody made as comfortable as possible . . . Amos Shaw, the senior member of the firm, is one of the oldest guides in the park, having assisted in surveying its lake and rivers, laying out the roads and sounding the depths of the geysers and hot pools . . . They carry a full outfit on each trip, including the best cook and the best of food. Shaw & Powell employ only gentlemen, and succeed where others fail. Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Hotel in Gardiner, ca1913. It was located on east Park Street, near the corner of what is now 2nd St. (Hwy 89) [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum #1317] Shaw & Powell Camping Co. camping wagon with three women posing, perhaps the camp matrons. [Real-Photo postcard] Left: Shaw & Powell Mountain Wagon on the road, ca1909. [Real-Photo Postcard] Right: Shaw & Powell Camping Wagon, undated real photo. A Description of Camping Life with Shaw & Powell in 1903, Excerpts from The Oxford Mirror, Aug. 13, 1903, Oxford Junction, Iowa "It is the good fortune of myself and Harold to be with the Shaw & Powell camping company, which numbers twenty-eight tourists and fourteen helpers, or 'savages' as they are called in camp parlance. The camp is moved every day, and all the tents, cots and bedding are piled up on an immense baggage wagon, drawn by four horses. Besides this there is a traveling kitchen, containing range, sink and all sorts of receptacles for holding everything needed in a kitchen. During the travel of the camp from one point to another, the cook prepares for the next meal. There is also a wagon which carries the food supplies, which is called the 'mess wagon.' Last night a bear made a visit to our camp, and in the morning this particular wagon was a sorry looking sight. There are five coaches carrying our party . . . and Mr. Powell gives us every opportunity to see all there is to be seen in the park. He is a most accommodating and pleasant gentleman, and takes great pains for the comfort of his guests. Every trip through the park is personally conducted, either by Mr. Shaw or Mr. Powell, so that the traveler is always assured of first-class treatment in going with this company. When we reach our camping place for the night the large dining tent is at once set up, so that the cooks can begin getting the evening meal. Then one man starts out with a horse to drag in logs to make a camp fire, while several more set up the sleeping tents. These are set as closely together as possible, and in a semi-circle, with the campfire in the center. After supper we all gather around the fire and tell stories, play games or sing songs. Besides the two cooks, there are twelve young men with Mr. Powell, who help about the camp in various ways - driving the coaches and wagons, putting up tents, waiting on table, etc. I think with one exception they are all college boys who are spending their vacation in this way . . . They are all typical college boys, and with their music and college songs, add much to the pleasure of the trip." West Yellowstone The Union Pacific RR began service to what is now West Yellowstone (known at the time as just Yellowstone) in 1908, and the camping company soon started transporting guests from the west entrance. In 1912, the company bought out the Robert C. Bryant Camping Co., also known as Bryant-Spence Camping Co., which had been operating camping tours from the west entrance since 1903. The sale also included the Bryant Way hotel in West Yellowstone, which then became the Shaw & Powell Hotel. Old photos show a sign on it reading, “Inn at the Gate.” It was located on Park Street, one block east of the UPRR Depot, near the entrance to the park. One guest in August 1914, commented about the “Inn:” “The "Inn at the Gate" was not very much of a hotel. There was a large office, with a bare floor and one corner fenced in with a counter, and the room was heated with a stove. It was cold enough too so that a fire felt very comfortable . . . The food was placed upon the table and the guests simply sat down and ate what was before them, helping themselves to what they wanted. It was really a very good breakfast and I think no one complained of the service, though there was a good deal of laughing about the "style" that we put on.” "The Inn at the Gate." Former RC Bryant hotel, became the Shaw & Powell hotel in 1912. [1914 Photo, Univ of Wyo Special Collections] Permanent Camps Shaw and Powell were given permission by the Interior Dept. to build a permanent camp in 1912 at Willow Park, near the current Indian Creek campground. In 1913, permission was received to build permanent camps at all major locations. The Superintendent’s Report noted in 1913 that Shaw & Powell carried over 2400 guests that season. They operated their own stage lines to transport their customers around the park, utilizing Mountain Stages built by the Studebaker Co. Log kitchens, dining rooms, and storerooms were built at all night camps in 1913-15. By 1916 camps were located at Willow Park; Nez Perce Creek; Upper Basin (current O.F. Lodge site); Yellowstone Lake, west of the Hotel; Canyon (Uncle Tom's Trail parking lot - later Canyon Lodge); and Tower, with lunch stations near the base of Gibbon Falls and at West Thumb. Top Left: Shaw & Powell camp at Willow Park, near Apollinaris Springs, ca1912. [Real-Photo Postcard] Top Right: Shaw & Powell metal sign, found at Willow Park camp in 2007. It was left in place. Whether it is still there is unknown. In a memorandum in the Nov. copy of the Superintendents Report of the Yellowstone National Park, in 1947, it was noted that the Yellowstone Park Co. was demolishing the old camp buildings. Remnants of concrete foundations, piling etc., still remain tucked away in the woods. ​ Bottom Left: Camp at Nez Perce Creek, undated. It was located on the north side of the creek and a half mile or so from the present road. Evidence of the site could still be seen in 2007. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum, #20060441277] Bottom Right: Little known Shaw & Powell camp at Tower Falls in 1915. Note the elk antler stacks. The camp was located adjacent to the current campground. [Courtesy Montana Historical Society.] Left: Gibbon Lunch Station . It was located near the base of Gibbon Falls, on north side of river. [1914 Brochure Through the Yellowstone National Park] Right: Shaw & Powell camp at DeLacy Creek. It seemed to only be in operation as a permanent camp for the 1913 season, as in 1914-16 the camp was located across from Old Faithful Geyser, at the current OF Lodge site. [Stereoview No. 2094, Bob Berry Collection, Cody, Wyo.] Left: Early view of the Shaw & Powell camp on Nez Perce Creek, upstream from the mouth. The camp was later moved farther away from the stream. [Stereoview #113, unknown publisher/date. Courtesy Buffalo Bill Historic Center , Cody, #P21-1249] Left: Map of Yellowstone in 1913 showing locations of Shaw & Powell Camps. [1913 Shaw & Powell brochure] ​ Right: Advertisement for the Shaw and Powell Way from 1916. By at least 1913, the S&P Way term was being used, copying from the Wylie Way and Bryant Way. [Ogden Standard , 20Jul1916] ​ Click either to enlarge Top Left: Shaw & Powell Canyon camp lodge interior view. The doorway at the end led into the dining room. [Haynes PC No. 231.] ​ Top Right: Shaw & Powell camp at Canyon, main lodge building with guests. The log tower is ready to be ignited for the nightly campfire. [Haynes PC No. 230] ​ Bottom Left: View of Old Faithful Camp taken from the Crow's Nest atop Old Faithful Inn, ca1916. Notice the tents to the left of the main pavilion. [YNP #02784] Excellent description of a day on tour with Shaw & Powell in 1910. Geyser Region of Yellowstone Visited by Waterloo Tourists "Camp Life" The Waterloo (Iowa) Evening Reporter, August 20, 1910 “Everybody is up bright and early in the morning ready for a big day sightseeing. Jim Rainbow is our alarm clock and he surely does his part well as there is no more sleep for the party after he has his eyes open. Then comes the call for breakfast and it is not a light one, potatoes, bacon, breakfast food, pancakes and syrup, etc. While the guests are eating their breakfast the tents are being taken up. Each bed is numbered so that we all have our own bed every night. This wagon is started off to our next campground and they have everything in readiness when we arrive in the evening. “The cook wagon is a marvel. It has a range and places for provisions for the six and a half day’s trip besides all the cooking utensils and dishes. The cook wagon moves on as soon as they get their dishes washed to the place where we stop for lunch. “The tourists leave camp about seven or half past on their day’s trip. We go from 11 to 13 miles before lunch. At 12 o’clock we are all ready for another meal and when they told us the first day it was just lunch we wondered what we would have for dinner. Meat, potatoes, hot biscuit or Johnny cake, sauce, preserves, etc., but no one complains but just eats. We stop for about two hours and usually our guide has some trip planned for us somewhere near our camp. “At 2 p.m. we again proceed on our way stopping here and there and traveling about the same distance as in forenoon, coming into camp about 6 o’clock with good appetites for our dinner, which is surely a bounteous one. Several kinds of meat and vegetables, pudding or pie, besides all things that go to make up a good meal. We have been very fortunate in having Mr. and Mrs. Powell as our cooks on this trip as they are both experts. The regular cook was taken sick and had to return home. “Our camps are located on some of God’s most beautiful garden spots. One of the bright and lasting memories of our trip will be our camp fires. The pine logs are piled high and set on fire and everybody gathers around it as one large family. There is no formality here. Singing, stories and visiting are the pastime of the evening with pop corn and candy mixed in. It is often a great pleasure to just sit quiet and watch the fire and think what a great privilege it is for us to be permitted to be here. “At 10 o’clock we retire for a good night’s rest, and to be ready to rise when our alarm clock goes off. Another remarkable thing that we have noticed and that is the complete harmony among the help of the camp. We have not heard one word that is not becoming to a lady or gentleman. Their main aim seems to be to make it pleasant for the guests, and I have been told that it was the same in all of the six camps. “They start out a cook wagon and everything necessary every day but as the business of the Shaw & Powell company has become so large that they have to start a party out every day. “Every one of the helpers around the camp has a nick name and very often the tourist or dude as they are called, never finds out the name of the driver who has been with them for a whole week. The helpers are called savages. They have such names as Jumbo, Sunny Jim, Professor, Fuzzy, Happy, etc. It is our good fortune to have Happy for our driver and he has surely been rightly named. He is also the very efficient guide of our party. They have a man who stays at each camp who is called the horse wrangler, whose business it is to keep the camp clean. He is out at 3:00 a.m. every morning to round up the horses.” By Mrs. Fred C. Sage​ Final Days ​ After the 1916 season changes brought about by the Interior Dept. forced the company to merge with the Wylie Camps to form the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. (See Chapter Introduction). Many of the Shaw & Powell camps were closed to eliminate duplication and concentrate business at the major locations. The transportation business was turned over to the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., owned by Harry Child. Shaw & Powell camps at Canyon, and Old Faithful were retained for the new Camps operation, along with the Wylie Camps at Lake and West Thumb. Brothers Walter and Arthur Shaw continued on in management of the new camping company with A.W. Miles of the former Wylie Co. Left: Brass luggage tag for the Shaw & Powell Camping Co., ca1913. [Author Collection] Right: Metal pinback for Shaw & Powell, ca1913 Left: 1917 newspaper ad for the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. (1917-1919) Right: Decal for the Yellowstone Park Camps Co. (1919-1927) A.W. Miles (Wylie Camps) and Shaw & Powell, former competitors, apparently did not play well together, it has been said, and finally sold out to Howard Hays and Roe Emery early in 1919. The two men formed the Yellowstone Park Camps Co., and took over the West Yellowstone Hotel and a nearby lot that housed the barn, blacksmith shop, and roofed corrals. The property was sold in 1926 to Sam Hurless and M.K. Musser who build a cabin camp on the site. Walter Shaw and his wife Lillian operated the Shaw Hotel & Cafe in Gardiner from 1922-25. Walter opened Shaw’s Camp & Cabins in Cooke City in 1919, and later guided tours through the park to the Cooke City area where he operated Shaw’s Goose Lake Camp. Walter drowned in the Yellowstone River in 1925 and his wife and Chester Shaw continued to operate the hotel until 1944. At that time it was sold to Hugh Crossen and J.D. Winters who operated it under the name Park Hotel and Café. They sold it to Paul Spradlin a few years later. On August 9, 1950 the hotel caught fire and burned down, killing two guests who were lodged there. One woman jumped out of a window and sustained non-threatening injuries, while the remainder of the guests managed to escape somewhat safely. Hugh Crossen repurchased the property and built the Town Club & Café utilizing the original stone back and side walls. The property changed hands several times until 1969 when it passed into the hands of Don Laubach. The business was sold in the 2000s and has featured several different operations. In 2019, the building, with the historic rock wall over 100 years old, was torn down to be replaced by a new business. Left: Shaw's Hotel & Cafe, Gardiner, ca1930s Bottom: Shaw's Camp in Cooke City, ca1930s. [Sanborn Real-Photo postcard]

  • Yellowstone Trade Cards |

    Yellowstone Trade Cards ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my Trade Cards Page that has been saved at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Canyon Hotel & Lodges |

    Yellowstone - Canyon Hotels & Lodges Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the author. Canyon Hotel ​ 1st Canyon Hotel This crude wooden structure was located in thick timber above Lower Falls, near the current Brink of Lower Falls parking lot. It was built in 1886 by the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA). This building housed the office, dining room, kitchen, and lobby. About 70 guests could be housed in nearby tents. It was permitted by the Army for the 1886 season only, but remained in use until a larger hotel was opened in 1890. ​ [Photo courtesy of Montana State University, Haynes Photo Collection] 2nd Canyon Hotel This hotel was located on the hill above the Grand Canyon, near where the current Xanterra horse operation is operated. The building contained 250 guest rooms and featured steam heat. Problems with the foundation necessitated repairs in 1896 and 1901. Twenty-four rooms were added in 1901. The hotel was in operation until 1911 when it was incorporated into the construction of the new Canyon Hotel. Top Left: Front of 2nd Canyon Hotel, Haynes post card No. 144 Top Right: Close-up of front of 2nd hotel, Wyoming State Archives, Stimson Collection Bottom Left: Colorized slide of the image to the right. Bottom Right: Haynes Photo, YNP #143227 3rd Canyon Hotel ​ This grandiose structure opened in 1911 with 375 rooms that accommodated 500 guests. It incorporated the 2nd Canyon Hotel into its floor plan, located on the left end of the hotel. The hotel was designed by Robert Reamer and construction continued through the winter of 1910-11. The cost was over $750,000 and financed by the YP Hotel Co. and Harry Child, who obtained loans from the Northern Pacific RR. Capacity was expanded to 600 guests in 1922 and a new wing was added in 1930-34 increasing total capacity to 900 guests. The perimeter was reported to be one mile long, and orchestras played nightly in the expansive lounge area. The hotel closed down after the 1958 season and guests were forced to stay in the new Canyon Village Lodge cabins. This magnificent building burned down in 1960 during demolition, the cause of which was never officially determined. Magnificent New Hotel in Yellowstone Opened Butte Miner, August 5, 1911 (Special Correspondence to the Miner.) Grand Canyon Hotel, Yellowstone Park, Wyo., Aug. 2 - The formal opening of the great lounging room of the new Canyon hotel in Yellowstone park, which marks the completion of the $700,000 structure, was celebrated tonight by a ball, in which the guests of the hotel, campers in the park, fisherman, hotel employees and everybody else within a radius of 50 miles, joined. The hotel is unique among all the resort hotels in the world, and the mammoth lounging room is the most striking feature. This room, 186 feet by 95 feet in dimensions, is finished in natural birch and furnished with large upholstered and willow pieces of original patterns designed by Mrs. H.W. Child. The floor coverings are rugs, especially made in Austria, the large middle rug being 56 feet by 25 feet. The color scheme is green and brown, with an occasional dash of red. The lighting effects are secured by a series of specially designed lanterns suspended from the great beams overhead.. . . [The hotel] was built under incredible difficulties, and every pound of material within this great structure, which stretches along the mountain side for 700 feet and is full five stories in height, was brought in by freight wagons and sleds from Gardiner, 40 miles away, and for several months through snow drifts 10 to 12 feet in depth, with the thermometer far below zero for weeks at a time. The hotel has 450 rooms, 75 bath rooms and every modern convenience, including electric elevators. Left Top: Exterior View, Detroit PC 71062 Right Top: Exterior view, Bloom Bros. PC YP60 Left Middle: Entrance ramp, Haynes PC No.220 Right Middle: Lounge from Office, Haynes PC No.10172 Left Bottom: Tea Room, Haynes PC No.217 Right Bottom: Hotel Office, Haynes PC No.10150 Canyon Camps & Canyon Lodge ​ ​ The Canyon Camp was built on the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. site, located near the current Uncle Tom's Parking Lot. It was operated by the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. from 1917-1919, the Yellowstone Park Camps Co. under Howard Hays from 1920-24, and taken over by Vernon Goodwin that year, who retained the same name. In 1928, Harry Child bought out all the camps operations and they began being called ‘Lodges’ with the name changing to Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. until 1936. Goodwin was retained and managed the camps operation. The hotel, transportation, boat, and camps operation’s were reorganized and the name was changed to Yellowstone Park Co. Top Left: Canyon Lodge Exterior, Haynes PC 15040 ​ Top Right: Canyon Lodge Cafeteria, 1951. YNP #29658 ​ Bottom Left: Canyon Lodge Lobby, YNP #133440 ​ Bottom Right: Canyon Lodge Demolition, late 1950s. YNP #59672 ​ New tent cabins were erected in 1923-24 and the log lodge building was greatly expanded in 1925. Twenty-four new 12’x14’ cabins and five 12’x12’ permanent lodges were constructed in 1927. The lodge and cabins were closed down in 1957 with the opening of the new Canyon Village. The area was later cleaned up and rehabilitated and only a few relics can now be found in that area. Many of the cabins were moved to the Lake area. ​ When Canyon Lodge was closed in 1957, many of the structures were moved to other locations in park, while some were demolished, and others were sold off, as was the case of the old Lodge Lobby, which was disassembled and moved to Nevada City (Virginia City), Montana by Charlie Bovey as part of his historic restoration/recreation of a historic Montana mining town. This modern new lodge was built, and opened in 1957 under the provisions of the Mission 66 plan, mandated by the Interior department. Yellowstone Park Co financed the construction to the tune of 5 million dollars and 500 boxy, flat-roofed cabins were eventually built. The lodge building featured a lounge, coffee shop, cafeteria, gift shop, and modern decor. The lodge is still in operation and is run by Xanterra Parks & Resorts. Quite a few of the original cabins have been demolished, while many others have been remodeled. Canyon Village ​ This modern new lodge was built, and opened in 1957 under the provisions of the Mission 66 plan, mandated by the Interior department. Yellowstone Park Co financed the construction to the tune of 5 million dollars and 500 boxy, flat-roofed cabins were eventually built. The lodge building featured a lounge, coffee shop, cafeteria, gift shop, and modern decor. The lodge is still in operation and is run by Xanterra Parks & Resorts. Quite a few of the original cabins have been demolished, while many others have been remodeled. ​ Left Top: Canyon Village Main Lodge. Haynes PC K57157. Left Middle: Lodge Lounge. Haynes PC K57060 Left Bottom: Lodge Lounge, Haynes PC 57069 Right Top: Lodge Dining Room, Curteich PC 8C-K595 Right Middle: Lodge Cafeteria, Haynes PC K57120 ​ ​ To provide additional guest rooms, Cascade Lodge was built in 1992 containing 37 rooms and is located in the cabin area. Dunraven Lodge was constructed nearby six years later and features 44 rooms. Since then, three additional lodges have been added, Washburn Lodge, Moran Lodge, and Rhyolite Lodge, replacing many of the old 1957 cabins.

