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Yellowstone Biographies   C-D

Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the author.

Calamity Jane. Calamity Jane was the nickname for Martha Jane Canary, who was skilled with a horse and a rifle. She followed the mining camps and railroad towns in the west during the late 1880’s. She served as a scout for the 7th Cavalry in the Black Hills. Calamity was permitted to sell postcards of herself in the park in 1897 by authorization of Col. S.B.M. Young. She was known to hang out in the park, Gardiner, Livingston, and other towns in Montana, Wyoming, and South Dakota. [31;405n32]


Calfee, H.B.  Henry Bird Calfee was born Jan. 3, 1848 in Arkansas and first settled in Bozeman, but moved to Missoula in 1885. He came to Montana in 1867, engaging in painting and prospecting. He entered the park as early as 1871, and spent time from 1872-81 taking photographs in the park. He set up a crude tent store at Upper Geyser Basin in 1881 to sell photos. He opened up a Photograph Gallery in September of 1875 where he was ". . . prepared to make the latest styles of Pictures, Rembrandt, Victorie, Cabinet, Promenade. . ." He also sold albums and stereo views of Yellowstone and other points of interest in the West. In 1877 he helped Mrs. George Cowan and her injured husband get back to Bozeman following their harrowing escape from the Nez Perce. Calfee accompanied Supt Norris on his 1880 trip through the park, and Norris named Calfee Creek after him. William Wylie used many of Calfee’s photographs in his 1882 guidebook “Yellowstone National Park or the Great American Wonderland. Calfee also toured the country giving lectures illustrated with lantern slides. Calfee was also a member of the 1873 Rosebud gold prospecting expedition. The party of 149 prospectors and trappers traveled from Bozeman along the Yellowstone R. to Rosebud Creek in search of gold. The group had several violent encounters with the Sioux and wound up with no gold for all their efforts. [113] [79u] [25g] [97s;H.B. Calfee Stereograph Collection] [119b] [97p;119] [Bozeman Avant-Courier 5/27/1875] [56m;1301]


Cammerer, Arno B.  Arno Cammerer was Stephen Mather’s assistant director from 1919 to 1929 after Horace Albright left the position to serve as superintendent of Yellowstone. Cammerer continued in that position when Albright became NPS director following the death of Stephen Mather. Cammerer became National Park Service director from Aug. 10, 1933 to August 9, 1940. He was born in 1883 in Arapahoe, Nebraska and received his law degree in 1911 from Georgetown University Law School. Under his administration the Historic Sites Act was passed, the National Park Foundation was established, and parks visitation increased from 2 million to 16 million per year. He suffered a heart attack in 1939 while under a tremendous work load and resigned in 1940. Newton B. Drury replaced him as Director. Another heart attack April 30, 1941 took the life of Arno B. Cammerer. [25;23] [National Park Service: The First 75 Years - Biographical Vignettes]


Cannon, William C.  Wm. Cannon, nephew to a powerful House member, was appointed by Secretary Teller in 1883 as one of the 10 first assistant superintendents. He served under Supt. Conger. [10;236]


Carpenter, Frank & Ida.  Frank Carpenter and sister Ida were members of the Radersburg party of 1877 that were attacked by Nez Perce in Aug. After being held captive for two days, Frank and his sisters Ida and Mrs. Emma Cowan, were released across the river from Mud Geyser and led to safety by Poker Joe. Frank later wrote a book of his experiences during the ordeal, titled “Wonders of Geyser Land,” later republished by McWhorter and Guie as “Adventures in Geyser Land.” [16a;112-19]


Carpenter, Robert.   Robert Carpenter was the 4th Park Superintendent serving in 1884-85. He was removed from office when he conspired with the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. to privatize certain tracts of the park for private and personal use. He opened up the Shack Hotel at Old Faithful with Carroll Hobart in 1885. Carpenter and Hobart also opened a crude hotel at Lower Geyser Basin, near Marshall’s Hotel. Feuding over financial matters with the Hobart brothers caused Carpenter to leave the scene after 1885. [16a;136] [25L;25]


Carson, Christopher  'Kit' Carson was a famed Rocky Mountain explorer who prospected across the Yellowstone area in 1849. The party included Jim Bridger, Lou Anderson, Soos and about 20 others. [97p;16]


Chadbourne, Allen Wright   A.W. Chadbourne was born in Ohio in 1843 and later drove cattle on the Chisholm Trail and operated bull and mule teams. He married Dolly Masoner in 1879 and came to Montana around 1880. In 1882 they purchased a ranch in the area that would become the town of Cinnabar. He began hauling tourists into the park from the Northern Pacific railhead at Cinnabar in 1884. He also ran camping and saddle outfits in the park until 1901. His company was known as the “Yellowstone Park Transportation & Camping Outfit.” It was noted in 1893 that he added $2,000 worth of Concord coaches and surreys to his outfit. With the formation of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co in 1892, Chadbourne and many of the other small, private transportation operators lost some of their transportation rights after the 1893 season. In 1901 he traded his business to George Wakefield for his Shields Valley Ranch. The small town of Chadborn was named after him. Dolly died in June of 1943 and A.W. followed soon after in September. [LE; 6/24/1893] [117] [71c]    See my Smaller Camps webpage for more info on Chadbourne!

Chambers, William.  He was appointed one of the first assistant superintendents, serving under Supt. Conger. [10;236]


Chestnut, Col. J.D.  Col. Chestnut founded a small tent camp at Boiling River in 1871 for invalids to soak in the ‘medicinal waters’. The area became known as Chestnutville. Matthew McGuirk took over the area the following year. Chestnut discovered a vein of coal in 1873 in Rocky Canyon, about 8 miles from Bozeman. [25L;26] [97p;70]


Chief Joseph.  He was one of the leaders of the Nez Perce who accompanied the Indians on the 1877 raid and journey through Yellowstone during their flight from injustice in their homeland of Oregon. He generally avoided violence with the white men whenever possible. He and many of his followers surrendered to the army on Oct. 4 of that year in the Bear Paw Mountains. It is there that he was reported to have stated “… from where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever,” although the speech is generally credited to an enterprising reporter on the scene. [25L;27]

Child, Adelaide.  Adelaide Child, nee Adelaide Dean, born in October 1861, became the wife of Harry Child in 1883. She was sister to Anna Dean, who married Silas S. Huntley, Child’s partner. Their children were Ellen dean and Huntley. Adelaide died Oct. 17, 1949. [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004]


Child, Ellen Dean.  Daughter of H.W. Child, Ellen Dean Child married William Nichols  in 1905. Upon his death in 1957, she got involved in company management, becoming Chairman of the Board by 1960. She remained a member of the board until the sale of Yellowstone Park Co. to Goldfield Enterprises/General Baking Co. in 1966. [25L;27]


Child, Harry W.  Harry Child was born in San Francisco in 1856 and arrived in Montana in 1876. He was considered the “Father” of the lodging and transportation operations in Yellowstone until his death in 1931. Child was a businessman in Helena prior to his arrival in Yellowstone, working in the mining, banking and transportation fields. By 1882 he was managing the Gloster and Gregory