  • Jardine |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Jardine, Mont. Gold Mining on the Edge of Yellowstone ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Undated photo of the Bear Gulch Mining District - Jardine, Montana. Note the row of houses along Bear Creek at far right. Mineral Hill is center, with the main mill below . The quaint small village of Jardine, Montana, was never considered a Gateway to Yellowstone National Park by any means. However, it was an important part of local history, and an economic boom for Gardiner , Cinnabar , and the Northern Pacific RR .The mining history is quite complicated and involved, so only the basics are discussed in this narrative. More extensive information may be obtained from the sources at the bottom of the page. "and finding also a hairless cub, called the gulch Bear.” ​ Eugene S. Topping , in his Chronicles of the Yellowstone, a classic and important history of the greater Yellowstone Valley written in 1885, claimed that in 1863 a group of thirty miners lead by George Huston prospected their way up the Yellowstone River from the mining community of Emigrant Gulch and continued past Soda Butte toward what later became the New World mining district. Attacked by Indians who ran off all their horses, the prospectors cached their excess supplies and continued afoot toward Clark’s Fork with one lone jackass. Finding a few prospects, but no pay, they returned back along the Yellowstone. Topping related that, “On the way they found fair prospects in a creek on the east side of the Yellowstone, and finding also a hairless cub, called the gulch Bear.” Even though today the creek goes by the name Bear Creek, the name Bear Gulch, also referred to as the Sheepeater District, still identifies the classic mining areas around the town of Jardine, Montana. Left : Eugene S. Topping, author of "Chronicles of the Yellowstone." Center : Joe Brown , one of the discoverers and developers of gold in Bear Gulch. Right : George A. Huston, one of the discoverers of gold in Bear Gulch, and a founding Father of Cooke City. Sporadic prospecting around Bear Gulch continued uneventfully the next few years after Huston’s journey until Joe Brown and partners John Zimmerer, Dan Royer, and an unknown man struck rich, gold-bearing gravel in 1866 on a bar at the mouth of Bear Gulch, as it empties into the Yellowstone River. They staked a claim and reportedly took out $8,000 in gold. News traveled quickly in the mining communities and in 1867, Lou Anderson, A.H. Hubble, George W. Reese, Caldwell, and another man discovered gold in a crevice at the mouth of the first stream above Bear Gulch, and named it Crevice Gulch. That same year George Huston returned to the area and built a cabin on Turkey Pen Flats across the Yellowstone River from Bear Gulch. Living on land that later became part of Yellowstone National Park, Huston’s cabin is believed to be the first white residence in Yellowstone. Historic illustrations of early gold mining. At top is a rocker that separated the gold flakes from the gravel, which was afterward panned out. At bottom is an arrastra that used a mule to drag a heavy stone over the ore to crush it, which could then be panned or separated from the host rocks. Meanwhile, placer mining was conducted on gravel bars along the creek, or in ancient channel deposits accessed by tunnels or drifts into the hillsides. During the years 1875-77, Joe Brown and other miners built over 3000 feet of ditch to carry water to the various gravel bars they were working. In either 1870 or 1874, depending on sources, Joe Brown and James Graham discovered quartz gold deposits in upper Bear Gulch on a hill later known as Mineral Hill. Although not developed for several years, the Bozeman Times reported in July 1877 that Wm. Heffner, Joe Brown, and James Graham were successfully crushing ore with a crudely-built, mule-drawn device known as an arrastra, based on a primitive design from the early Spanish and Mexican miners. The paper also noted that George Huston and Stoker Henderson would have their arrastra operating by October. Hard rock mining digs in . . . Hard rock mining escalated in 1878 when Z.H. “Zed” Daniels and three other men began working a quartz lead on Bear Gulch and built an arrastra to process their ore. In July the Bozeman Times reported that George Huston, Jimmy Dewings, and Joe Brown discovered a “fine gold lead . . . [that] panned out one dollar to the pound of rock.” A later article described a 9-foot vein with free gold running through it; a 4-ton run through the arrastra yielded $50 per ton. In 1879 the following mines were recorded at Bear Gulch: Legal Tender (Joe Brown); The Wonder of the World (Beattie, Anderson, and Lovely); The James Graham Lode; Joe Brown & Graham; The Monitor; The Mountain Bride; The Coan & McCauley Lode; The Mountain Chief (Geo. Huston); The Champion Lode; The Summit Lode; The Great Western; Mountain Chief (Brown, Huston, & Graham); and the Home Stake. Various newspapers touted the richness and auspicious future of both Bear Gulch and Crevice Gulch, where similar successes and operations were occuring. The Bismarck Tribune in May of 1879 claimed, “The belief is that erelong Bear Gulch is destined to become one of the richest camps in the Territory.” In April of that year a new town site was being laid out with corner lots going up, a harbinger of anticipated stability and prosperity. Outside investors were now beginning to see the potential of Bear Gulch and as a sign of things to come, George Huston and Dewings sold a third of one of their claims for $3500. Huston went on to concentrate his efforts in the New World Mining District, amassed dozens of claims, and became one of the original founders of Cooke City . Article from the Bozeman Avant-Courier, 22May1879, touting the wonders of the riches of the Bear and Crevice Gulches Major Eaton and the Bear Gulch Placer Co. ​ In 1882 Major George O. Eaton and a man named Sturgess formed the Bear Gulch Placer Co. and filed articles of incorporation in Gallatin County with capital of $40,000. Eaton bought out Brown’s Legal Tender mine and over the next few years purchased other mining properties. His crews tunneled into the canyon walls following old river channels in search for placer gold. Eaton also began hydraulic mining in 1884 on Joe Brown’s 40-acre placer claim on Bear Creek; about three miles below what would later become the town of Jardine. Installing equipment served by 1200 feet of 12-inch pipe with a vertical drop of 400 feet through a six-inch nozzle, it was reported to be the most powerful hydraulic placer operation in the world. Blasting away huge sections of the canyon walls in the quest for auriferous bounty, Eaton realized few riches from his efforts and left a scarred landscape, still visible to this day. Hydraulic mining is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment. In the placer mining of gold or tin, the resulting water-sediment slurry is directed through sluice boxes to remove the gold. Hydraulic mining developed from ancient Roman techniques that used water to excavate soft underground deposits. Its modern form, using pressurized water jets produced by a nozzle called a "monitor", came about in the 1850s during the California Gold Rush in the United States. Though successful in extracting gold-rich minerals, the widespread use of the process resulted in extensive environmental damage, such as increased flooding and erosion, and sediment blocking waterways and covering farm fields. "Placer Mining in Bear Gulch, Montana. Scenery Along the Northern Pacific Railroad F. Jay Haynes , Publisher, Fargo, D.T." The inscription reads: "Compliments Eaton His Mines(?) The little Giant engine My Father and I visited the scene" (Author unknown) To watch a fascinating video about hydraulic mining, click on this YouTube link. View of Bear Gulch in 1884. The town grew up along both sides of Bear Creek. [Courtesy Montana Memory] Changing direction, Eaton built the first quartz mill in Bear Gulch, a five-stamp combination mill to process the oxidized ores from the various lode claims. The mill operated successfully for about two years, but shut down around 1886 due to internal company dissention and the difficulty in hauling ore to the Cinnabar railhead. Minimal organized mining efforts occurred until 1890 when the firm of E.D. Edgerton and W.E. Jewell of Helena took over the operation and added five stamps to the mill. Operating successfully for three years, the operation was shutdown during the Panic of 1893 and the resulting economic depression. Changing direction, Eaton built the first quartz mill in Bear Gulch, a five-stamp combination mill to process the oxidized ores from the various lode claims. The mill operated successfully for about two years, but shut down around 1886 due to internal company dissention and the difficulty in hauling ore to the Cinnabar railhead. Minimal organized mining efforts occurred until 1890 when the firm of E.D. Edgerton and W.E. Jewell of Helena took over the operation and added five stamps to the mill. Operating successfully for three years, the operation was shutdown during the Panic of 1893 and the resulting economic depression. A new town takes shape . . . ​ By 1895 a few businesses had been established, including a hotel, sample room, general store, and four log cabin residences belonging to George Welcome and two other men. In 1895 a new post office was been established at Crevasse with Mrs. M.E. Cowell as postmistress and on Dec. 9, 1898 the community of Bear Gulch became known as Jardine, when the post office was established with J. B. McCarthy as postmaster. This gentleman also had a general store, while other businesses in town included a hotel, saloon and barber shop. Additional business enterprises followed later in the summer. The hotel in Bear Gulch went into bankruptcy in 1896 and was purchased by Cinnabar businessman W.A. Hall . It came into the possession of John Jervis at some point and was known as the Jervis Hotel. The Anaconda Standard reported on Oct. 31, 1898 that, “John Jervis, a recent arrival from Victoria, B. C. secured a license, Tuesday, to open a saloon at Bear Gulch. Mr. Jervis is interested with Helena parties in mining property in that district.” Walter Hoppe leased the Bear Gulch Hotel from Jervis in September 1899, and operated the hotel until about 1905, whereupon it reverted back to Jarvis. Top Right : Ad for the Bear Gulch Hotel in Jardine ca1900. [R.L. Polk Directory] ​ Bottom Right : "Hotel of Walter M. Hoppe, Bear Gulch," ca1899. [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir, 1Jan1900] Left : Bear Gulch Hotel in Jardine ca1903. [Keystone-Mast Collection, UCR] ​ Right : Bear Gulch Hotel, ca1903. [Underwood & Underwood stereoview] A correspondent writing from the town about the middle of October 1907, stated that 100 buildings were then in existence or in course of construction, and that the mining company contemplated the erection of thirty more cottages. At its peak the town boasted of a population of 500-600 souls. A Cultural Resource Survey of the area conducted in 1982 claimed that, “Within a year [1898-99] there were 130 new buildings, including two hotels, three mercantile establishments, office buildings, a mine company office, a guest house, a school and work started on a new mill. A water system and telephone service soon followed.” A hydroelectric dam was built on Bear Creek in 1903 near the mouth of the creek that produced electricity to the mines, businesses and residents of the Jardine area until 1948. A correspondent writing from the town about the middle of October 1907, stated that 100 buildings were then in existence or in course of construction, and that the mining company contemplated the erection of thirty more cottages. At its peak the town boasted of a population of 500-600 souls. A Cultural Resource Survey of the area conducted in 1982 claimed that, “Within a year [1898-99] there were 130 new buildings, including two hotels, three mercantile establishments, office buildings, a mine company office, a guest house, a school and work started on a new mill. A water system and telephone service soon followed.” A hydroelectric dam was built on Bear Creek in 1903 near the mouth of the creek that produced electricity to the mines, businesses and residents of the Jardine area until 1948. F. Jay Dean Bear Gulch Lodge No. 76, A.O.U.W. Jardine, Mont., 1901 [Author's Collection] Left : Ad for George Welcome, with stores in H orr, Aldridge, & Jardine. [Gardiner Wonderland , 21Aug1902] ​ Right : Ad for the F.J. Dean general merchandise store in Jardine [Gardiner Wonderland , 17Jul1902] A New Mining Era Begins - 1899-1948 . . . By 1895 a few mines and two stamp mills were again in operation. In the midst of the mining operations, despite promising discoveries by Uncle Joe Brown and others, the community remained relatively quiet until 1898, when the arrival of Harry Bush, a native of England and active in the South African mines, arrived and inaugurated a new era in Bear Gulch. Backed in part by Canadian capitalists, he secured a lease on the Legal Tender mine and the Edgerton & Jewell properties on Mineral Hill. Bush organized the Bear Gulch Mining Company in August, 1898, and began buying additional claims that included the Sowash mine on the same vein as the Legal Tender, the Revenue from George Phelps, and five mines from George Welcome. Bush enlarged the Eaton mill to twenty stamps, attracted additional investors, and laid out the townsite of Jardine. New businesses developed and the mining district boomed. With the beginning of the 20th Century close in sight, a new epoch was emerging that would experience the cyclic triumphs and failures, joys and sorrows, so typical of the mining industry. "In March of 1899, Bush laid the foundation for his Revenue (Red) stamp mill, with a ground area of 93 x 120 feet and a height of 103 feet. The foundation of this building contained six hundred perch (perch = 1 cu.yd.) of stone and required 400,000 feet of lumber . . . a five hundred foot tramway ran from the mine to the mill and discharged into a Cammett crusher which pushed it into a 500-ton pocket. The ore was then fed into eight batteries of five stamps each by eight automatic feeders. Eight plates then caught the free gold. This mill was finished in December of 1899 and Bush celebrated with a Christmas party at which 700 guests were entertained by a twelve piece orchestra and fed roasted buffalo.” [Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation Project – Jardine, 1982] “[Bush] resolved to give Jardine a Christmas which would linger in the minds of those who attended for years. Accordingly, arrangements were made for a grand banquet in the Revenue Mill on Christmas Day. Mrs. Bush was given charge of the arrangements, and the success which attended the affair is a splendid commentary upon the ability of Mrs. Bush as an entertainer and is a fact showing that Hurry Bush is not the only person in Bear Gulch who makes no mistakes in laying plans.The scene of the banquet was the machine shop of the Revenue Mill, the room being vacant on account of the machinery not yet having arrived. The room was decorated in a manner that rendered it a perfect bower of loveliness. The roof was a solid bank of evergreens, dotted hene and there with electric lights of various hues. Bunting of national colors swung in graceful folds around the room, and the most exquisite cut flowers lent their delightful perfume and beauty to the scene. Harry & Ada Bush [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 1Jan1900] The tables were laid for 100 persons and were profusely decorated. At 6 o'clock the banquet began, and it was 10 o'clock before the guests who had assembled to enjoy the hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Bush … The menu abounded in delicacies, and every luxury in the line of edibles that could be found in the market graced the tables. As a reminder of early days in Montana, a buffalo had been purchased by Mr. Bush. The juicy steaks and tender roasts of the monarch of the plains in days gone by contributed a share of the feast. Elk and deer, fowl of every description, and products of the salt seas and of the clear waters of the Yellowstone River w ere there in generous abundance. The best of everything was none too good for the guest assembled at the banquet, and it is safe to say that no greater enjoyment was ever had by any crowd than was furnished Christmas Day to the assemblage at Jardine. After the banquet was over, an orchestra of eleven pieces furnished music for the promenade and, as the first strains of the grand march swelled forth, the entire machinery of the Revenue Mill was set in gentle motion. Mr. and Mrs. Harry Bush led the march and, to the dropping of the stamps, the host of guests were conducted through every floor of the vast structure, winding the various rooms until the starting point was again reached: then a quadrille was formed. The remainder of the evening was most pleasantly spent and the breaking up of the assembly marked the close of the greatest social event ever held in Montana.” [Anaconda Standard, 31Dec1899] “However, during this period, Harry Bush struggled with problems obtaining ore with sufficient value to run since his most productive mines were tied up in litigation. He continued to process low-grade ore in his mill and problems with other members of the Bear Gulch Mining Company developed. A split in the Bear Gulch Mining Company developed and Bush broke away and formed the Revenue Mining Company, incorporated in Helena on June 21, 1899 . . . By the summer of 1899, Bear Gulch, now renamed Jardine, had two distinct mining groups operating in opposition to each other. These were the old Bear Gulch Mining Company, still under the direction of A. C. Jardine, and the new Bush Company.” [Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation Project – Jardine, 1982] In early 1900 creditors began to press Bush for payments on his huge debt load. After much wheeling and dealing, and many negotiations Bush was forced into bankruptcy. On August 18, 1900, Bush's properties including the Revenue Mill, 72,000 shares of Bear Gulch Mining Company stock, 275,000 shares of King Solomon Quartz and Placer Company stock, electric light plant, water plant, guest house and mine office buildings, were sold at auction in Livingston, with the First National Bank of Butte the new owner. The short reign of 'King Harry' rapidly came to an end. In the fall, new directors of the Bear Gulch Mining Company were elected with A.C. Jardine, B.C. VanHouten, and Andrew J. Davis representing Montana, while Alfred C. Blair, W.H. Barnaby, and W.G. Merritt from St. John, New Brunswick and mining and milling resumed. Top Left & Right : Construction of the Revenue stamp mill in Jardine. ​ Bottom Left : Construction of the Revenue Mine Tramway. Bottom Right : Completed construction of the Revenue Stamp Mill [All photos ca1899, from Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 1Jan1900]] Meanwhile, a collection of local Bear Gulch mining people created a new mining company, as per the Anaconda Standard, Jan. 26, 1903. “NEW COMPANY IN BEAR GULCH Will Carry On a General Mining and Milling Business, Says Articles of Incorporation. The Livingston Post says that a new mining company has been organized for the purpose of operating in the Sheepeater district of Park county. It is known as the Bear Gulch company , the incorporators being Alex Livingston of Livingston and George Welcome, John Jervis, Frank Ackelmire and H D. Andrews of Jardine. These gentlemen are also the directors. The company has a capital stock of $500,000, divided Into 500,000 shares at a par value of $1 each. Of this stock only a small number of shares has so far been subscribed for, the present holders being Messrs. Livingston, Ackelmlre, Welcome, Andrews, Jervis, A.J. Campbell of Butte, and S.H. Crookes of Livingston. The stock is non-assessable.” ​ By March, the new operation was bought out by the Kimberly-Montana Gold Mining Company, operated by a syndicate from Chicago. It was reported that a new 40-stamp mill was being constructed in concert with the soon-to-be completed cyanide plant operation, bringing a total of 80 stamps under the company’s direction. The new management consisted of: P. L. Kimberly, William H. Barnaby, John H. Thompson, Moise Dreyfus, H. M. Ryan, Samuel Deutsch and Miles Finlen. Cyanide Mill in Jardine, 1908 [University of Montana, Missoula] Scene in Bear Gulch, 1899 [Montana Memory Project] Jardine Cyanide Mill Burns [Billings Gazette ,14May1948] The Jardine Gold Mining & Milling Co. takes over . . . In 1914 the Jardine Gold Mining & Milling Co. was formed to take control of the Jardine gold mines and was renamed the Jardine Mining Co. in 1921. By 1906 tungsten was being mined and milled by the various mining properties. The mineral was found in scheelite, a combination of tungsten and lime, occurring mostly in pockets. Wolframite is tungsten and iron, occurring in regular veins. Tungsten ore ran between $1000 to $1200 per ton, making it more valuable than silver. Mining activity was interrupted by an extended period of litigation from 1909 to 1916 and the mines operated continuously from 1923-26 and 1932-36 producing gold, arsenic and tungsten, but tended to operate off and on until 1948. Operations were temporarily suspended in 1942 because of the Federal restrictions on gold mining, but increasing war demands for arsenic led to the reopening of the mines in 1944, which operated until May 8, 1948, when fire destroyed the cyanide plant and the mines closed down in July. High shipping costs of arsenic ore were claimed as a reason for the mining shutdown. About 90 men were abruptly thrown out of work. Production figures from 1899 -1942 indicate that over 155,000 ounces of gold, 27,000+ ounces of silver, 4,000+ ounces of copper, 765,000+ pounds of tungsten and 12,615,000 tons of arsenic were produced. Perhaps an additional 40,000 ounces of gold were produced 1944-48. News article about the closing of the Jardine Mine. [Butte Montana Standard , 5Aug1948] Downtown Jardine, ca1930s [Montana Memory Project] The Mine Office in Jardine, ca1940s. The building still stands and was used as the mine office during the Mineral Hill Mine era in the 1980-90s. [Library of Congress] Entering the modern age of gold mining . . . In 1988 a new era in gold production began when TVX Gold, Inc. of Canada began mining efforts with tunnel/adit development, mill and crusher construction and pre-production activities such as erection of administrative and lab facilities. After much controversy regarding potential environment hazards of a mine so close to Yellowstone and potential pollution of the Yellowstone River fromm Bear Creek, permitting was finally approved and gold production officially began in September of 1889 at the 556-acre Mineral Hill site. The mine operated successfully until early Sept. 1996, when problems of access to new ore bodies dwindling ore supplies from existing workings caused the facility to close and about 130 workers were permanently laid off. Since closure, TVX has removed surface buildings and attempted to restore the area to a natural condition. Treatment of water draining through the tailings pile and from the tunnels continues to be processed to this day. The mine was located two miles from Yellowstone's boundary, five miles by road from Gardiner and produced about 40,000 ounces of gold a year for an approximate total of 260,000 ounces. ​ Today the community supports a small population of about 50 souls and and a few businesses such as outfitting, fishing & hunting guides, and vacation rentals. It is a popular area for hiking, biking, horse riding, skiing, and snowmobiling enthusiasts. Commemorative belt buckle given to employees to celebrate the opening of Mineral Hill Mine on September 26, 1989 [From the author's collection] Left : Article discussing the opening of Mineral Hill Mine in September 1989. [Great Falls Tribune , 23Sep1989] ​ Top : The closing down of TVX Mineral Hill Mine in September 1996, after only about 7 years of operation. [The Missoulian , 5Sep1996] ​ Below : Current view of Bear Gulch and Jardine looking toward Yellowstone Park. ​

  • Storekeepers |

    Yellowstone's Storekeepers Click on Link above to begin your tour. Stores, Photo Shops and Misc. Businesses in Yellowstone Hamilton Stores, Inc. is the concessionaire in the park currently (2002) authorized to sell generalsundries, supplies, groceries, and curios to the public. There are three main branches to the Hamilton family tree. The main branch of the tree started in 1897 when Henry and Mary Klamer (daughter of G.L Henderson) were granted a 10-year lease to build and operate a store at Old Faithful. They built a 2-story building and began operations. Apparently they were successful, for in 1913 they began construction on a 16' addition. After Henry's death in 1914, Mary sold the store to Charles A. Hamilton, an employee of YPA, who obtained financial backing from Harry W. Child. In 1917 Hamilton opened up a new store at Lake, and a filling station at Old Faithful. By 1930 Hamilton had stores with filling stations at Lake, Fishing Bridge, West Thumb, and two stores at Old Faithful. He continued to expand his business by buying the Brothers Geyser Baths and Swimming Pool at Old Faithful in 1933, which he rebuilt and expanded. The Hamilton Stores were replaced by Delaware North Co. in 2002, after some 80 years of service. The second branch of the Hamilton tree starts in 1889 when Ole Anderson opened up a shop in Mammoth selling curios and objects coated with residues from the mineral waters. In 1908 sisters Anna Trischman Pryor and Elizabeth Trischman bought out Anderson, and opened "The Park Curio & Coffee Shop." In 1924, they opened up a cold drink and ice cream stand on the Mammoth Terraces called the Devil's Kitchenette. At that time they also purchased George Whittaker’s’ deli in the auto camp. Whittaker, who also operated small stores at Mammoth and Canyon, sold out to Pryor & Trischman in 1932, giving them a monopoly in the northern half of the park. They continued to operate until 1953 when they sold their operation to Hamilton. The third branch of the family tree has the oldest beginnings, but was the latest acquisition. In 1884 Frank J. Haynes opened up a photo shop at Mammoth and Old Faithful. F. Jay was the Official Photographer of both the Northern Pacific railroad, and the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. Frank was also involved in the stagecoach business for a number of years, but it is his photography that made him famous. By 1905 his work in Yellowstone was such that he severed his connections with the NPRy and concentrated on his park business. Eventually he was to have Haynes Photo Shops at all locations, with the exclusive right to sell images of Yellowstone inside the park. His son Jack ran the business from 1916 until his death in 1962. His wife continued to run the business for a few years, but finally sold out to Hamilton Stores in 1967. There is one more segment of the Hamilton tree that currently operates under the name Yellowstone Park Service Stations. This company was formed in 1926 as a joint venture between Hamilton Stores, H.W. Child and Anna Pryor. They created a monopoly on gas sales and auto repairs in the park. YPSS is presently owned [2001] by Amfac Recreational Services and Hamilton Stores. There were a variety of other small business ventures started in the park in the late 1800's to early 1900's, most of which were short lived, or bought out by other companies. H.B. Calfee seems to have had one of the earliest recorded stores in the park. He was a photographer from Bozeman who, by at least 1881, had set up a crude tent store near Old Faithful to sell photos of the park. The following year saw the Henderson family setup a store and post office at Mammoth in one of James McCartney's buildings. There were several different laundry operations and bathhouses in existence at various times. Even Calamity Jane was issued a permit in 1897 to sell postcards of herself, reportedly to keep herself in drinks in Gardiner's finer establishments. After 1916, most all the small enterprises were gone, and the park was more or less 'officially' divided up among the businessmen and women mentioned earlier.

  • Gateways |

    Yellowstone's Gateway Communities ​ Click on Link above to begin your tour. Yellowstone’s Gateway Communities The existence of the gateway communities has been viewed historically (incorrectly I think) by the early military authorities and the Park Service as a sort of ‘necessary evil’. From the earliest days these towns, which have provided many of the necessary visitor services, have also provided a relatively safe haven and a base for a variety of social misfits whose interests were generally contrary to the best interests of the park. Some of the biggest problems in the early days were the poachers of wildlife, and exploiters of park resources. There were also the occasional stagecoach robbers, and trouble-making drunks that had to be taken care of by the authorities. Until 1894, there were no effective laws governing the park, and no judicial system to deal with the lawbreakers when apprehended. Usually the most the authorities could do was to evict a troublemaker from the park and confiscate his gear. It was a small price to pay in return for some of the profits that could be made by selling buffalo heads, game meat, etc. Passage of the Lacey Act in 1894 provided for legal protection of the park’s features and established a working judicial system. Although this did not stop wrongdoing, as no laws will, it helped tremendously to control the problems and at least gave the military authorities the power to punish these people. Problems such as ‘horn-hunting’ and poaching continue to this day, as certain locals, and of course out-of-towners, look to the park’s resources to help supplement their incomes. Gardiner , because of its lower elevation, lack of significant snows, milder climate and easy access, became the first gateway community in the early 1880’s. The area was traversed frequently starting with the fur trade in the 1820-30’s. Gold miners passed through the area in the 1860’s, with the precious element being discovered on Bear Creek in 1866 by Joe Brown. Gold ore was discovered in the hills around Jardine about 13 years later. The early exploration parties also passed through the area in 1869-72 as they followed the Yellowstone River into the park. These included the Folsom-Cook-Peterson, Washburn, and Hayden expeditions. The impetus to development came in 1883 with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad to Cinnabar, 3 miles north of town. Even though the railroad did not reach town until 1902, Gardiner continued to prosper. It became the center of freighting activities not only for the park, but also for the gold mines at Jardine and Cooke City. It was the primary entrance for tourist travel through the park for many years. The town provided much labor for the road crews in the park, and for the transportation and hotel companies, and still does. The town also provided entertainment for the soldiers of Ft. Sheridan/Yellowstone in the form of bars, gambling, and houses of ill repute (much to the chagrin of the commanding officers no doubt). Amenities necessary for the comfort of the tourists, Sagebrushers, outfitters, hunters, and locals were also well provided for. West Yellowstone came into being around 1907 with the arrival of the Union Pacific Railroad. It was originally called Riverside even though it was not located at the river’s side, and the name was confused with the soldier station and stage station located a few miles inside the park. Two years later the town was renamed Yellowstone. It retained this name until 1920 when, to eliminate confusion it was changed again, this time to West Yellowstone. The west entrance of the park had been used since the early days of the trappers, who followed the course of the Madison River in search of beaver. Gold miners followed this route in the 1860’s, and by 1873 the “Virginia City and National Park Free Wagon Road” was built. By 1879 Gilmer & Salisbury were running stagecoaches from the UPRR station in Spencer Idaho into the Lower Geyser Basin. Although the post office was established in 1908, it was not until 1913 that lands were removed from Forest Service ownership in order to form the townsite. The town served primarily as a summer resort and fall hunting retreat until the early 1970’s when the Old Faithful Snow Lodge began operating for the winter season, and the Park Service began grooming the roads for snowmobiles. Cooke City , located near the northeast entrance, had its beginnings as a mining town, with gold being discovered in the area around 1869-70. It was originally named Miner’s camp in 1872, changing to Clark’s Fork City and Galena, before becoming Cooke City in 1882. The only real way in or out of the area was the trail from Gardiner through the park. The road to Cooke City was marginal at best until the early 1920’s, and even then the road would be impassable to wagons most of the winter. This area did not really become a ‘gateway community’ until the mid-‘30s when the road over Beartooth Pass was completed. This road was then advertised by the railroads as the ‘most spectacular’ entrance to the park. NPRR had a branch line into Red Lodge and bus service was available from there. This road is still generally only accessible mid-June through September because of the deep snows on the 11,000’ pass. Like West Yellowstone, their basic season is summer and fall, but it has become a very popular winter snowmobile resort. The closest gateway community to the east entrance is about 50 miles distant at Cody Wyoming . This town came into existence in the late 1890’s with help of the famous Buffalo Bill Cody, the railroad and agricultural interests. The first known white man to see the area was John Colter who passed through the area in the winter of 1807-08. The designation Colter’s Hell actually came from this area, not Yellowstone Park. Around 1902 Wm. Cody opened up his ‘Irma Hotel’, and established a trading company, campground and newspaper in town. He built Pahaska Lodge and the Wapiti Inn hunting lodge at the east entrance of the park. That same decade was fairly momentous for the new town, as the Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy railroad arrived, a road over Sylvan Pass into Yellowstone was built, and construction started on the Shoshone Dam and Reservoir outside of town. In 1912 Holm Transportation Co. started regular passenger service to Yellowstone, and four years later the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. became the first motorized transportation company to enter the park. They traveled as far as Lake Hotel where the guests were transferred to stagecoaches. The following year the stagecoaches gave way to the automobile and a new era was begun. The town is home to the world-famous Buffalo Bill Museum, Plains Indian Museum, and the Winchester Collection. Although seasonal in nature, the area has a variety of other business interests to help keep the town thriving year-round. Jackson Wyoming , although really a gateway community to Grand Teton National Park, has been included here because of the many historical ties the area has to Yellowstone. Colter is reputed to have passed through the area in 1807-08, and the area was well known to the fur trappers. The 1860’s saw gold seekers, but paydirt was never really found here. The Hayden Expedition explored the area in 1872 and ‘78. James Stevenson and Nathaniel Langford of the 1872 expedition claimed to have scaled the Grand Teton that year. However, Wm. Owen and his party who scaled the peak in 1898 disputed that earlier claim. The first known permanent settler arrived in 1884, but growth in the valley was slow. Access to the valley was difficult and the nearest railroad was over the mountains to the west in Idaho. The primary economy of the valley in the early days was ranching, cattle, horses, and dudes (probably the more profitable of the three). As with the other communities, poaching was a well-established custom for many years. In 1929 Grand Teton National Park was established and was expanded considerably in 1950. The first ski area was founded in 1946, and about 20 years later the Jackson Hole Ski area was established. The area now competes successfully with many of the renown ski hills of Colorado and Utah. The communities of Jardine, Aldridge, Electric, and Horr have been included mostly because of personal interest by the author. They have never been considered gateway communities, although they had considerable impact on the town of Gardiner in the early days. Gold ore was discovered on Crevasse Mountain near Jardine in 1879. In 1898 the post office was established and the town was quite a bustling little metropolis. Mining for gold, along with tungsten and arsenic was somewhat sporadic over the years. When the cyanide plant burned down in 1948, that was the end of any prosperity until 1988 when gold production started up at Mineral Hill Mine. That too was short-lived, closing down in 1996. Aldridge, Horr and Electric were relatively short-lived towns. Horr was founded in 1888 the service the nearby coal mines. It changed its name to Electric in 1904 because, as the old joke goes,“…the women were tired of living in Horr houses.” Aldridge, also related to the coal boom, was established in 1894 and was first called Lake. The coal mines shut down in 1910, and by 1915 both post offices had been closed down. By then many of the businessmen had already moved their operations into Gardiner, having seen the handwriting on the wall.

  • Gardiner MT |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Gardiner, Montana ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Main street of Gardiner, Montana, 1888. Among the earliest photos of Gardiner. Most of the town burned down the following August. Photo by H.W. Lloyd. This probably Harry W. Lloyd, of the Lloyd & McPherson Saloon. He also served as freighter and notary. He passed in 1957. [Photo courtesy YNP Archives #1397] The Early Days . . . . Gardiner was the 1st gateway community of Yellowstone Park, located at the north entrance of the park at the junction of the Yellowstone and Gardiner rivers. Due to the relatively low elevation (about a mile high) and the presence of the Yellowstone River, easy year-round access was available. All of the other current entrances are snow-bound a good portion of the year. The area was traversed by Native Americans for at least 13,000 years and evidence of their presence has been well-documented along the Yellowstone River and other tributaries. The Yellowstone was also a favorite route of the fur trappers and early expeditions into the park. The Gardiner valley was visited by white men as early as 1829, when Joe Meek and other trappers were attacked by Indians near Cinnabar Mountain. In the 1830s mountain man Johnson Gardner trapped in Yellowstone, particularly around the Indian Creek/Gardner River area, known as Gardner’s Hole. The river and town were named after Gardner and somewhere along the line an “i” slipped into the spelling of the town’s name. In the 1860 prospectors such as George Huston, Jack Baronette, A. Bart Henderson, and Adam Horn Miller traveled along the Yellowstone River into the park searching for the elusive wealth of gold. Discoveries were made along Bear Creek and Jardine and in the northeast portions of the park around the current Cooke City area. Between 1869 and 1871 the expeditions of Folsom –Cook-Peterson, Washburn, Barlow Heap, and F.V. Hayden traversed along the Yellowstone River and through the Gardiner Valley into the depths of the park and began to bring the wonders of Yellowstone into the public eye. Mountain man Joe Meek, the first known Euro-American to explore the area around Gardiner in 1829. James McCartney is believed to be the rider at left, with President Roosevelt (center) and Acting Supt. John Pitcher in April 1903. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] James McCartney and Harry Horr, homesteaded 160 acres at Mammoth and built the first crude log hotel at Mammoth in 1871. McCartney’s status in the park and his relations with the authorities were unstable at best and he was encouraged to leave the park on an involuntary basis on claims he was trespassing, and his land and buildings taken from him. McCartney eventually settled along the northern park boundary and Gardner River around 1879 in the area that would become the town of Gardiner. He was the town’s first postmaster in 1880, founded the fledgling town, and later became unofficial ‘Mayor’. He was the man who introduced President Roosevelt at the dedication ceremonies of the new Roosevelt Arch in 1903. It has been said that he laid out the town along the park border to get back at the government for kicking him out of Mammoth and negating his claims. The park boundary line still runs right along the sidewalk of most of Park Street. The Town Grows Up (and out) . . . . In 1883 the NPRR extended their tracks from Livingston MT to Cinnabar, about 3 miles north of town. Anticipating that the line would end up in Gardiner, the community quickly grew. By June of 1883 the town boasted of a population close to 200, consisting mostly of tents, log shacks and 21 saloons, 6 restaurants, 5 general stores, 2 hardware stores and several other types of businesses (and no doubt a few brothels). However, a land dispute between the railroad and 'Buckskin Jim' Cutler prevented the rail line from coming all the way into Gardiner, and the town's growth spurt stopped. L.A. VanHome and Harris Doble discovered the marble and travertine cliffs above town in 1887, but they were not fully developed until the early 1930’s by the NW Improvement Co. Visitors in 1883 traveled up the Yellowstone Valley to Gardiner and made these comments about the fledgling town . . . "We soon leave the Yellowstone River and are in the Gardiner River Valley. We stop for a moment at Gardiner City, a town of perhaps 100 log shanties and tents, where most anything can be had. The majority of establishments are, of course, saloons. Curious signs are here used to entice the unsuspecting traveler to stop within. I was lured into a grog shop by the ambiguous announcement In big letters over the door of “Health Office." Another article claimed that Dr. Tippie's Health Office, "is not as might be supposed from the name, entirely devoted to ameliorating the physical ills of mankind, though so far as dispensing invigorating liquors and soothing cigars, [it] may have that effect. In 1885 the town’s first public school was established in a small log cabin and the following year the townsite was formally platted by George H. Robinson. On Aug. 31, 1889, a mere three years later most of the town was destroyed by fire, including 19 businesses and 13 homes. It was a terrible loss and setback for the village, but the hardy and resolute residents, did not let the calamity stop the town’s progress. Only a week after the fire the Livingston Enterprise reported many of the citizens were coming to Livingston to acquire loans and building materials. Two weeks after the fire it was reported of Gardiner, “Times are quite lively here now. Buildings are being erected by R. T. Smith, Tom Foley, Joseph Daily, Chris Nuston, Charley Cowel, and in fact all are getting ready to build. It was a great hardship on all the sufferers by the late fire, but they will live through it and the town will be rebuilt.” The schoolhouse, S.M. Fitzgerald's Hotel, some of J.C. McCartney's buildings and a few other structures survived. [“The Great Gardiner Inferno of 1889,” by R.V. Goss, Montana Pioneer , May 2020] Left: Photo of Gardiner, Aug. 18, 1889. Probably the last photo taken of the town just two weeks before the Great Fire of 1889. [Sibley Watson Digital Archive, Univ. of Rochester, NY } Top: The town of Gardiner in 1890, a year after the fire. The Pratt & Hall Store is front and center. C.B. Scott's Saloon & Billiards and the Gardiner Hotel are to the middle right. Ranger Tavern is far left, with a Restaurant & Bakery to its right. [Photo YNP #33307] The year 1893 saw the first bridge constructed across the Yellowstone River, about a half-mile downriver from the current bridge, creating incentive for development on the north side of the river. L.H. Van Dyck and J.H. Deever were arranging for the opening of a meat market and butcher shop in Gardiner, and John Spiker set up a water wheel near the Yellowstone River that would pipe water up to the town using the pressure from the river. Water had previously been hauled up in barrels. Two years later he installed a 75-lite Jenny Dynamo at his water plant and was able to put in electric lights at his hotel. By 1902 the land dispute with Cutler had been resolved and the rail tracks were extended into Gardiner that year, creating a prosperity boom for the town. That same year the newspaper Wonderland was first printed in town but only lasted until sometime in 1905. It is available online and can provide a wealth of information about those early days. First bridge over the Yellowstone in Gardiner in July 1902. It appears little development had taken place on the other side of the river. It did, however, provide good access to the mines at Jardine and Cooke City. [Photo courtesy George Eastman Museum , Rochester, NY] Swinging suspension bridge over the Yellowstone River in Gardiner. Built in 1914, it was located near where the current bridge was constructed in 1930, replacing the old thilling walk above the raging river. A young woman traveling in 1915 described her trek over the bridge: "The following morning we walk over the village, and one interesting place we visit is an extension bridge over the Gardiner river. It is built for pedestrians and is said to hold up to four people, but wait until you walk out to the center, where the bridge swings up and down with each step, while the rushing, foaming water beneath roars until you do not know whether you are going up or down; then you think it will not hold one." [Above Left: Photo courtesy Jeanie LaCombe Gregorich] Above Right: 1918 Photo courtesy YNP, Everett Judson Collection] Left: Photo of Gardiner in 1896. C.B. Scott's Saloon & Billiards, along with the Gardiner Hotel are plainly visible to the right. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1908] Right: The town of Gardiner in 1902. the Gardiner Hotel is center, with Tripp & Melloy's Park Saloon to its right, and C.B. Scott's establishment to its left. [Photo YNP #9130] Excerpt From a Newspaper Account of a Tourist's Travel to Yellowstone in Early 1883 "To a Land of Wonders - A Yellowstone Park Expedition SIx Years Ago" (Brooklyn Daily Eagle , Oct. 27, 1889) "Pushing up against the very boundaries of the reservation there is a veritable Shantyville, Gardiner City, an ideal squatter town, with the rudest houses made of unseasoned boards, with not a few tents mingling with the more pretentious huts, huddled together as though the land was valued by the foot and inch. We took the census of the city and found that of the thirty-two houses which made the settlement, twenty-eight were saloons, the other four being the inevitable bakers' and butchers' shops with a private bar attachment, although not wholly given to the local industry. The town had been built in expectation of being the railway terminus, but there were strange hints that the rails would end at Yankee Jim's, some miles below, and the enterprising squatters were trying to unload their real estate on such guiless tourists as came along. The mining boom was being worked, for a little yellow dust had been found in the prospector's pans; the entire region already was staked out in miners' claims, and in vision the citizens were possessed of millions." The Northern Pacific RR Comes to Town . . . ​ The first train arrived in Gardiner on June 20, 1902. Since there was no turn-around yet, the train had to backup to Cinnabar until the following year. The Missoulian newspaper touted on June 26, 1902 that, “The grading of the Park branch extension was completed to Gardiner Saturday [June 21]. A temporary platform is being erected by the Northern Pacific at Gardiner and the first passenger train reached there Wednesday morning. After this date tourists to and from the Yellowstone park will board the cars at Gardiner instead of Cinnabar and will avoid an uninteresting four-mile stage drive over a bad road. The people of Gardiner will not celebrate the advent of the iron horse to that place until July 4, when they promise to do things up in great style.” Construction of the Gardiner Northern Pacific RR depot during the winter of 1902-03. [YNP #161764] In similar fashion, the Gardiner Wonderland newspaper reported on July 3rd that, “For the first time the regular passenger train on the Park branch ran into Gardiner and unloaded its passengers at the temporary depot and platform erected in the western part of town. Many of our citizens went down to greet the train and witness the fruition of their long deferred hopes. It may be now said that Gardiner in the terminus, although it will be some little time before freight, other than car lots, will be unloaded here. It is understood to be the intention to erect both a passenger and freight depot." Robert Reamer, architect of the Old Faithful Inn, designed the building and the firm of Deeks & Deeks was awarded the $20,000 construction contract on April 27, 1903. Above: View of depot, arch, and W.A. Hall store ca1905. [F.J. Haynes Postcard No. 183.] Above: Interior of the Gardiner Depot ca1905. [From original negative, author's collection. No reproduction without permission! ] Left: Interior of the Gardiner Depot in August of 1911. [Courtesy Utah Historical Soc, SHipler Collection] ​ Right: Interior of the depot, ca1908. [Campbell's Guide, 1909] From the Railroad Gazette, April 29, 1904: "The grounds about, and in the rear of the station are nicely parked, there being within the highway loop a lake, lawns and shrubbery. The arch at the park entrance was designed and built by Major H. M. Chittenden, U. S. Engineers . . . and with its massive lines, rough finish and graceful design, is especially attractive. The corner stone of this arch was laid by President Roosevelt at the time of his trip through the park about a year ago. From each side of the arch there extends a stone wall of the same design and material, the one on the western side continuing around the loop to a point near the platform. The station at Gardiner was designed to harmonize with the other structures [Yellowstone]. It is essentially rustic and is built of native materials. The foundations and lower parts of the walls are rough boulders. The walls above, including the platform shelters are made of unbarked logs. The roof trusses, gables and ceilings are finished with similar material. The interior contains a large waiting room with fireplace, ticket office, express office, baggage room and toilet rooms. The rustic effect is also carried out in the interior, the doors, windows, settees, chandeliers, hardware, etc., all being in keeping with the general design. The projecting ends of logs are smoothed and polished, and where lumber is used for finishing it is of high grade and finely polished. Wrought nails, bearing on their heads the trade-mark of the company, are used wherever they will show. The fireplace at the end of the waiting room is broad and forms a pleasing feature of the interior." Above: Train at the depot preparing to unload freight & passengers, ca1905. [Glass slide, author digital collection] Above: View of depot and stages leaving for Yellowstone Park. Real-Photo postcard. Above: View of depot and carriage, 1909. [Photo from Archibald family collection] President Theodore Roosevelt’s Visit . . . . In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt engaged on a grand western tour, taking him to Chicago, north through Wisconsin, Minnesota and North Dakota. Roosevelt and his companion, famed naturalist writer John Burroughs, arrived at Gardiner, Montana by train on April 8, 1903. The two men were greeted by their host, acting-superintendent Major John Pitcher. The President, Mr. Burroughs, guide “Uncle Billy” Hofer, and an Army escort toured the park for several weeks. Upon their return, Roosevelt dedicated the stone arch that was being built at the entrance of Yellowstone Park. ​ “Livingston. April 24.—Under a clear sky, surrounded by snow-covered mountain points that give grandeur and beauty to the National park and vicinity, tho cornerstone of the magnificent stone arch now being constructed by the government at the gateway to the nation’s pleasure ground was laid amid pomp and splendor this afternoon. It was a national event and one In which the chief executive of the nation participated. The reception tendered the president and the exercises were a complete success from the reception until the last note of the band died away in the recesses of the adjacent mountains. Tlte weather was all that could be asked for and the day throughout was one that would insure success to the undertaking.” [25Apr1903, Helena Independent Record ] Above: Dedication ceremonies for the Roosevelt Arch, 24Jul1903. Arch is to the left with the town of Gardiner in the background. Roosevelt Arch . . . . The Arch was built out of native stone in view of the new NPRy depot. Hiram Chittenden came up with the idea, and Robert Reamer designed the Arch It was dedicated by President Theodore Roosevelt on April 24, 1903 and by September visitors were able to drive through the Arch via stagecoach to enter the park. Around 1904 a wire fence was built from the Arch north along the boundary as an attempt to protect antelope from being shot by local hunters. The field between the Arch and the Yellowstone Park Transportation buildings was used as a hayfield for elk feeding for many years. A stone gatehouse was built near the Arch in 1921 and used as a check-in station until it was razed in 1966. The Arch is also known as the North Entrance Arch. Dedication of Roosevelt Arch, from the Independent Record , Helena, April 25, 1903: The upper Yellowstone valley never looked better than on this occasion. The residents assisted largely in making the affair a success. They turned out en masse and gave a hearty welcome to the hundreds of visitors that thronged their doors. Gardiner, the gateway to the park, was bedecked in national colors in honor of the occasion. Flags and bunting were everywhere and with the martial music and soldiers from Fort Yellowstone the place took on a military appearance. It was a gala day. The miner, the prospector, the ranchman, all were there and lent valuable aid In making the event Interesting and appropriate. Hundreds of Montana's people were present to greet the president on his return from his visit into the wilds of the park, and to participate in the exercises incident to the laying of the cornerstone. Left: Headline for the dedication ceremony from the Helena Independent Record , 25Jul1903 Right: Construction of the arch, 1902. [YNP #37257] A bit of culture squeezes in amongst the legion of bawdy bar-rooms Top Left: 1st schoolhouse in Gardiner, built in 1885 of logs. It was lucky to survive the ravages of the 1889 fire. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] Top Right: The 2nd school built at the east end of Park St. around 1904. constructed of native stone. [Real-Photo postcard] Bottom Right: Around 1915, a 2nd story was added to the 1904 schoolhouse, primarily due to the finances and work of Larry Link and Frank Holem. They postponed payment for their services until the school district could afford it. A new school was built in the area below the Arch in 1951. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] Left: Gardiner Union Church was built in 1904-05 as a community church for the benefit of all residents. Fundraising and construction of the building was spearheaded by WA Hall, CB Scott, LH Link, F. Holem. A committee was formed to raise funds, using dinners, bazaars, horse races, games of chance, and other activities. Harry Child of the YPTCo donated the land for the church. Most everyone in town either gave money or donated their labor in the effort. Larry Link hauled the rock and supervised construction. Mr. Kurtz was the stonemason. Construction was completed in July of 1905. Maintenance and upkeep of the building was provided by a women’s group called the Gardiner Guild. In 1948 the church became known as the Gardiner Community Church. [Photo courtesy Gardiner Historic Resource Survey] Left: St. Williams Catholic Church was constructed in 1954. The congregation used a Great Northern rail car for services from 1915 until the 1930’s. According to the Great Falls Tribune on Dec. 24, 1954, "Dedication of the new St. William’s Catholic Church at Gardiner will take place after the first of the year. Although the church is not quite completed, the first mass was celebrated in it last Sunday afternoon by Msgr. John E. Regan, pastor of St. Mary’s Church in Livingston, of which Gardiner is one of the missions. He was for many years pastor of Our Lady of Lourdes Church in Great Falls." The church was built of travertine from the quarry a few miles above town. [Real-Photo postcard] The Gardiner Opera House aka Eagle's Hall, was constructed in 1910 on the north side of Main St., between 2nd & 3rd Streets. It featured a large hall for staging theatrical performances and moving pictures for the enjoyment of Gardiner residents. It was built from local stone. The Fraternal Order of Eagles was founded in 1898. Gardiner’s chapter, known as an “aerie,” was established six years later in 1904 and dubbed Aerie #669. Meetings were held in the Gardiner opera house. The Gardiner Eagles later took over possession of the facilities until they were disbanded around 1969. The autos were part of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. fleet. They were awaiting gas from the Gardiner Garage's single gas pump across the street. [Photos courtesy Whithorn Collection, Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] Gardiner Post Office The post office was established in Gardiner on February 19, 1880. James McCartney becomes the first postmaster, serving until Sept. 17, 1883. By the early 1900s, the M.H. Link Post Office Store operated the PO. From 1936-1939, J.J. Moore’s store maintained the PO, and from 1939-1960, it was housed in the W.A. Hall store. In 1960, a new post office was completed on West Main St, the first time it had its own building. By 1998 the post office in the growing town had proved too small and a new facility was built on Hwy 89, near the new North Entrance Shopping Center. [Photo, Great Falls Tribune, 21Feb1960] Yellowstone Park Transportation Co moves in south of town . . . . . ​ With arrival of the Northern Pacific to Gardiner, YP Transportation Co. began creating storage facilities for the stagecoaches and horses, and bunkhouses for the stage drivers and related employees. These were created at the southeast of town along the Gardiner River around 1904-05. They were beautifully crafted stone and wood buildings utilizing designs by Robert Reamer. These included the large stable capable of housing 125 head of horses, and an open-sided carriage storage building featuring stone pillars. A duplex structure provided driver bunkhouse and mess facilities. When the transportation system was motorized in 1917, the former carriage house and stables were used for the White Motor Co. automobile fleet. ​ The Butte Daily Post remarked on May 9, 1906 that, “The Transportation company anticipates a large business. The company is erecting a mammoth barn at Gardiner. There are sixty men now employed on the structure, which will house many of the horses used by the company. The company has a great barn at Mammoth Hot Springs, from where all its passengers make the start throughout the park, but it was found desirable to have stables at Gardiner, where stages meet the trains.” Top: Construction of the new horse barns in Gardiner in 1906. It was located in the area in front lf the current bunkhouse. [Photo author's digital collection] Bottom: Horse Barns in Gardiner in 1915. The building has a remarkable resemblance to the current Xanterra Bunkhouse, located closer to the Gardiner River. This building would have been torn down around 1925 during construction of the new concrete auto storage building. No doubt parts of it were used for the bunkhouse. [Photo courtesy Rawhide Johnson] Top: Stage driver's bunkhouse and mess in the foreground. The Carriage House is to its left. followed by the horse barn. 1917 photo by Jack Haynes. [YNP #199718-60] Bottom: Close-up of driver's bunkhouse and mess in 1915. the building survives as an employee duplex for Xanterra Parks & Resorts. [Photo courtesy Rawhide Johnson] Fire at Mammoth and new modern transportation buildings in Gardiner . . . On March 30, 1925, fire broke out in the YPTCo main bus barn at Mammoth, which had been built in 1903-04 and designed by Robert Reamer. Within an hour, the entire barn was a total loss. Included in the damage were the smoldering ruins of about 93 vehicles, including 22 7-passenger White touring cars, 53 10-passenger White buses, and 18 other vehicles. One of the employees described part of the inferno, “Explosion of the large number of presto-light tanks which are part of the equipment of the busses, provided one of the spectacular features of the fire, Mr. Frazer said. Exploding like giant firecrackers, some of the tanks shot into the air a distance of 100 feet, leaving a trail of fire in their wake.” The opening of the summer season would arrive in a mere 2-1/2 months and the vehicles had to be replaced! Harry Child, head of the hotel and transportation companies, quickly got in touch with Walter White of the White Motor Company. Negotiations were soon finalized for the purchase of ninety model 15/45 buses, along with 9 service trucks. The White company scrambled together all their resources and was able to have the new vehicles arrive in time for the opening of the 1925 season. Photo of the tragic fire that destroyed the artistically-designed barn and garage at Mammoth in 1925. [Photo courtesy Bill Chapman] Coincidently, YPTCo had been constructing larger and more modern garage facilities in Gardiner. Although originally scheduled to open in the fall, this project too was rushed to completion in time for the June opening. This new facility included modern mechanics stalls, body and upholstery shops, carpenter shop, blacksmith shop, tire and battery shop, paint shop, and a coal-fired heating plant. The building is still in use and accommodates Xanterra Parks & Resorts Transportation facilities and Human Resource divisions. Around that time, a 2-story stone house was erected next to the driver’s bunkhouse, for the head of transportation, Fred Kammermeyer and his family, as their home had been destroyed in the fire. Top: The transportation garage and shops completed in time for the 1925 season. 1927 view. [Montana Historical Society #H-26469] Bottom: Concrete storage building for the vast auto fleet, also constructed in 1925. It replaced the artistically -designed barn and carriage shed. 1951 view. [YNP #32072] View of Park St. ca1905, from an original negative in the author's collection. No Publication or reproduction without permission. From Left to Right, there is the Park Hotel, the 2-story to the right is "General Merchandise." 2-story bldg in center is a Saloon, advertising Bozeman Beer, Toward the right is a 2-story false front OK Store - groceries, gen. merch. etc., and to its left is the M.H. Link Store. Eventually the Link family took over both buildings. A Trip to Gardiner in 1915 by a pair of Texas Ladies . . . ​ Two young ladies from Denton, Texas describe the Northern Pacific Railroad Depot and Swinging Bridge in Gardiner when beginning a Yellowstone Park tour with the Shaw & Powell Camping Co . Misses Myrtle Cody, Writer of the Article, and Maida Edwards of Denton, were in the party which spent several days in Yellowstone Park" ​ “Tells of Scenic Beauties” “We arrived in Gardiner, Montana, at 5:30 on June 25 [1915]. Gardiner is a typical Western village. It is all built on one side of the street at the north entrance of the Yellowstone Park. We step from out Pullman and we see a beautiful rustic depot built from unhewn pine logs and rough stones. It is a masterpiece of quaint architecture. “The inside of the depot is just as attractive as the outside. The big fireplace in one end of the waiting room with a split log mantle catches our eye. You glance around the room and see on the mantels and walls only decorations of nature, such as pine burrs, curious-shaped pieces of wood, different kinds of stones from the park, and elk horns. At the other end of the room is the ladies’ rest room with all modern conveniences. We would like to rest here awhile, but a twelve passenger coach awaits us at the door, with six big white, impatient horses, ready to carry us to the Shaw & Powell hotel, where we are to spend the night. “We are warmly greeted at the hotel and enjoy our stay overnight. The following morning we walk over the village, and one interesting place we visit is an extension bridge over the Gardiner river. It is built for pedestrians and is said to hold up to four people, but wait until you walk out to the center, where the bridge swings up and down with each step, while the rushing, foaming water beneath roars until you do not know whether you are going up or down; then you think it will not hold one. The coach leaves the hotel at 11:30 for first camp, which is Willow Park, and everyone is ready. The first and second coaches are full, but there is room in the third coach for our party and four more passengers. Denton Record-Chronicle (Texas) Thursday, August 12, 1915 Park Street in the 1920s & 1930s Top Left: Park St. in 1923. The store to the right in front of the old car, is the M.H. Link Store. Eventually the Link family owned the large bldg on the corner also, operating a grocery until 1966. To its left are two Menefee business, probably a saloon and billiards hall. Wm. Menefee drove stage in earlier days and later was a judge in Gardiner. [YNP #11347-7] Top Right: Park St. in the 1930s. To the right is the Grotto Cafe, with a small Lantern Cafe sign lower down. The M.H Link store is to its left, The 2-story bldg down the street is the Welcome Hotel, with a saloon or beer hall to its right. The Park Hotel is the next 2-story, with the Moore Store a few doors down. The W.A. Hall store is at the end of the street. Original photo has been cropped for clarity. [YNP #11347-7a] Bottom Left: Park St. in the 1930s, view from the east end of the street. The Shaw Hotel & Cafe to the right, The 2-story to its left was once the Gardiner Hotel, with what was C.B Scott's Saloon to its left. The Grotto Cafe and M.H. Link Store cab can be seen near the 3rd power pole. [Real-Photo postcard] ​ Below: Park St . in 1939. J.J. Moore's Store to the left, next to the Arch Cafe, the old Park Hotel to its right. The next 2-story is the Welcome Hotel & Cafe, The Ranger Tavern is 3 doors down, in front of the car. Two doors down is the M.H. Link store and then the Grotto Cafe, next to the State 'Theater?'. The Shaw Hotel & Cafe is toward the end of the street. Photo has been cropped for clarity. [YNP #185327-492] Gardiner continues to grow in the 1920s and on . . . . Hwy 89 was extended into Gardiner on the east side of the Yellowstone River in 1926 and the old original dirt road from Yankee Jim Canyon to Cinnabar and Gardiner that navigated along the west side of the river became a secondary road. A concrete bridge was built over the Yellowstone River at its present site in 1929, tying the two sides of town together, encouraging more growth on the north side of town. Tourist courts began to emerge with motels later following that trend. The face of businesses on Park St. seemed to change regularly over the years. Ownerships changed hands, buildings were remodeled and expanded. And of course, the old nemesis - ‘fire’ - took its toll over the years - the Moore Store on Park St. in 1916, The Wylie Hotel and other buildings on Main St. in 1935, the Shaw Hotel in 1950, and the North Entrance Shopping Center on Park St. in 1971. Moore moved his business next to the Wylie Hotel, fine residences replaced the Wylie Hotel, the shopping center rebuilt and reopened, and the Town Club & Café replacd the old Shaw Hotel. No doubt other buildings added to the carnage along the way. But the town continued to grow and thrive, if even only seasonally. The new bridge over the Yellowstone River built in 1930. A community dance and picnic is held on the bridge to commemorate the opening. [Photo courtesy Ron Nixon Collection , Montana State Univ.] Early Hotels Serving the Needs of Tourist and Locals Alike Gardiner Hotel in center, w/C.B. Scott's Saloon to its left, ca1900. [YNP #37094] Gardiner Hotel This was operated by W.A. Hall in at least 1892. Early Sanborn maps showed a Gardiner Hotel located on Park St., about where the Shaw & Powell hotel was located some years later. In 1892, Hall began a Golden Rule Cash Store in Cinnabar and by 1891 he was proprietor of the Cinnabar Hotel. Hall moved his merchandise operations to Gardiner in 1903. A.L Roseborough was listed as being in charge of the hotel in Nov, 1902. The Gardiner Hotel is a rather ambiguous name, and tracking its history is difficult at best. Gardiner Hotel at right, w/C.B. Scott's Saloon to its left, ca1900. The hay wagon was probably one owned by Scott with delivery to the Army at Mammoth. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, M81-0432] Park Hotel to the left, and 2-story General Merchandise to its right, part of the bottom of which was the Tripp & Melloy Park Saloon, 1905 [O riginal negative in the author's collection. No Publication or reproduction without permission. Ad for the Park Hotel and saloon, run by Walter Hoppe, son of Hugo Hoppe. [30Apr1903, Gardiner Wonderland] Park St. 1904, Park Hotel left of center, with General merchandise to its right. The other 2-story became the Welcome Hotel. [Stereoview, no markings on front of card.] Fitzgerald - Park Hotel S.M. Fitzgerald, having served as an Ass’t Superintendent in Yellowstone, moved to Gardiner in Jan. 1886. On July 17, 1887, The Livingston Enterprise announced that Fitzgerald, “has nearly completed a large hotel in Gardiner. It apparently was one of the few buildings to survive the great fire of 1889. Known as the Park Hotel, WW Wylie leased it in 1897 for his camping operation. Walter Hoppe purchased it in 1902 and reopened the hotel. The Park Hotel is a rather ambiguous name, and tracking its history is difficult at best, with numerous Park Hotels in Montana, and that it is regularly confused in newspapers with Yellowstone Park hotels. Cottage Hotel, early 1900s. The sign clearly reads Hotel, but the rest is unreadable. [Real-Photo, author's digital collection] Ad for the Dewing Hotel, [18Apr1905, Gardiner Wonderland] Cottage Hotel, early 1900s. The sign clearly reads Hotel, but the rest is unreadable. [Yellowstone Gateway Museum , 2006-044-0168] Dewing Hotel - Cottage Hotel - Gateway Hotel Located on E. Main St, on the north side ( Lot 2, Block 11). Isaac D. McCutcheon, who platted the area, originally owned the property. Augustus T. French purchased the lot on 12/8/1890 from McCutcheon. It was sold to James McCartney the following year. The hotel was in existence by at least 1905 and run by John H. Dewing. At some time the wife of Jim ’One-Eyed’ Parker ran the hotel. John F. Curl and his wife Zona sold their properties in Cooke City and moved to Gardiner around 1915 and ran the Cottage Hotel. John died October 1, 1924. For a time it was operated by Bob & Anne (Sommerville) Jones, and became known as the Gateway Hotel by at least 1950. It is currently used as an apartment complex on Main Street. Welcome Hotel George Welcome established the City Restaurant in Gardiner by 1885, and in early 1886 it was announced he was preparing to open a hotel in conjunction with the restaurant located on Park St. By June 1886 ads for the City Hotel were running in the Livingston Enterprise, with his wife as proprietor and George running the saloon. The hotel burned down in the great fire of 1889. After that, the family seems to have moved to Jardine and conducted businesses in that mining town. He was also at various times a businessman at Horr and Cooke City. At some point a new hotel and restaurant were built and by the mid-1920s, was operated by George Welcome, Jr. until sometime in the 1950s. George passed in 1958. A hotel continued to operate at that location at least into the 1970s. Top Left: View of Park St. in 1939. The Welcome Hotel & Restaurant is the 2-story at the left. Photo cropped for clarity. [YNP #185327-492] Top Right: Park St. in 1960. The Cafe and Hotel sign can be seen mid-left. The Ranger Tavern is at right, with Callison's Walgreen Drugs to its left and Yankee Jim's Souvenir and gift shop next to the Welcome. [YNP #28326-2] Left: 1886 ad for George Welcome's City Hotel & Saloon. [12Jun1886, Livingston Enterprise ] Top : Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Hotel, with guests ready for a 5-6 day tour of Yellowstone. [Yellowstone Gateway Museum #1317] Bottom : Shaw's Hotel & Cafe, 1930s, looking rather rundown. [Author's digital collection] Park St. in Gardiner, late 1940s. Note the Shaw Hotel & Cafe on right. Photo has been cropped for clarity. [YNP #33335] Shaw & Powell Hotel - Shaw Hotel & Cafe The Shaw & Powell Camping Co. initially brought guests into Yellowstone from the north entrance and in 1909 officially opened the Shaw & Powell Hotel in Gardiner to serve their guests before and after their arrival on the Northern Pacific train. They had been leasing the lot since 1907, and the Sanborn Insurance map of Gardiner in 1907 showed a "Gardiner Hotel" on the site at that time. The S&P Hotel may have been remodeled by the Shaw family for their hotel. Previously, the corner was occupied by C.B. Scott. In the early 1920s, the hotel name changed to the Shaw Hotel & Cafe, owned and operated by Walter Shaw and his wife from 1922-25, Walter also guided tours through the park to the Cooke City area where he operated Shaw’s Goose Lake Camp. Walter drowned in the Yellowstone River in 1925 and his family continued to operate the hotel until 1944. At that time it was sold to Hugh Crossen and J.D. Winters who operated it under the name Park Hotel and Café. They sold it to Paul Spradlin a few years later and in 1950 the hotel burned down, killing two persons. Crossen repurchased the property and built the Town Club & Café utilizing the original stone back and side walls. The property changed hands several times until 1969 when it passed into the hands of Don Laubach. The family still operates the business under the name Town Motel, Lounge, and Café sometime into the 2000s, when other parties took it over. It was torn down around 2019 by new owners.. Wylie Hotel, ca1915. Next door is the Moore's Park Store, selling postcards, tourist curios, etc. [YNP #9555] The tragic fire of Jan. 8, 1935. The Wylie Hotel is at the left, and the former Moore's Store at right. [Photo courtesy Jeanie LaCombe Gregorich] Wylie Hotel, Sept. 7, 1914. Note the changes made in first photo. To the left is the Community Church, completed in 1905. [Tourist photo album, author digital collection]] Wylie Hotel W.W. Wylie and his Wylie permanent Camps Co. originally leased the Park Hotel in 1897 from S.M. Fitzgerald for the use of his guest arriving and departing Gardiner. He apparently used this hotel for about 5-6 years. With the arrival of the railroad to Gardiner, Wylie decided to build a new hotel. Construction began in early May and no doubt opened in time for the new season. The Gardiner Wonderland noted in the spring that, “Wylie is building a barn on Stone St. in Gardiner, facing the RR tracks. Work on his new hotel is progressing rapidly. The Wylies had purchased lots on Main St. north of the WA Hall Store to build the hotel.” The hotel was located on West Main St. behind the A.W. Hall store, which also opened in 1903. In mid-July 1905, the Wonderland announced, “W.W. Wylie has commenced the erection of a large annex to the Wylie hotel which will consist of an office and about forty more sleeping rooms.” After the season of 1905, Wylie sold his camping operation to A.W. Miles, who was secretly backed by Harry Child. Miles named the new company Wylie Permanent Camping Co. The Wylie Hotel continued to operate for another 25 years. In 1917 The Wylie and Shaw & Powell Camping Cos. were merged, and the new Yellowstone Park Camping Co. no doubt assumed ownership of the hotel. At some point the hotel also housed the Lark Lunch Room. Little is known of the details of the hotel in later years. Tragically, the hotel burned down on January 8, 1935. Early Businesses in Gardiner Serving Tourists and Townsfolk Early Saloons Top Left: Larry Link Saloon, ca1890. It catered to locals and soldiers from the Park alike. It later became the Ranger Bar. It is located at the far left on photo top right. [CF Finn photo, YNP Archives] ​ Top Right: Park St. in 1890. The Ranger Tavern is at far left, CB SCott's Saloon & Billiards is at right on the corner. The Gardiner Hotel is to it right and Tripp & Melloy's Park Saloon was located right of the hotel (out of photo) Photo cropped for clarity. [YNP #33307] ​ Left: 1903 ad for Lawrence Link's Saloon and Club Rooms. [9Jul1903, Livingston Enterprise ] ​ Right: Tripp & Melloy Park Saloon, ca1900, run by Dan Tripp and Jerry Melloy. It was later run by Harry Lloyd. George mack took over the business in 1910 and installed a barber chair. A wire screen was installed around the chair to keep drunks from falling into barber patrons. [YNP #37097] Top: Tripp & Melloy Saloon with the Park Hotel at its left. Note the barber pole out front, this would date the photo to post-1910. There is a bath house between, probably in conjunction with the barber shop. The saloon continued to operate in a shared space. ​ Bottom Right: Ad for Park Saloon, Tripp & Melloy. [30Apr1903, Gardiner Wonderland ] Ranger Tavern at Left Top Left: Park St. 1939, showing Ranger Tavern, the 3rd bldg from left. The M.H. Link Store is two doors to its right. In the 1890s, the Ranger was oringinally known as the Link Saloon (See above). The Ranger Tavern re-opened after the repeal of prohibition by Roy ‘Two-Spot’ Brown. He built a house on the old Wylie Hotel site [YNP #185327-493] ​ Bottom Right: Interior of Ranger Tavern, undated. [Photo courtesy Dave Pompper] M.H. Link Post Office Store Top Left: M.H. Link Post Office Store, ca1908. Established by Mike H. Link in the early 1900’s, it was located on Park St., the 3rd store from the intersection with Hwy. 89. Otilla Link was postmaster from 1904 to 1908. By the early 1920’s it was known as the M.H. Link Store. Son Hubert later ran the business and expanded it greatly. He sold out to Gordon Evans in 1966. The Billings Gazette announced in June, “Councilman Gordon Evans [Livingston] has announced his resignation. Evans has purchased Link’s Shopping Center in Gardiner and plans to move to Gardiner about the first of July. He also owns Evans Grocery in Livingston.” Evans operated the Gardiner store under the name of North Entrance Shopping Center. Mr. Evans passed away in Feb. 1971, and a mere two months later, the store, operated by his wife, burned down. The store was rebuilt and operated until 1994 when owners Deb & Larry Demaree, opened a new spacious store on Hwy 89 on the site of the Mountain View Motel. Top Right: Interior of M.H. Link Store, 1900. Mike Link was the brother of businessman Larry Link. [YNP #37098] J.J. Moore Souvenir Store Left: J.J. Moore's Souvenir Store, selling, postcards, Yellowstone views, park souvenirs & novelties. Next door is the Wylie Hotel. View ca1916. [YNP #9555] Right: Moore's Park Souvenir Store, 1939, located on the west end of Park St. The W.A. Hall store would be toward its left. The Wylie Hotel burned in Jan. 1935, and Moore had moved his store sometime before that. Image cropped for clarity. [YNP #185327-493] J.J. Moore seems to have started business in Gardiner around 1903 when he operated a jewelry store out of the new W.A. Hall store. By 1904 he advertised “Do you need anything in jewelry or silverware or a pair of new glasses?” He listed himself as a Jeweler and Optician in the ad. At some point in time he moved into his own store on Park Street that burned in 1916. Sometime after that he opened a souvenir shop in the old Park Hotel on Main Street. It was located east of the Wylie Hotel. During the 1914-16 seasons (at least) he was a stockholder in the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. By 1935 the Moore Store moved to Park St., near the W.A. Hall store and his old store was being used as a telephone office. Around that time the business was advertised as being in the Post Office Bldg. Sale items included: ice cream and soft drinks, candies, cigars, fishing tackle, Kodak supplies, views, guide books, park souvenirs, and groceries. Advertising card from the J.J. Moore Souvenir Store. Likely dated 1903-1916. The Van Dyke & Deever meat market opened in 1895 at the corner of 2nd (Hwy89) and Main St. Van Dyck built the stone house across the street from the market for his residence in 1903. By the early 1900s the meat company was doing considerable business supplying beef and pork to the Army at Yellowstone, and by 1902, they were supplying all the park hotels and camps with meat. In May of 1919, Walter J. Hill, of Hill & McClelland Cattle Co., purchased all of L.H. Van Dyck’s holdings in Gardiner and Park County. Van Dyck & Deever Meat Market K-Bar Cafe & Club From the Billings Gazette, April 1, 1972. At least by the 1940s, the business was a bar and café. Jack Taylor purchased the K-bar in 1972 saying, “he bought a combination bar and restaurant last fall, hoping the legislature would authorize gambling as it had been authorized to do by the new constitution. “I’d be fooling if I said I didn’t speculate when I bought this . . I thought this was an ideal time to buy.” [Mt Standard, 27May1973] The K-Bar was later purchased by Dick & Irene Herriford, who operated the bar and restaurant for 20 years before selling the business and building the Absaroka Lodge. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] Holem & Pilger - Gardiner Garage Frank Holem & Henry J. Pilger built a stone gas station on the corner of 2nd and Main St. around 1925 (across from the current K-Bar). They later greatly expanded the business. In May 1932, the business incorporated as Gardiner Garage Inc., of Gardiner, in Park county, with capital stock of $50,000. Directors were Frank and Minnie M. Holem and Henry J. and Elizabeth M. Pilger, all of Gardiner. Frank Holem had moved to Gardiner in 1893 as an itinerant blacksmith, gradually learning to repair automobiles as time went on. [Photo cropped from company Christmas card, author's collection] Grotto Cafe Located on Park St., near the intersection of 2nd St. first opened in 1905. According to the Gardiner Wonderland in Aug 1905, "The Grotto Cafe recently opened to the public by C.W. Wardloe [Wardlow?], at the old Elk Restaurant stand, is doing nicely with the trade constantly increasing. Mr. Wardlow certainly runs a first-class house, has nothing but the best of cooks, and his tables are supplied with the best the market affords. He desires your patronage. When in town call on him and get a square meal." The building continued to be viewed in photos next to the M.H. Link Store from the 1930-40s, but by sometime in the 1950s an empty lot began appearing. [Real-Photo postcard, cropped for clarity] O.K. Cash Store Located on the corner of Park St. and 2nd in 1900, it was operated by George (G.E.) and Mamie Settergren. Advertisements were common in the short-lived Gardiner Wonderland. Little else is known about the store. The O.K. Grocery Store was operated in the 1890's by Jos. Dailey, but unknown if same building. Top Left: The OK Store, next to the M.H. Link store, ca1905. [Goss Negative] Top Right: Ad for the O.K. Grocery Store, run by Jos. Dailey. [Livingston Enterprise , 25Jan1890] Right: Ad for G.E. Settergren's O.K. Cash Store. [Gardiner Wonderland, 26May1902] C.E. Wilcox Jewelry and Pictures This store was located on Park St. between the Moore Store and Welcome Hotel, in the small building that was once the Deli. It was run by Clarence Eugene "Gene" Wilcox and his wife Gina, beginning around 1927. They sold jewelry, quartz and agates crafts. Gene also specialized in clock repair and published several wildlife postcards. He died in his store in early 1971, preceded by his wife in 1958. An auction for sale of the goods and equipment was held in June 1971. Advertisement from the Gardiner-Gateway Gazette, 30 May 1940 W.A. Hall Store Above: The W.A. Hall Store in the 1930s. Next to it is a gas station operated by the Hall Company, with the Roosevelt Arch to the left. Behind them on Main St., is the Wylie Hotel. [Cropped image from a W.A. Hall Christmas card, author's collection] Bottom Left: Early image of the W.A. Hall Store on West Park St. Their claim to fame was that, "We Sell Everything." [YNP #37081, ca1905] Bottom Right: Undated early photo of the W.A. Hall Store. The window signs indicate a drug store at the right end of building. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] W.A. Hall Store William A. Hall built this store in Gardiner near the Arch and rail depot in 1903 and provided all of the basic necessities of life for the tourist, hunter, and resident. The large upstairs was home to many community dances in its heyday. The building was originally designed by architect Robert Reamer, but due to cost and time considerations, the building was modified to simplify and speed up construction. Hall originally ran stores in Cinnabar and Aldridge, but with the opening of the railroad to Gardiner, he started a new store here. The Cinnabar store closed right after his move and he left Aldridge after the coal strike of 1904-05. The store was a Golden Rule store, the forerunner of the J.C. Penny franchise. Hall later moved to Bozeman and his sons Earl, Warren, and James operated the store until 1955 and sold the building in 1961 to Cecil Paris. The building still stands and was home to a variety of businesses, including laundromat, bookstore, coffee shop, video store, TV cable service, and gift shop for many years. In 2008 the Yellowstone Association, the nonprofit education foundation that benefits the park is committed $4 million to buy the property and an adjoining lot and refurbish the 12,000-square-foot building to create its new headquarters. The association spent $2.9 million renovating the building and in April 2009 moved its headquarters from Mammoth to the new facility. The building now houses the offices, an educational store, a visitor information desk, two classrooms and a display on the building's history. Undated photo of the interior of the W.A. Hall Store. [Courtesy Yellowstone Association] W.A. Hall Conoco Service Station, ca1920s. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] W.A. Hall Store after it became Cecil's Fine Foods. The Four Bears Curio shop was located at the left end. The large neon signs on the roof lit up that end of town for many a year. [Real-Photo postcards, 1960s] W.S. & A.F. Berry Photographic Studio Above : Deck of Wildflower Post Cards. Published By W.S. & A.F. Berry. Set of 12 Each Measured 5.5" x 3.5" with divided backs. The set of cards were "Made in Germany" and dated 1905. Flowers Include: Harebell, Gentian, Mentzelia, Wild Rose, Monkshood, Lupine, Bitter-Root, Flax, Larkspur, Iris, Indian Paint Brush, and Columbine Above Left : Typical postcard trademarks. The earlier cards used the Red Emblem, front & back, while later cards simply had the credit line on the reverse. William Sanford Berry was born December 1866 in Indiana and passed away December 1948 in Pomona, Calif. Aurinda "Aurie" Sophronia Ferris Berry was born Jun 1872 in Illinois, and passed on October 1950 in Pomona, Calif. ​ The Berry family moved into Gardiner in 1902 and established a photo studio in a tent at the north end of town. According to Ruth Quinn, the couple purchased two lots on Main St. in 1911 and had a new building constructed called the Gardiner Studio.. The husband and wife team produced at least 60 known postcards of the Yellowstone area. Many of them featured beautiful fauna and flora depictions, while stagecoaches were featured in several others. Documentary-type photos were also taken in nearby communities. Larger format photos were vailable, 4x5", 5x7" & 8x10", in either glossy or dull finishes. During the sixteen years they spent in Gardiner, one or both of them established temporary studios in other Montana towns to supplement their income. A son was born in 1912 - Ferris Milton Berry, who spent most of his career in the Air Force. The family moved out of Gardiner in 1918 and according to, W.S. served as "warden of Sully's Hill Game Preserve at Fort Totten ND; the preserve being established by President Teddy Roosevelt to help rebuild the herds of elk, deer, and bison which had been over hunted nearly to extinction. After several Dakota winters, William decided there was too much pioneering at Fort Totten for a man his age and in 1920 moved his family to sunny Long Beach CA; and in 1926 relocated to Pomona." They passed away in 1948 & 1950 respectively and were buried in the local cemetery. Unfortunately no photos have yet been located of their studio or of themselves. Tourist Camps & Motels Begin to Replace Hotels in the 1920s - 1960s Reifsteck Cabins These were run by Mrs. Viola Reifsteck, perhaps beginning in the late 1920s. According to the Billings Gazette in 1966, "Mrs. Viola Reifsteck, 79, of Gardiner died Tuesday in a Livingston hospital She was born Oct 27, 1886 at e Perry, Iowa. She came to Gardiner in the early 1920's and then operated a tourist court for many years. Her husband, Phillip F., preceded her in death in 1943. Surviving are a son, Lewis, of Gardiner, one grandson and several brothers and sisters." Hy-Grade Cabins - Hy-Grade Auto Court - Hygrade Motel The Hy-Grade Auto Court Co. was founded in May 1931 by Ed Travaskis, D.T. White, and Lawrence McmAhon. Deade White owned and operated the Hy-Grade Motel in Gardener from 1935 until 1964, possibly with Travaskis for a few years. In 1965, the Montana Standard-Post reported the, “HyGrade Motel at Gardiner has been purchased by Levi Haynes of Gardiner and Ray Yardley Jr. of Livingston, from owner Vaughn Kearns. The new owners said the motel will be closed during the winter months. The North Gate Texaco gas station was added in 1948 and operated under a lease to other persons. When Hwy 89 was widened and improved through Gardiner in the early 1970s, the portion of land upon which the gas station was located, was condemned by the state highway dept for the right-of-way. In 1990, the Absaroka Lodge, owned by Dick & Irene Herriford, replaced the old cabin units with new multi-story guest rooms, retaining the unique stone pillars at the entry way to greet motel visitors. Left: Hy Grade Auto Court & Texaco Station. Postcard ca1950s. Center: Matchbook from the Hy-Grade Auto Court Right: Hygrade Motel, early 1970s. Hwy 89 had been widened and Texaco Station removed. Left : Current photo of Absaroka Lodge , with historic stone pillars. Jim Bridger Log Cabins Located at the north end of town on Hwy. 89, George A. Larkin was noted as proprietor of the cabins in March 1940 (The Missoulian ). The same newspaper mentioned David Fraker as owner of the Jim Bridger Motel Court in Dec. 1972. Another paper called it the Jim Bridger Motor Court in 2016. Jim Kemp built the Best Western motel next door and took possession of the Cabins. The central office building was moved in 1991 to make way for the new First Interstate Bank building. In 2019 Delaware North bought out the Best Western Motel, Rusty Rail Restaurant & Saloon, and the Jim Bridger Cabins. The cabins were moved from the premises in 2020 under new owners. Top Left : Jim Bridger Log Cabins, Real-Photo postcard, ca1940s, probably soon after construction. Note the complete lack of vegetation on site. Top Right : Jim Bridger Log Cabins, ca1950s. Real-Photo postcard. Left: Jim Bridger Auto Court, ca1960s postcard. Mountain View Motel In 1940, the Mountain View Cabins were run by Lester J. Spangelo. Morris & Ida Demaree purchased and operated the motel in 1975 until May 1984 when they retired. Many of the units were torn down when the new Gardiner grocery store was built around that time. Larry & Debra Demaree, relatives of the couple, owned and operated the grocery store for many years and it is still in the family. Postcard ca1960s. The Town Motel and Café The Town Cafe sat on the site of the old Shaw & Powell Hotel, dating from the early 1900s. The Shaw family continued to operate the hotel until 1944, when it was sold to Hugh Crossen and J.D. Winters who operated it under the name Park Hotel and Café. They sold it to Paul Spradlin a few years later and in 1950 the hotel burned down, killing two persons. Crossen repurchased the property and built the Town Club & Café utilizing the original stone back and side walls. The motel was built a few years later. The property changed hands several times until 1969 when it passed into the hands of Don Laubach. The family still operates the business under the name Town Motel, Lounge, and Café sometime into the 2000s. Sadly, it was torn down around 2019 by new owners, including the historic stone wall remnants. Left: 1960s postcard view of the Town Cafe & Motel. Right: Town Steakhouse and Motel ad, 1Apr1972, Billings Gazette Wilson Motel - Yellowstone River Motel The Wilson Motel began around 1947 by LeRoy & Agnes Wilson on the east end of Park St. They operated it until 1970 when they retired to Bozeman, Mont., and Sun City Ariz. At that time Paul Deweese took over the motel and operated until his death in 1989. His family has continued to run the motel since that time, changing the name to Yellowstone River Motel at some point. Top Left : The Wilson Motel, postcard ca1950s. Right: Wilson Motel postcard, ca1960s Left : Yellowstone River Motel , current photo. Westernaire Motel Located toward the north side of town, on the east side of Hwy 89, it was owned by Dick & Irene Herriford, owners of the Absaroka Lodge. The motel has been torn down in the past 4-5 years and has been replaced by the Yellowstone Big Rock Inn, also under the auspices of the Absaroka Lodge. Postcards ca1960-70s Change is inevitable. Change is constant. Benjamin Disraeli The End of Rail Service to the Gateway of Wonderland . . . . Scheduled passenger rail service to Gardiner ended in 1948, although freight service, along with an occasional special tourist train continued until 1954-55. Three trainloads of Girls Scouts brought in at the end of Aug. 1955 were reportedly the last train passengers to arrive in Gardiner. Political wrangling caused the beautiful NP depot to be demolished in 1954 by the backward-thinking Park authorities at the time, and another beautiful historic building was lost to history. It was replaced with a rather mundane-looking building that currently houses the public library, Sheriff’s Office, and Water Dept. A small public park occupies the former pond are and a beautiful log shelter with picnic tables has recently been added. The former railroad lands were eventually offered up for sale and a new public school was built on a portion of that land in 1951. Much of the school burned down in November of 1985 and was rebuilt in the ensuing years. The Changing Face of Progress . . . . A boom in the late 1980’s and through the early 2000’s saw much new construction along the Hwy89 section of town. The grocery store moved from Park St. to Hwy 89 on the north side of town and a new Post Office was erected nearby in the past decade. New hotels inundated the town for a period of years, including a Best Western, Comfort Inn, and Super 8, Yellowstone Village Inn & Suites, Absaroka Lodge (Hygrade Site), Yellowstone Park Travel Lodge, Yellowstone Gateway Inn, Yellowstone River Inn (Wilson Motel), and others in the late-2010s. Most of the older-style mom & pop motels from the 1940-50’s era were either shut down or forced to upgrade to compete with the big chain hotels. Park St. in the 1950s & 1960s - Postcard Views Real-Photo postcard, ca late-1940s at left. Notice the empty lot between the 2-story and M.H. Link store, where the Grotto Cafe formerly stood. The postcard on the right, ca1950s, the Town Cafe, with the Town Club occupying the old C.B. Scott bldg on the corner. 1950s postcard at left looking toward the East at dusk. The Welcome Cafe is still at the left, with Yankee Jim's to it right, followed by the Ranger Tavern, the Blue Goose and the Link Store. 1960s postcard at right looking toward the West. The old C.B. Scott building has been replaced by a Texaco gas station. To the left, the Link Store has expanded into the formerly empty lot. The 21st Century Come to Town . . . . The recent trend of converting apartments to vacation rentals has stricken seasonal and permanent renters alike in this land-locked town that has never had adequate rental housing. The town continues to thrive, although changes and uncertainly in the snowmobile policies of Yellowstone Park have lessened that business considerably over the years. And despite the concerns of the anti-wolf crowd, the area continues to attract many hunters in the fall and winter due to the thousands of elk that migrate out of the park into the surrounding Forest Service lands. The wolves, hated by some and adored by others have created their own cottage industry of avid wolf-watchers. In recent years the white-water rafting business has burgeoned and supports at least five businesses catering to this adventure crowd. Hopefully this rampant commercialism will not drive away the very people required to maintain this huge service industry due to lack of affordable housing, as had happened in all too many other resort towns throughout the West. The changes wrought in this small town during the past 30 years have been significant, and the face of the town has been transformed. It is not the intention to delve into this ‘modern’ history. The author will leave that to a future history junkie. From Left to Right: Park St. 1999, by Jim Peaco, NPS; 2009; and a 2010s Google Earth Street View.

  • Mountain Men in Yellowstone |

    Mountain Men in Yellowstone ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my old Postcard Page at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Henry Klamer |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Henry Klamer at Old Faithful Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Klamer's Early Days and the Firehole Hotel . . . Henry Klamer became the 2nd general store owner in Yellowstone when he began operation of a general store at Old Faithful in 1897. This was just a year after his sister-in-law Jennie Henderson Ash opened her new store at Mammoth. By the time Henry opened his store he was already a seasoned Yellowstone veteran, having worked in and around the park for at least 16 years. He is known to have been a member of the government road crew under Supt. Philetus Norris as early as 1881. In 1885 he entered into a partnership with G.G. Henderson to operate the Firehole Hotel at Fountain Flats. The hotel was built by George Marshall in 1884 and replaced a structure built in 1880 known simply as Marshall's Hotel. In 1886 Henderson gave up his interest in the hotel and in a complicated set of transactions, the hotel became part owned by The Cottage Hotel Association, and eventually passed into the hands of the Yellowstone Park Association. Marshall's / Firehole Hotel, early 1880s T.W. Ingersoll Stereoview ​ Tour Guiding and Supplying Beef to the Hotels . . . Sometime after Klamer left the Firehole Hotel, he went to work for George L. (G.L.) Henderson and the Cottage Hotel Asso. as a Tour Guide and Driver. The Cottage Hotel opened at Mammoth in December 1885 by the Henderson family and Klamer joined G.L.'s four daughters and one son in the operation of the touring and hotel business. Although the business seemed to be successful, the Henderson's were forced to sell out to YPA in 1889, which had been fighting to gain a monopoly on the park's hotel business. Klamer went to work for John Harvat in 1890, the contractor who supplied beef to the park hotels. The following year Klamer received the beef contract and managed that business for about 10 years. In 1892 Henry Klamer married Mary Henderson, daughter of GL Henderson. Beef corrals and slaughter house on Indian Creek. Henry Klamer general store at Old Faithful Left: YNP #7933C - Right: YNP #02804 Opening of the Second general Store in Yellowstone . . . ​ Klamer received a lease from the Dept of Interior for 2 acres of land near the Old Faithful Geyser in 1896 and began construction of his new general store in the spring of 1897. The building was 20' x 30' in size, with two stories, and very plain looking. The store opened in late June and began serving tourists to the area. He later received a contract to operate the Post Office at his store. The store sold general tourist supplies, curios, groceries, periodicals, books, tobaccos, agate curios, precious stones and later on a wide variety of Indian goods and crafts. A 25' x 40' addition was erected in 1902-03 The business did well and in 1904 the Old Faithful Inn opened up nearby, no doubt greatly increasing his business. Around that time the store was remodeled with the outside sporting knotted and gnarled pine posts, resulting in very nice, rustic effect, similar to the décor of the Inn. A 16' extension was added in 1913-14 Klamer ad, from Wonderland newspaper 3July1903 Left Top : Klamer general store at Old Faithful, Castle geyser in background. Detroit PC12542 Left Bottom : Interior Klamer Store. Detroit PC 12541 Right Top : Klamer general store at Old Faithful, 1912 Right Bottom: H.E. Klamer wooden sign at side of store facing OF Inn, 1913 Bad Times and the Transition to Charles Hamilton . . . Midway through the season of 1914, Henry Klamer died, leaving his wife Mary to take care of the business. Overwhelved by Henry's death and the vast responsibilities of running the business, she called for her brother Walter Henderson to help out. Walter had operated the Mammoth general store for five years with Alexander Lyall and took over as the Manager of the Old Faithful store. With her husband gone and the rest of her family living in Southern California, Mary decided it was time to leave the business and return to family. The following year negotiations began with Charles Hamilton to buy the store. Hamilton was a clerk for the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co., headed by Harry Child. With financial backing from Child, Hamilton made a $5,000 down payment to Mary and carried a note for about $15,000 for the store. Interior approved the deal and 10-year lease was issued to Hamilton on June 15, 1915. Charles Hamilton later expanded the building and his family operated this store until 2002, along with general stores at other locations. On January 1, 2003, Delaware North Co., through a completive bidding process, obtained the general store contract in Yellowstone and operates all the stores in the park. The business is known as 'Yellowstone General Stores'. The legacy of Henry Klamer though, still lives on at Old Faithful. Map of Old Faithful area showing Klamer's Store, OF Inn, and Haynes Photo Studio, ca1909. ​ From Campbell's New Revised Complete Guide of Yellowstone Park, 1909, Published by H.E. Klamer. View my Hamilton Stores page to continue this story . . .

  • Holm Camping Co. |

    Camping in the Yellowstone "Tex" Holm's Camping & Transportation Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Beginnings of the Holm Camping Tours Aron Holm was born in Sweden in 1870, but moved with his family to America in 1883, settling in Nebraska. Aron reportedly traveled around the West, working horses in Texas, joining the Alaska gold rush, and prospecting for gold in the Black Hills of Dakota Territory. There he met, and married, Susan Katharine Powers in 1897, who had previously been twice married. They later moved to Cody to join his father John, who had moved to what would become Park County, Wyo. in 1898, and had taken up work as a carpenter. Prior to the unofficial opening of the road over Sylvan Pass in 1903, "Tex" Holm and his wife Katharine began transporting small camping parties to Yellowstone in 1901.The excursions into the park were of 2-3 weeks duration. They went on horseback with pack animals over Dead Indian Pass north of Cody, down the precipitous mountainsides to the Clark Fork River and trekked through the wilds of Sunlight Basin, through the mining town of Cooke City and the northeast entrance of Yellowstone. Aron "Tex" Holm and wife Katharine, at Holm Lodge, ca1912. [Courtesy Park Co. Wyo. archives , Buckingham Folder, #86-P001] Late in 1903 they began using the new although uncompleted, east entrance road over Sylvan Pass to Yellowstone Lake. In 1906 'Tex' Holm and F.H. Welch were permitted to conduct camping parties through the park using wagons and saddle horses. The company was headquartered in Cody, with rail access from the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR. They offered 14 and 18-day camping trips in covered surreys or ‘wagonettes’ built with extra good springs for mountain service. Saddle horses were available for those who desired them. Canvas-bottomed tepees were used for sleeping and were complete with mattresses, blankets, and comforters. A private ‘toilet tent’ was set up for the ladies at each camp. Women cooks prepared meals in a covered cook wagon, using canned goods, smoked meats, fresh vegetables and trout. Expansion of the company followed these early successes and by August 1905 newspaper ads touted a newly named company: The Yellowstone Park Camping Co. Park Guides and Outfitters. Personally Conducted Tours Through Yellowstone National Park, from Cody, Wyo. Yellowstone Park Camping Co., with A. Holm, F.H Welch, & H. Dahlem. [Cody Enterprise, 15Jun1905] Letterhead, Yellowstone Park Camping Co., with A. Holm, F.H Welch, & H. Dahlem. 23Sept1905 [YNP Archives, Doc. #6375] Officials of the new company consisted of Aron Holm, Frank H. Welch, and Henry Dahlem. Camping parties went out every two to three weeks, with the last one leaving in early October. In 1906, the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. incorporated as the Yellowstone Park Camping and Transportation Co., with Tex Holm as president, Dahlem as vice-president, and Welch as secretary-treasurer. Typically fifteen days on the trail would cost fifty-five dollars or a twenty-one day trip would run sixty-three dollars. The first night was spent at Wapiti, half-way between Cody and the east entrance. The next camp was near the East entrance and then Sylvan Lake atop Sylvan Pass. Nightly camps would be made near all the popular tourist sites in Wonderland. By 1910 business was such in May of 1910 Tex Holm embarked on a huge investment of time and money when he began construction of Holm Lodge, located along scenic Libby Creek about seven miles from the east entrance of the park. The rustic log building quickly took shape and on June 8, 1910 the Park County Enterprise proudly proclaimed, “The Holm Lodge is Now Open – This Famous Mountain Resort for Tourists, Anglers and Hunters is Now in Shape to Accommodate Guests in Pleasant Manner.” Early view of Holm Lodge (pre-1913 fire). [Courtesy the Stanley Museum , Kingfield, Maine] Undoubtedly construction continued throughout the summer putting finishing touches on the various facilities. The main lodge consisted of a large dining room and another “amusement room” used for kitchen services and dancing parties. Guests slept in 12’x14’ tent houses that consisted of board floors and partial woods walls topped with canvas tent-tops. Iron beds, Ostermoor mattresses, stove, dresser, chairs, and wash-stands completed the furnishings. The “houses” were scattered amongst the woods for privacy with a centrally-located log bathing pavilion sporting porcelain bathtubs and offering hot and cold running water. The “grub” consisted of “fresh fruits and vegetables and garden truck of every description, eggs laid by our own chickens, plenty of fresh milk from our own cows.” Guests who wished to spend extended periods at the lodge were charged $100 a month, which included meals, saddle horse, and guide service on short camping trips. Laundry facilities were available, along with telephone service to Cody. Two views of the original Holm Lodge, showing the rear section and scattered guest tents. [Buffalo Bill Historic Center , Cody, Nos. P21-0503-11 & 12] Chicago Geographic Society 1909 and 1910 were busy years for Tex Holm. Among other travelers, he hosted a large group from the Chicago Geographic Society in both years, in early July - his first big trip for each season. The 1910 trip was said to coast $120 for society members, including all expenses. A wonderful set of photographs were made available to the author from the trip. The following is a newspaper notice about the 1909 trip from the Chicago Tribune: Second Night's camp, located just west of Pahaska Lodge. [Chicago Geographic Society , 1909] GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY PLANS CAMP IN YELLOWSTONE PARK. Forty Chicagoans Will Leave on July 6 for Three Weeks’ Outing Under “Tex” Holm, Roosevelt Guide. Equipped with camping utensils, guides, books, and the works of botanical, geological, and physiographical authorities, forty members of the Chicago Geographic society will leave the city July 6 for a three weeks' camping tour of Yellowstone Park. They will go to Cody, Wyo., in special coaches on the Burlington railroad and from there will take the trail under the guidance of “Tex” Holm, the veteran guide, who accompanied Theodore Roosevelt on a similar expedition several years ago. The route from Cody lies across the Shoshone national forest, through the mountains of the Absaroka range, and into the park through the southeast entrance. Jesse Lowe Smith, the president, will lead the expedition. A. Holm Camp Wagon with four men, perhaps rivers and camp tenders. [1905 glass slide, courtesy Brigham Young University Libraries ] Top Pair: Struggling get through a snowbank on top of Sylvan Pass in early July, 1909. the wagons had to be unloaded and reloaded after the drift. Middle Pair: Holm wagon, for unknown reason labelled: Peaches & Cream (cola) Coach. Names of lead horses?? Bottom Left: Mr & Mrs. Holm. katharine Holm was an active participant of the camping tours, although she rarely seemed to get proper credit for her work. Thanks to Walter Keats, Executive Director of the Geographic Society of Chicago (GSC) for many of the wonderful photos on this page. The GSC was founded in 1889 and in 1909 and 1910 members of the Society came out to Yellowstone to explore this vast Wonderland. They were guided by Aron Holm and his camping company. It is believed the photos were taken by Miss Meta Mannhardt, a member of the GSC, who gave her album of pictures to the GSC in the 1950's. Reproduction or use of these photos is not permissable, without written permission from GSC. Photo Credits: Owner/Publisher - Geographic Society of Chicago; Photographer - Meta Mannhardt. “To good guide Aron Holm and Mrs. Holm, his wife, whose sweet song charmed our nightly circle around the camp fire . . . to all whose faithfulness followed us day and night through the valley of the Shoshone, Sylvan Pass, and the Yellowstone, these pages are joyfully dedicated.” Charles Heath penned these poignant words in the dedication of his book, A Trial of a Trail, an account of his visit to Yellowstone National Park and Cody, Wyoming in 1905. He came west from Chicago to spend two weeks camping in Yellowstone and the beautiful Wapiti Valley, located between Cody and the east entryway to Yellowstone. Holm's Lodge & Camp located on Sylvan Pass, near the edge of Sylvan Lake. A 1910 Holm brochure described locations of the various campsites along the usual route: Wapiti, Holm Lodge, Sylvan Lake, Yellowstone Lake, Craig Pass, near Riverside Geyser, Lower Geyser Basin, Obsidian Cliff, East Gardiner Creek [Lava Cr.], Tower Falls, Grand Canyon, Turbid Springs, Camp Beautiful [near East Entrance] and repeating the route back to Cody. Campers could exit at Gardiner if desired, for a slightly shorter tour. The cost for this wonderful excursion was $4.00 per day. Big game hunting parties were offered from Holm Lodge into the surrounding National Forests areas as were trips to Jackson Hole on horseback with pack outfits. These trips lasted from 25-30 days, covering about 200 miles. Experienced guides and cooks accompanied each party. The route traversed the "wildest and most rugged parts of the Rockies, away from civilization, making many side trips into parts which have never been visited by other parties." The cost of this adventure was $250, which covered all the expenses from Cody and the return trip. In 1910 Tex Holm also received a permit from Yellowstone authorities to establish a permanent camp at serene Sylvan Lake, atop Sylvan Pass. Plans were immediately set in motion to create Holm Lodge No. 2 (Sylvan Lake Lodge), which would be similar to the main lodge, except without the luxury of bathing facilities, unless one was venturous enough to dip into the chilly waters of the lake. A log lodge was constructed at Sylvan Lake that served as lobby and dining room and was surrounded by Holm’s characteristic tepee-shaped canvas sleeping quarters. Wide-angle view Holm's Lodge & Camp located on Sylvan Pass, near the edge of Sylvan Lake. Buffalo Bill Historic Center , Cody, No. P21-1861] With anticipation of continued growth in tourism, Tex Holm moved forward with his business expansion. On October 28, 1911, the Park County Enterprise (Cody, WY) announced, “Holm Incorporates New Tourist Company – Local Parties Said to be Backing the New Concern.” The Yellowstone Park Camping and Transportation Company was dissolved and the assets were absorbed into the new “Holm Transportation Company.” The Tex Holm Livery Company, a livery business established by Tex in Cody, also merged into the new outfit. This fledgling organization, incorporated in Wyoming October 23, 1911, was capitalized for $75,000, divided into 750 shares and was managed by a board of directors consisting of Aron Holm, Louis Gokel, J.M. Schwoob, W.L. Simpson, and W.J. Deegan. The goals of the company were lofty. In addition to the purpose of engaging in general livery, transportation, hotel, and merchandise business, the company’s objectives included purchasing, leasing, or building hotels, lodges, camping outfits, and roads and bridges as necessary to conduct business. Holm Transportation Co. Letterhead, 1912. [YNP Archives, Holm Transportation Holm Transportation Co. Logo [From a mailing envelope, pm1913] Tex Holm & Shwoob traveled to Washington to gain permission to transport customers to the other hotels and camps, along with requesting permission to establish permanent camps in the park, much as the Wylie Company had done. The men conferred with the Secretary of Interior and Wyoming’s representatives to Congress. After what were no doubt strenuous negotiations, the Holm Transportation Company was finally granted a transportation concession in Yellowstone. It was, however, at the expense of not being able to establish permanent camps or construct hotels. Schwoob later reported that he was satisfied with the compromise that relieved HTCo of having to expend many thousands of dollars in order to establish new camps or other lodging facilities. Continuing, Schwoob related that, “what the company really secured was the privilege of having their tourists boarded at the Park hotels and the Wiley [sic] camps on the same terms which are given visitors who are conveyed thru [sic] the park by the old transportation company and the Wylie outfit.” Disaster struck when front page headlines of the Park County Enterprise on Saturday, November 15, 1913 proclaimed: “Main Building at Holm Lodge Completely Destroyed by Fire. Beautiful Resort is Scene of Disastrous Conflagration Last Wednesday Evening.” Luckily Tex Holm was onsite, and with the assistance of men from a nearby road crew, managed to rescue most of the interior furnishings, but nothing could be done to save the lodge. Tex was devastated. Unwilling and perhaps unable to borrow money to rebuild, Tex sold his prized Holm Lodge to William “Billy” Howell, an investor in his company who had managed Holm’s pack outfits for the past few years. The deal closed in early May for an undisclosed purchase price, but there was speculation that Holm gave the lodge to Howell in exchange for debts owed. Howell, who terminated his employment with HTCo, formed an association with Hillis Jordan, whereby Howell would run the lodge and Jordan, an experienced packer, would guide parties into the park independent of the Holm operation. Howell built a new and bigger lodge on the same site, retaining the same name. The next year, Tex Holm housed his guests at the nearby Pahaska Tepee, as his lodge was gone. When Howell completed the new lodge, Holm agreed to house his Yellowstone guests at Holm Lodge instead of Pahaska Tepee. Howell later went into a partnership with Cody schoolteacher Mary Shawver and together they managed Holm Lodge until 1947. Top Left: Holm Lodge, probably the rebuilt version after the fire. [Tammen 91671 Real-Photo postcard] ​ Top Right: Interior of Holm Lodge, undated Real-Photo postcard. ​ Bottom Left: Holm Lodge, probably rior to the building of the log lodge. Guest stayed in tents, touring wagons in foreground. [F.J Hiscock Photo, undated, Buffalo Bill Historic Center, #P211-201. Top of photo has been cropped] Beginning of the end . . . Holm Transportation Company was granted the security of a three-year lease beginning March 31, 1914. Expecting business to increase even more than it had in 1913, the directors of HTCo raised the corporate capitalization from seventy-five thousand dollars to three hundred thousand dollars to handle anticipated increases in business and expenses. Little did they realize that 1914 travel in Yellowstone would be down more than twenty per cent from the previous season. Well into the 1914 season, Holm was having some financial difficulties. With reduced visitation, excessive debts incurred during expansion, and financial problems suffered by their banking partner, the company barely made it through the year and prospects for the 1915 operation looked dim. Although Holm expected that the increased business from traffic to and from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco would save his business. But when private autos were allowed into Yellowstone in August of 1915, it was another blow to Holm’s enterprise, but he temporarily revived and continued service through the 1915 season. However, by that time the company had gone bankrupt and was unable to operate the following season, leaving no service provider from Cody and the east entrance into Yellowstone. To alleviate this situation, the Park Service authorized the creation of the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. for the 1916 season. This company became the first commercial motorized transportation concern allowed into the park and it journeyed from the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad depot in Cody to Lake Hotel where passengers were loaded onto Yellowstone Park Transportation Co stagecoaches for travel into the interior of the park.The following year the stagecoaches were retired and all commercial travel was by auto stages, with YPTCo being the carrier from Cody into Yellowstone. Top Left: Holm Coach in front of the Buffalo Bill monument in Cody. It seemed to be a popular photo op for tourists heading to Yellowstone. [Real-Photo postcard, undated] ​ Top Right: Tex Holm Ready for a Dude Party, Cody, Wyoming [Postcard #D8800, postmarked prior to 1910] . Bottom Left: The Pioneer Yellowstone Guide - "Tex" Holms, Cody Wyo. Holm Transportation Company and the Stanley Steamers In an attempt to modernize his business and reduce travel time from Cody to Holm Lodge, Tex Holm purchased two 5-passenger EMT30 autos from local dealer Jake Schwoob in 1911. Dissatisfied with the performance of the vehicles that year, Tex Holm bought a 12-passenger Stanley Mountain Wagon in 1912 to transport his customers on the 100-mile round-trip journey to the east entrance of Yellowstone. The shiny new red steamer arrived in mid-June with William S. Stanley, nephew of the Stanley brothers, at the helm. The Park County Enterprise (Cody) newspaper claimed the auto was “practically noiseless. It has immense pulling power and is claimed to be the simplest constructed car on the market.” Happy with the Stanley Steamer and its performance on the rugged and primitive mountain roads, Holm purchased three more in 1913. The new vehicles performed admirably for three seasons until the financial stability of Holm Transportation Company crashed in 1915. The Holm company went bankrupt after the 1915 season and the Stanley Steamers went on the auction block in March of 1916 to help pay off the debts incurred by the company. The fate and whereabouts of these historic steamers remains to be discovered. "Stanley Steamers ???? on Barrel Creek on Cody Road to Yellowstone, 1914-15 - Joe Paine." Joe Paine was hired in 1914 to drive one of Holm's Stanley Steamers to and from the East entrance of Yellowstone. Automobiles were not allowed in Yellowstone until August 1915. [Uncredited newspaper photo, Park Co. Wyo. Archives , Buckingham Files] SOMETHING NEW IN YELLOWSTONE Camps Co. Introduces Horseback Tours as 1922 Feature Four Tours this Summer Yellowstone can always be depended on for something new! This year the Camps Company, in addition to its other enterprises, offers an innovation in the form of "14-Day Personally Conducted Horseback Tours." These tours will leave Mammoth Hot Springs (Mammoth Camp) on four dates during 1922 season: July 1st, July 15th, August 1st and August 15th. Each tour will be identical in leadership, equipment and schedule. This arrangement offers such a wide range of starting dates that men and women who have been looking for this sort of tour can fit their vacation into one of those schedules. "Tex" Holm, The Leader. The Camps Company knows from long experience and observation that no inconsiderable part of the success of horseback tours is leadership. For those tours, they have engaged "Tex" Holm to guide and manage each tour. "Tex" Holm has been conducting parties through Yellowstone for over 20 years and knows every foot of the trails and highways. Of equal importance he is fitted by disposition to amalgamate the elements of a party into one harmonious whole. Each tour will be strictly limited in number so that the members will have all the freedom of a private party with a private guide. The tour will appeal to persons who desire to get away from an ordinary tourist experience and revel in healthful exercise, live in the open, and enjoy a scenic adventure of the first order. A big factor is the duration of the trip. The average visitor, who take the regular automobile tour, stays in the park for four and a half days. This is too short. Many guests at the permanent camps stay over for a day or a week. The saddle horse tours will be on the trails and highways for 14 days. Of course, members of these tours will see three times as much as the average tourist, not only because they are in the park three times as long but also because they will visit many places far from the automobile highways. Fourteen Eventful Days. Looking at these tours from the standpoint of healthful recreation, they wil appeal to many as the ideal vacation. Think of 14 days in the saddle and 14 nights in the open! The rides at first are short and grow grdually longer as the tour progresses. The first day's ride is 7 miles. The average for the entire tour is only 12 miles per day. Member of the party will be provided with individual tents and individual beds. All tents, bedding and equipment are new and of the first quality. The cost oif these tours is $196.00 each. This charge includes all expenses for the 14 days beginning and ending at Mammoth Camp. Members of the party will use any railroad they desire to the park and pay their own expenses to Mammoth Camp. Further details will be supplied on application. ​ The Yellowstone News, May 1922, Volume V - No. 5. Newspaper of the Yellowstone Park Camps Co. "Horseback Tours Through Yellowstone Park" Led by Aron 'Tex' Holm Yellowstone Park Camps Co. brochure, 1922

  • Bios Bibliographies |

    Yellowstone Bibliographies ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. [1g] Adare, Sierra, "Celebrating Cody's Centennial". Wild West Magazine, June '96. [2] Augspurger, Marie M. "Yellowstone National Park - Historical and Descriptive". The Naegele-Auer Printing Co. 1948 [2m] Austin, Bruce, 1999 conversations and data provided by him. Independent researcher, bus historian and restorer. Loma Linda University, Calif. [3] Anderson, H. Allen, "Ernest Thompson Seton in Yellowstone Country". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. 34, No.2, Spring '84. [4] Baldwin, Kenneth H., "Enchanted Enclosure: The Army Engineers and Yellowstone National Park - A Documentary History". Office of the Chief Engineers, US Army, 1976. [4m] Barnes, Christine, “Great Lodges of the West”. Published by W.W. West, Bend Oregon, Copy. 1997. [5] Barnett, LeRoy, "Ghastly Harvest - Montana's Trade in Buffalo Bones". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol.XXV, No. 3, Summer '75. [6] Barringer, Mark Daniel, "Private Empire, Public Land: The Rise and Fall of the Yellowstone Park Company". Texas Christian Univ. Thesis, Dec. 1997 [8] Bartlett, Richard A. "Those Infernal Machines in Yellowstone...". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XX, No. 3, Summer 1970. [10] _______________. "Yellowstone - A Wilderness Besieged". University of Arizona Press, 1985. [12] Beal, Merrill D., "The Story of Man in Yellowstone". Caxton Printers, Ltd, 1949. [14] Brown, Mark H., "The Plainsmen of the Yellowstone - A History of the Yellowstone Basin". University of Nebraska Press, 1969. [14a] _______________, "Yellowstone Tourists and the Nez Perce". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XVI, No.3, Summer 1966. [14m] Brust, James S., & Whittlesey, Lee H., "Thomas J. Hine - One of Yellowstone's Earliest Photographers". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol.49, No.2, Summer 1999. [14u] Burlingame, Merrill G., "The Montana Frontier". Big Sky Books, Montana State University, 1942. [15m] Child, Harry W. Jr., “History of Dates and the Child Family in Yellowstone”. An unpublished chronology, 1999. [16] Chittenden, Hiram Martin, "The Yellowstone National Park". (written 1895] University of Oklahoma Press, Norman Publishing, 1964. [16m] Clemensen, A. Berle, “Historic Structure Report – Historic Data Section – O.F. Inn”. Denver Historic Preservation Branch, National Park Service, Dept. Interior, Denver, Co. [16t] Cody Country Magazine, 1996 [17] Culpin, Mary Shivers, "The History of the Construction of the Road System in Yellowstone National Park - 1872-1966". Historic Resource Study Vol.1, Rocky Mtn. Region, National Park Service, 1994. [17t] Diem, Kenneth L. & Lenore L., "A Community of Scalawags, Renegades, Discharged Soldiers & Predestined Stinkers? A History of Jackson Hole and Yellowstone's Influence, 1872-1920. Grand Teton Natural History Asso, 1998. [18] Dittl, Barbara H. & Mallman, Joanne, "Plain to Fancy...The Lake Hotel, 1889-1929". Montana – The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXXIV, No. 2, Spring 1984. [18a] _______________, "The Story of the Lake Hotel". Published by Roberts Rinehart, Inc., 1987. [18m] Dolph, James A. & C. Ivar, “The American Bison: It’s Annihilation and Preservation”. Montana – The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXV, No. 3, Summer 1975. [18t] Eagle, Sam & Ed, “West Yellowstone’s 70th Anniversary – 1908-1978”. Published by Eagle Co., West Yellowstone, Mt. Copy. 1978. [19] Encarta Encyclopedia 99, Microsoft. [21] Flagg Ranch Resort, “Flagg Ranch History”, Company website 9/25/00 [22] Fontenot, Britt, "Striking Similarities: Labor Versus Capital in Yellowstone National Park". Yellowstone Science magazine, Vol. 5, No.4. [23] Frost & Richard, “Over the Cody Trail to Yellowstone Park”. Advertising brochure for Frost & Richard Camping Company, ca 1906-16. [24] Galusha, Hugh D. Jr., "Yellowstone Years". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. IX, No. 3, July 1959. [24m] Geyser Gazette, “Train or Stagecoach – The Only Ticket to Yellowstone in the Early 1900’s.” Vol. 5, Issue 1, Summer 2000. [25] Glacier Park Foundation, “The Inside Trail” Newsletter. Fall99G “Glacier on Wheels: A History of the Park Buses (Part 1: 1913-1927), by Ray Djuff. Fall99H “Gearjamming in Glacier – An Anthology” [25g] Goss, Robert V., “Yellowstone – The Chronology of Wonderland”, 2nd Edition, Copy 2002, Self- Published. [25h] _______________, “A Tale of Two Sisters – Pryor & Trischman in Yellowstone”. Annals of Wyoming, Spring 2002, Vol. 74, No.2. [25i] _______________, “Yellowstone’s George Whittaker – Soldier, Scout and Storekeeper”. Copy 2002, selfpublished. [25j] _______________, “Yellowstone’s First General Store – A Legacy of Jennie Henderson and Her Family”. Publication pending, copyright 2003. [25k] _______________, “Serving the Faithful in Yellowstone – Henry Klamer and the General Store in the Upper Geyser Basin”. Self-published, copyright 2003. [26] Goulans, Fred R., "A Fur Trade History of Yellowstone Park". Mountain Grizzly Publications, 1989. [26b] Gowans, Fred R., "Rocky Mountain Rendezvous: A History of the Fur Trade Rendezvous 1825-40". Gibbs-Smith Publisher, 1985. [28] Gray, John S., "Trials of a Trailblazer...P.W. Norris and Yellowstone". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXII, No. 3, Summer 1972. [30] Haines, Aubrey L., "The Yellowstone Story". Vol. I, Yellowstone Library and Museum Association, 1996. [31] _______________, "The Yellowstone Story". Vol. II, Yellowstone Library and Museum Association, 1977. [32] _______________. "Yellowstone Place Names - Mirrors of History". University Press of Colorado, 1996. [32a] _______________, "The Bannock Indian Trail". Yellowstone Library and Museum Asso., 1964. [32d] _______________, “Tales from the Yellowstone: Steamboats in the Rockies”. Part 1 of a 3-part series. The Yellowstone Postcard Exchange, Vol. 5, No.1, Winter 2000. [33] _______________. "Norris Soldier Station - Yellowstone National Park - Historic Structures Report". With Charles Pope & Erwin Thompson. Dept. of Interior. Sept. 1969. [36] Hampton, Duane H., "The Army and the National Parks". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXII, No. 3, Summer, 1972. [37] _______________, "How the U.S. Cavalry Saved our National Parks". Indiana University Press, 1971. [39-12] Haynes, Frank J. “Haynes Official Guide”, 1912, 26th Edition. [39-15] Haynes, Frank J. “Haynes Official Guide, 1915, 29th Edition [39-20] Haynes, Jack E. “Haynes Guide – The Complete Handbook”. 1920, 32nd Edition. [39-23] Haynes, Jack E. “Haynes New Guide” 1923, 35th Edition. [40] Haynes, J.E., "Haynes New Guide and Motorists Complete Log of Yellowstone National Park". J.E. Haynes, Publisher, 36th edition, 1924. [42] _______________, "Haynes Guide - The Complete Handbook". Haynes Picture Shops, Inc. 44th revised edition, 1936. [43] _______________, "Haynes Guide - The Yellowstone National Park". Haynes, Inc., 48th Edition, 1946. [43a] _______________, “Haynes Guide – A Handbook of Yellowstone National Park”, 49th Edition, 1947. [44] Hert, Tamsen Emerson, "Resort on the Rim: Yellowstone's Grand Canyon Hotel". The Yellowstone Post Card Exchange, Vol.3, No.3, Fall 1998. [44b] Hilburn, Dorothy K., "The Old Faithful Inn - A National Historic Landmark". Camelback/Canyonlands Venture, 1997. [45a] Historical Research Associates, "Historic Structures Report - Lake Lodge". Prepared by James R. McDonald Architects, July 1997. [45b] _______________, "Historic Structures Report - Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel". Prepared by James R. McDonald Architects, Nov. 1995. [45c] _______________, "Historic Structures Report - Old Faithful Lodge". Prepared by James R. McDonald Architects, Nov. 1995. [45d] _______________, "Historic Structures Report - Old Faithful Inn". Prepared by James R. McDonald Architects, May 1994. [45e] _______________, "Historic Structures Report - Roosevelt Lodge". Prepared by James R. McDonald Architects, Dec. 1993. [45m] Hughes, J. Donald, “The Story of Man at Grand Canyon”. Grand Canyon Natural History Asso., 1967 [45t] Ise, John, “Our National Parks Policy – A Critical History”. Published for Resources for the Future, Johns Hopkins Press, 1961. [46] Karle, Marsha, Managing Editor, "A Yellowstone Album - A Photographic Celebration of the First National Park". Commentary by the Yellowstone Staff. The Yellowstone Foundation,1997. [47m] Jackson, Steven B., "Joshua Crissman, Yellowstone's Forgotten Photographer". Montana – The Magazine of Western History, Vol.49, No.2, Summer 1999. [48] Jackson, W. Turrentine, "The Creation of Yellowstone National Park". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. Seven, No. 3, Summer 1957. [50] _______________, "The Washburn-Doane Expedition of 1870". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. Seven, No. 3, Summer 1957 . [51] Johnston, Fred T., "An Analysis of the Business of Hamilton Stores, Inc. in Yellowstone National Park". NPS Vertical Files, Y.N.P. [52] Joyner, Newell F., "History of Improvements in Yellowstone National Park". US Dept. of Interior, NPS, 1929, File No.11011-02, YNP Vertical Files - "Structures". [54] Jurale, James A., "History of Winter Use in Yellowstone National Park". University of Wyoming, Dec. 1986. [55] Karmizki, Kenneth W., "Suspected Site of the Hobart Hotel - Report of Research & Testing". Montana State University, 1997. YNP Files - "Structures". [56] Langford, Nathaniel Pitt, "The Discovery of Yellowstone Park". University of Nebraska Press 1972. (Text from author's 1905 Edition). [57] Livingston Enterprise newspaper [58] Malone, Michael P., "The Gallatin Canyon...and the Tides of History". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXIII, No. 3, Summer 1973. [60] Malone, Michael P., & Roeder, Richard B. , Editors, "The Montana Past - An Anthology". University of Washington Press, 1969. [60e] Markoff, Dena S., “The Dudes are Always Right – The Utah Parks Company in Zion National Park 1923-72”. Zion Natural History Association, 1980. [60g] Mattison, Ray H. “Report on Historical Structures in Yellowstone National Park.” 10/3/60. Yellowstone Archives, Vertical Files. [61] McCarter, Steve, “Guide to the Milwaukee Road in Montana”. Montana Historical Society Press, Helena, 1992. [62] Merrill, Andrea & Jacobson, Judy, "Montana Almanac". Falcon Publishing Company, 1997. [62m] Monteith, Joanita, “Pahaska Tepee – The Gem of the Rockies”. Points West magazine, 1998 Winter Issue. [62n] _______________, “The Irma – Just the Swellest Hotel That Ever Happened”. Points West magazine, 1998 Fall Issue. [63] Motor Coach Today, “Buses in Yellowstone National Park”. By Bruce Austin, Robert Goss, Gerald Pesman, edited by Eli Bail. April-June 2000, Vol.7, No.2. [64] National Park Service, "Yellowstone Roads and Bridges - A Glimpse of the Past". Brochure produced by the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), 1989. [64p] _______________, “Press Releases” [66] _______________, "The Army Years, 1886-1918". Brochure produced by the Yellowstone Park Foundation and the Yellowstone Association. [68] Nolan, Edward W., "Northern Pacific Views - The Railroad Photography of F.J. Haynes, 1876-1905". Montana Historical Society Press, Helena, 1983. [70] O'Brien, Bob Randolph, "The Yellowstone National Park Road System: Past, Present and Future". University of Washington, Thesis, 1965. [72] Pesman, Gerald and Helen, "Yellowstone National Park - Mile-by-Mile Guide". Yellowstone Park Co., 1975. [72a] _______________, "Drivers and Tour Guides' Commentary Handbook for Yellowstone National Park". 2nd Edition. Copy. 1979, Yellowstone Park Co. [72b] _______________, “Yellowstone”. Draft copy of article to appear in Motor Age magazine in year 2000. [73] Petersen, Gwen, "Yellowstone Pioneers - The Story of the Hamilton's Stores and Yellowstone National Park". Hamilton Stores, Inc. 1985. [74] Quinn, Leslie J., "The Wranglers' Handbook". Roosevelt Edition. TW Recreational Services, 1997. [74a] _______________, "The Wranglers Handbook". Canyon Edition. TW Recreational Services, 1997. [78] Randall, L.W. (Gay), "Footprints Along the Yellowstone". The Naylor Company, Copy. 1961. [78t] Reese, Craig, “N.P.Ry - First of the North Transcontinentals – An Overview and Chronology”; “N.P.Ry – Park Branch Construction”; “N.P.Ry – Park Branch Operations”. A 3-part article originally published in the ‘Mainstreeter’, the publication of the Northern Pacific Railway Historical Asso. [79] Reeves, Thomas C., "President Arthur in Yellowstone National Park". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Summer 1969. [79g] Rzeczkowski, Frank, “The Crow Indians and the Bozeman Trail”. Montana – The Magazine of Western History, Vol.49, No.4, Winter 1999. [79d] Ridge, Alice A. & John Wm., “Introducing the Yellowstone trail – A Good Road from Plymouth Rock to Puget Sound”. Yellowstone Trail Publishers, Altoona, Wisc. Copy. 2000. [80] Runte, Alfred, "Trains of Discovery - Western Railroads and the National Parks". Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1990. [80a] _______________, National Parks – The American Experience”. University of Nebraska Press, 1979. [82] Russell, Carl Parcher, “One Hundred Years in Yosemite”. Yosemite Natural History Asso., Yosemite National Park, 1959. [84] Schullery, Paul, "Yellowstone's Ecological Holocaust". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Montana Historical Society. Aug. 1997. [85] _______________, "Searching for Yellowstone - Ecology and Wonder in the Last Wilderness". Houghton Mifflin Co., 1997. [86] _______________, "Buffalo Jones and the Bison Herd in Yellowstone: Another Look". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, Summer 1976. [87] Saunders, Richard L., "Glimpses of Wonderland - The Haynes and Their Postcards of Yellowstone National Park". Saunders 1997. [88] Saylor, David J., "Jackson Hole, Wy. - In the Shadow of the Tetons". University of Oklahoma Press, 1970. [90] Scofield, Susan C., "The Inn at Old Faithful". Crowsrest Associates, 1979. [91] Scott, Kim Allen, "A Missing Piece of a Yellowstone Puzzle: The Tangled Provenance of the Cook-Folsom-Peterson Yellowstone Expedition Diary". Yellowstone Science magazine, Vol.7, No.1, Winter 1999. [92] Selmeir, Lewis W., "First Camera on the Yellowstone - A Century Ago". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol.XXII, No.3, Summer 1972. [93] Shankland, Robert, “Steve Mather of the National Parks”. Alfred A Knopf, New York, 1951. [94] Shaw, S. Rose, & Paladin, Vivian A., "Yellowstone Park by Camp: The Shaw & Powell Camping Co. - A Photo Essay". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXII, No. 3, Summer 1972. [96] Schullery, Paul, "Old Yellowstone Days". University of Colorado, 1979. [96e] Silliman, Lee, “A Ride to the Infernal Regions: An Account of the First Tourist Party to Yellowstone”, Yellowstone Science Magazine, Yellowstone Association for Natural Science, History & Education. Winter 2000, Vol. 8, No.1 [97] The Yellowstone Postcard Exchange (TYPE), Quarterly Newsletter by J. Michael Bodell. [97e] Tilden, Freeman, "Following the Frontier with F.J. Haynes". Alfred A. Knopf, 1964. [97p] Topping, E.S., "The Chronicles of the Yellowstone - An Accurate, Comprehensive History". Ross & Haines, Inc. 1968. [97u] University of Montana Bozeman, Mt. Renee Library, “The Eagle Family Collection”. [98] US Dept. of Interior, NPS, "Yellowstone National Park Wyoming". Government Printing Office, 1937. [99] US Dept. of Interior, National Park Service, “Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS)” and “Historic American Engineering Record (HAER)”. Located through American Memory, Library of Congress website. [99g] ________________, “Golden Gate Viaduct”, HAER WY-3, [99n] ________________, “Norris Soldier Station”, HABS No. WYO-21, John DeHass, Jr. [100] Van West, Carroll, "A Travelers' Companion to Montana History". Montana Society Press, 1986. [106] Whithorn, Bill and Doris, "Photo History of Gardiner, Jardine, Crevasse". The Park County News, 1972. [106m] _______________, “Images of America – Paradise Valley on the Yellowstone”. Published by Arcadia Publishing, Chicago, Ill, 2001 [107] _______________, "Yankee Jim's National Park Toll Road and the Yellowstone Trail". April 1989. [108] _______________, "Twice Told on the Upper Yellowstone". Vol. I, Published by Doris Whithorn 1994. [108a] _______________, "Twice Told on the Yellowstone". Vol. II, Published by Doris Whithorn 1994. [110] Waite, Thornton, "Yellowstone Branch of the Union Pacific - Route of the Yellowstone Special, 1994. [110h] West Yellowstone Historical Society, “West Yellowstone Historic District”. Walking Guide ‘Oregon Short Line Terminus Historic District’. [110m] Wheaton, Rodd L., “Architecture of Yellowstone – A Microcosm of American Design”. Yellowstone Science magazine, Vol. 8, No. 4, Fall 2000. [113] _______________, "Yellowstone Place Names". Montana Historical Society Press, 1988. [114] _______________, "Wonderland Nomenclature - A History of the Place Names of Yellowstone National Park". Montana Historical Society Press. [116] _______________, "Marshall's Hotel in the National Park". Montana - The Magazine of Western History, Vol. XXX, No. 4, Oct. 1980. [118] _______________, "Yellowstone's Horse-and-Buggy Tour Guides: Interpreting the Grand Old Park". National Park Service, 1996. [119] _______________, "In Yellowstone Park, 1886-1889, George Tutherly's Reminiscences". Montana -The Magazine of Western History, Winter 1997-98. [119m] Wonderland newspaper, Gardiner, Montana. [119w] Wylie Permanent Camping Company, “Yellowstone Park”. Advertising brochures for the 1914-15 seasons. Printed by Poole Bros. Chicago. [119y] Wyoming Wildlife, “Ned Frost – Inventing the Wilderness Hunt”. Sep/Oct. 2001 [120] Yochim, Mike, "Why the National Park Service Originally Allowed Snowmobiles into Yellowstone". Yellowstone Commentary, Winter 1997-98. TW Recreational Services Print Shop. [120a] _______________, "The Development of Snowmobile Policy in Yellowstone National Park". Yellowstone Science, Vol.7, No.2, Spring 1999. [121] Yellowstone Science Magazine, Yellowstone Association for Natural Science, History & Education. [123] Yellowstone National Park Library/Archives Files. “Vertical Files’. [123a] Ibid., "List of Buildings Owned by Interior Dept. Located at Mammoth Hot Springs, 1/21/18. Vertical Files: History: YNP [123b] Ibid., “History Files, “Bassett Bros. Files”. [130] Yellowstone National Park Service Press Releases.

  • Haynes Photo Shops |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Haynes Photo Shops ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Frank Haynes and the Haynes Photo Shops - 1884 to 1967 Frank Haynes discovers Yellowstone . . . . Frank Jay Haynes was known as the "Official Park Photographer" for many years in Yellowstone. He was the parks' most famous photographer and he and his family operated the Haynes Photo Shops for 83 years. He was born in Michigan in 1853 and opened his first photo studio in Moorhead, Minnesota in 1876. He later moved to Fargo, ND and eventually to St. Paul Minnesota, where he maintained a studio for many years. The Northern Pacific RR employed him in 1875 to take promotional pictures along their new route from Minnesota to the West Coast. During these tours he discovered Yellowstone Park on a visit in 1881 with park superintendent Philetus Norris. He returned in ensuing years on photographic jaunts, and was appointed Official Photographer of the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. He opened up his first photo studio at Mammoth in 1884. Thus began his memorable career in Wonderland. Left: the Haynes Photo Shop at Mammoth Hot Springs, ca1890. ​ Right: Business card for "F. Jay Haynes & Bro." in St. Paul, Minn., ca1883. His "Bro" was Fred E. Haynes, official photographer for the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway Co. Top Left: The Haynes Photo Shop at Mammoth Hot Springs, 1898, after addition at right new paint job. Note the antler fence. [Courtesy Montana Historical Society .] ​ Top Right: Haynes rented studio space in the lobby of the National Hotel at Mammoth in 1886. [YNP #14325] Palace Car Studio Haynes bought a railroad car from the Northern Pacific RR in 1885, and had it outfitted as a traveling photographic studio, complete with darkroom. NPRR hauled the car over their lines from Minnesota to the West Coast so that Haynes could take pictures of the towns and countryside for promo tional purposes. He named it the Haynes Palace Car and operated it until 1905 when he sold it back to the railroad. The Haynes Guidebook In 1890 Haynes began publishing the 'Haynes Guidebook', an authoritative manual describing the many wonders of the park. Included were mile-by-mile travel logs, maps, information about camping, animals, geology, history, roads and, of course, the hot springs and geysers. These books, which were produced almost every year until 1967, were profusely illustrated. The year 1900 began the era of 'picture post cards' in Yellowstone when Frank, also known as F. Jay, began issuing postcards of Yellowstone. These cards became very popular with the tourists and hundreds of thousands of them were produced over the years. ​ Haynes' Harley-Davidson Motorcycle Deliveries . . . In 1929, Jack Haynes arrived at the Montana Cycle and Supply motorcycle dealer in Billings to buy five new Harley-Davidsons with sidecars. Haynes wanted drivers of the olive drab painted motorcycles, equipped with sidecars, to pick up tourists’ film and race it to his processing lab where the film would be developed and printed overnight. The next morning the riders would carry printed photographs back to Haynes’ other Photo Shops so tourists could have their photographs the next day, a quick turnaround in 1929. The Harleys purchased were the JDH model, “which could hit 85 mph and get 80 miles to the gallon. The motorcycle had a 74 cubic inch V-twin engine and sold for less than $400. That price is equivalent to almost $6,000 today.” He hired 4-5 drivers, had them trained, and they were off. The timing of purchase and service was unfortunate, as the Great Depression soon hit the country. But J.E. Haynes struggled through the economic crisis successfully. Over the ensuing years, more of his photo shops were equipped with photo processing plants and the unique Harley service was no longer needed. [Info from the Billings Gazette, 7July2019, retrieved online 20July2020] Top Left: Interior of the Haynes Palace Car, a photography studio that rode the rails. See the Car exterior at top of page. ​ Top Right: Cover of a Haynes Guide, 1927. Author's Collection ​ Bottom Left: One of the five Harley Motorcycles purchased by Jack Haynes in 1929. Photo by Don Devore, Billings Gazette, 7Jul2019 The Haynes Store Elk Fence From the Salt Lake Tribune, Jan. 10, 1897 A FENCE OF ELKHORNS - MOST PICTURESQUE AND ONLY ONE EVER BUILT Three Hundred Antlers Used - Three Hundred More Needed to Complete It - Located in Yellowstone Park More than Three hundred elks have unwillingly contributed their magnificent antlers to beautify the inclosure [sic] around the studio of F. Jay Haynes, at Mammoth Hot Springs, in Yellowstone park. It is believed to be the only fence made of elk horns in the world. Mr. Haynes, with three of his men, collected and carefully selected these trophies; they all have twelve points, and many have the royal fourteen. From twenty to twenty-five thousand elk winter in Yellowstone park, and the greater percentage of these are males. About the 1st of April is shedding time, and it is easy enough to gather the shed horns, if one but ascertains the whereabouts of the animals at that time . . . . No one is allowed to remove these specimens from the park, as it is a National reservation, unless permission be granted by the superintendent. Mr. Haynes obtained a permit for the collection used for his fence with the proviso that they are to be kept in the park. Although there are now three hundred horns in this unique fence, as many more have to be added to complete it around the enclosure Early expansion of the business . . . . In 1897, F.J. Haynes built a log cabin studio across from the front of the Henry Klamer general store. That studio was used until 1930 when it was abandoned and later moved to another location where it was converted into a photo-finishing plant. A new photo shop was erected in 1927 at the tourist cabin area between the Hamilton Upper Store and Old Faithful Geyser. It was moved in 1974 to a spot near the old Snow Lodge (in front of what would later become the new Snow Lodge.) The Photo Shop in front of the new Snow Lodge was later moved, renovated and relocated to a spot between the new visitor center and OF Lodge for use as a museum for the Yellowstone Park Foundation. ​ At Old Faithful, Jack Ellis Haynes constructed a working model of Old Faithful Geyser in 1916 that erupted hot water to a height of 3 feet every 3-4 minutes. Reportedly six other units were built and sent to the Northern Pacific RR and other places for advertising purposes. A few years later a siren was installed at the shop that announced the impending eruption of the real Geyser. Top Left: The Haynes Photo Shop at Old Faithful, across from the Klamer General Store, 1913. It measured 50'x24' and was expanded in 1911 and remodeled in 1923, ​ Top Right: Diagram for Old Faithful Jr. mechanical geyser built by Jack Haynes for display at his studio. From 1916 Haynes Guide. ​ Left: Albumen print of the Old Faithful studio, ca1890s. ​ Bottom Left: OF photo shop, located in the tourist cabins area, 1951. It was moved in 1974 - see photo to right. ​ Bottom Right: Fires of 1988 threaten the entire Old Faithful village. A few cabins were burned at the rear, but luckily no significant buildings burned. When the new Snow Lodge was constructed in 1997-98, the old Snow Lodge was razed and the back section of the photo shop removed. Changes at Mammoth . . . . F.J. Haynes opened up his first photo studio at Mammoth in 1884 and in 1896 leased space for a small studio in the lobby of the National Hotel. In 1903 he moved his Mammoth Photo Shop to the base of Capitol Hill where an addition was built in 1910. A new facility was erected in 1920, and enlarged in 1923. A new photo shop studio and office were built in 1927-28 at the base of Capitol Hill. The original house/studio, along with the elk horn fence were torn down. A garage and darkroom were added in 1929. The old shop of 1920 was converted into a residence (currently used as Xanterra management residence Top Left: T he Haynes Picture Shop at Mammoth in 1920. This new building replaced the 1884 shop built across from the National Hotel. The structure is currently used as housing for Xanterra Parks & Resorts management personnel. J.E. Haynes Postcard #20118 ​ Top Right: Haynes Photo Shop at Mammoth. This building replaced the earlier store at Mammoth and opened in 1929. The old shop nearby, was converted into a residence. Haynes Postcard #34059 ​ Bottom Left: Picture shop at the Mammoth Auto Camp. It was established in 1927 and remodeled in 1934. Haynes Guide, 1936 ​ Bottom Right: The Picture shop was at the far left of the large Cafeteria building, which was run by Pryor & Trischman at that time. 1939, YNP #185327-414 The Picture Shops at the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Top Left: Picture Shop at Canyon Auto Camo, Haynes Guide 1922. Top Right: Interior of 1922 Picture Shop. Haynes Guide 1922 Middle: 1924 Picture Shop relocated to near the Brink of the Falls. Haynes Guide 1924 In 1895, Frank Haynes opened a small studio inside of the 2nd Canyon Hotel. It presumably closed when the new hotel opened in 1911. F. J. Haynes secured a lease for one acre of land in 1914 at or near the Grand Canyon for building a picture shop, but this lease was apparently never used. A picture shop was established in 1917 in a small government building at Canyon until the building collapsed under heavy snow in early spring 1922. A new store opened that June at the auto camp. A new store was built in 1924 on the site of the old log Soldier Station, closer to the Brink of the Falls. The store was remodeled and a photo-finishing lab added in 1929. A temporary employee dorm was built the next year. The photo shop was remodeled in 1938, and the photo-finishing lab removed. The store remained until 1957 when modern facilities were constructed at the new Canyon Village complex. From the 1927 Haynes Guide, "Haynes Picture Shop at Grand Canyon is situated at the right of the road beyond the platform and stairway leading to the brink of the Upper Pall. Pictures, post cards, films, developing and printing service, and books of the park, are available here. This shop, the newest and largest of all, was completed before the opening of the 1924 season, and replaces the former shop situated in the public automobile camp." Top Left: Picture Shop at the new Canyon Lodge in Canyon Village, 1957. {Haynes Studios Inc. postcard, #K57040] Top Right: The new Haynes Picture Shop in Canyon Village, 1962. [Haynes Studios, Inc. postcard # K62006] In 1957, at the behest of the NPS and the Mission 66 plan, all of the concession operations at the old Canyon Junction [current Upper Falls parking lot area] were moved to the new Canyon Village. Construction had begun in 1956 and by July 1, 1957, the new Canyon Lodge and a portion of the guest cabins were opened, along with the Hamilton' Store. Construction on the new Haynes Picture Shop was delayed until its opening in 1960. From 1957-1959 a small Haynes photo shop served the public in the new lodge building. In 1968 Isabel Haynes, widow of jack Haynes, sold the Hanes Picture Shops to Hamilton Stores and the Haynes name disappeared from the park. The Picture Shops at Fishing Bridge & West Thumb Top Left: Haynes Picture Shop at Fishing Bridge, 1929. YNP #29904. Jack Haynes constructed a building 60x60 feet in size at Fishing Bridge auto camp to house Haynes’ picture shop, mess and photo finishing plant. Top Right: Fishing Bridge Picture Shop in 1936. Haynes Guide 1936. This building was absorbed into the Hamilton Store operation in 1967, still as a photo shop, and was removed in 1990. ​ Bottom Left: Cabin being hauled to West Thumb from Fishing Bridge for a new Picture Shop. It was moved in 1938 to a spot near the road junction, and again in 1943 to a location near the ranger station. YNP Photo. Bottom Right: West Thumb Photo Shop in 1951. YNP #51-419 The Picture Shops at Tower and Roosevelt Top Left: Jack Haynes opened up a new photo shop at Tower in 1917 in the former Yellowstone-Western stage building that was greatly remodeled and enlarged in 1927-28 and replaced with a new studio in 1932. Haynes PC #22625 ​ Top Right: The Picture Shop at Tower was remodeled and greatly enlarged in 1927. The building was described as: log trimmed, 1-story shop (2,000 sqft) and living quarters (1,960 sqft); dimensions 90'x44'. It featured a 12-foot marble soda fountain and 2,000w Kohler electric light plant. 1951 Photo, YNP #51-430. ​ Left: A family of visitors to the Tower Photo Shop in 1935. Keystone-Mast Stereoview. Bottom Left: Picture Shop at Roosevelt, 1936. Bottom Right: Picture Shop at Roosevelt, 1951. YNP #51-528 The Family Due to his failing health, Frank Jay Haynes passed the business on to his son, Jack Ellis Haynes in 1916, after 32 years of operation. F. Jay, Yellowstone’s premiere photographer, lived only for five more years, and passed away in 1921 at age 68 from heart disease. ​ Jack, later known as "Mr. Yellowstone", successfully managed the business for about 45 years. The operation underwent continual expansion and improvements throughout the years. Due to the consolidation of the transportation and camping companies for the 1917 season, the Haynes were forced to sell their shares of the Wylie Camps and Yellowstone-Western stage company. Upon the death of Jack Haynes in 1962, his wife Isabel ran the business until 1967, when she sold the entire operation to Hamilton Stores. By the time the business was sold in 1967, there were 13 photo shops in the park. In 1970 Isabel Haynes donated the Haynes collection of photos, negative, equipment, ledgers, etc. to the Montana Historical Society. Personal and business papers not related to the studio were donated to Montana State University Library in Bozeman, MT. Left: Frank Jay Haynes, ca1920 ​ Right: Jack Ellis Haynes, 1935. Haynes Photo #36372, Univ. of Montana, Bozeman. For Information on the F.J. Haynes stagecoach operations, Monida-Yellowstone and the Yellowstone-Western companies, please check out my Stagecoach Pages ​ For information on F.J. Haynes financial involvement in the Wylie Camping Company, please visit my Camps Pages .

  • White Motor Bus Specs |

    Auto Stages in Yellowstone Yellow Busses White Motor Company Models & Specs. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. TEB - 11 Passenger 1917-23 3/4T, 140” wheelbase truck with 45hp GEC engines, 4-spd transmissions, and open-side bodies. Front tires were 34” x 5” pneumatic with 36” x 6” on the rear. There were four pairs of doors opening onto seats for three passengers, allowing for 11 passengers and the driver. Although in practice, only one passenger sat in front with the driver. The left-hand doors were sealed to prevent opening onto traffic. The transition between the hood and dash was squared off, while the windshield was a solid 2-piece unit (upper & lower). Kerosene running lights were located below the windshield and under the frame supporting the rear boot. They were powered by acetylene bottles on the driver’s side running boards. A canvas boot covered the rear wooden platform that was supported by a steel frame. A canvas top was supported by detachable bows at each bench and celluloid side curtains could be put up in inclement weather. Plate numbers 1-135. 108 vehicles purchased from 1917-1923. (Image YNP Archives #115013) 15/45 - 11 Passenger 1920-25 Similar body to the TEBS, except the transition between the hood and windshield was rounded and the windshield was split into four pieces - upper/lower and left/right. The wheelbase was slightly longer (143-1/2”) with an updated chassis and improved 4-cylinder GN motors. The later 1923 models had 50hp GR motors, as did later deliveries. Front tires were 34” x 5” and rear 36” x 6”. Other amenities were mostly identical to the TEBs. The 1922 models had Scott bodies, while the 1923 and later models had Bender bodies, without LH doors. The rear contained an enclosed trunk instead of a boot. Four oval-shaped windows graced the tonneau cover on the sides at the rear. A canvas top was supported by detachable bows at each bench. Celluloid side curtains could be put up in inclement weather. Acetylene bottles were carried on the driver’s side running boards to power the headlights. Plate numbers 137-349. 214 vehicles purchased from 1920-1925 . Model 50 - 25 Passenger 1923 There were six side doors opening onto seven wide benches to seat 25 passengers plus the driver. The Bender body had a 198” wheelbase with a 4-cylinder GN motor. The roof was solid and luggage could be stored on the roof rack, accessed by a folding ladder from the rear of the bus. Side window curtains could be rolled down in inclement weather. It was the first model to feature electric lights. They had Budd steel disc wheels and electric lights. It utilized 36” x 6” tires all around, with duals on the rear. As the heavy buses were slow at climbing hills, they were mostly used on the West Yellowstone to Old Faithful run. Plate numbers 930-931. (Originally numbered in the 330s) 2 vehicles were purchased in 1923. [Photo: YNP Archives] Model 614 - 14 Passenger 1931 There were four doors to seat 14 passengers. The roof was open with a roll-back canvas, with roll-up glass door windows. The luggage area was enclosed in the rear with two side-opening doors. There was a single, slanted windshield. It was powered by 75hp overhead valve 6-cylinder White 3A engines, with four-wheel Lockheed hydraulic brakes, 4-speed manual transmission and glassed-in Bender bodies. The bus was wider and more comfortable than the other buses used and were primarily run on the longer Cody to Lake Hotel route. The ccanvas top could be rolled back in nice weather to allow passengers to stand up for better view or photographs. Plate numbers 351-358. 8 vehicles delivered in May 1931. [Photo: YNP 114504] Model 706 - 14 Passenger 1936 There were 27 of these 14-passenger buses introduced in 1936. They had two squared-glass windshields, roll-down glass windows and lantern-style rear running lights. The bodies were produced by Bender bodies with an open roof and roll-back canvas tops that tied down along the edges. Each seat had grab handles for passengers to hold on to while standing to view the park through the open roof. The 1937-38 models had improved 16Ah motors. They sat on a 190” wheelbase chassis and were powered by a White 318 six-cylinder 16A engine. Renowned industrial designer, Count Alexis de Sakhnoffsky was responsible for the radiator cowling and grill design. Plate numbers 361-460. 98 vehicles purchased from 1936-1939. 7-Passenger Touring Cars These cars had a 137-1/2” wheelbase with 37” x 5” tires all around. They had a model GM 4-cylinder, 16- valve motor. They featured four doors, front bucket seats, a rear bench seat, and two rear jump seats, as well as a canvas convertible top and a storage compartment under the rear seat for side curtains. VIPs as well as more affluent visitors to Yellowstone toured the park in vehicles of this type, which were later supplemented by Lincoln touring cars. [NOTE: Information & details on these vehicles is inconsistent & incomplete] ​ Plate numbers 700-717; 720-767. 65 ?? vehicles purchased from 1917-1925. [Photo Yellowstone NPS Collection] ​ ​ 8-Passenger Touring Cars No Photo Plate numbers 718-719 2 vehicles purchased in 1920. Touring Cars in Yellowstone 1917-1939 Lincoln - Ford - Buick Lincoln Touring Cars - 29 Known Vehicles ​ 1925-1927 - Lincoln 7-Passenger Sport Touring [23] Nos. 801-822; 824 33” x 5” Tires; 136” W.B.; Style 124 body w/rear luggage carrier 1926 - Lincoln Sport Phaeton [1] No. 822 33” x 5” Tires; 8-cyl Motor; 136” W.B.; Style 123B body w/ rear luggage carrier 1926 - Lincoln 7-Passenger Berline [2] Nos. 825-826 33” x 6.75” Tires; 8-cyl Motor; 136” W.B.; Style 147B body w/ rear luggage carrier 1928 - Lincoln 7-Passenger Sport Touring Car [1] No. 828 33” x 5” Tires; 8-cyl Motor; 136” W.B.; Style 124 body w/ rear luggage carrier; 4-wheel brakes. 1922 - Lincoln 7-Pasenger Sport Touring Car [1] No. 827 33” x 5” Tires; 8-cyl Motor; 136” W.B.; Leland Body 1931 - Lincoln Limousine [1] No.829 Ford Touring Cars - 17 Known Vehicles 1925 - Ford Model ‘T’ Touring Car [3] Nos. F50 - F52 30” x 3.5” Tires, Electric starter; Electric lighting 1925-1927 - Ford Model ‘T’ Slip-On Roadster [8] Nos. F1 - F8 30” x 3.5” Tires, 100” W.B.; Electric starter; Electric lighting 1927 - Ford Model ‘T’ Roadster [2] Nos. F9 - F10 30” x 3.5” Tires, 100” W.B.; Electric starter; Electric lighting 1928-1929 - Ford Model ‘A’ Roadster [3] Nos. F12 - F14 30” x 4.5” Tires, 103.5” W.B.; Electric starter; Electric lighting 1931 Ford 14-Passenger Car [1] No. 359 Buick Touring Cars - 7 Known ​ 1935-1938 - Buick 7-Passenger Touring Cars [7] Nos. 831-835; B1, B3 Left: Lincoln Touring Car, probably used by Wm. "Billy" Nichols. [YNP #185328-94] Right : Western States Buick Distributors at Yellowstone, showing off their various models, 1922. [YNP #19388] For additional information, visit the Buses of Yellowstone Preservation Trust Above Right : A Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. Lincoln Passenger Touring Car, faithfully restored by the Buses of Yellowstone Preservation Trust.

  • Prospecting Gold in Paradise |

    Prospecting in Paradise The Early Gold Seekers ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my old Prospecting in Yellowstone page at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

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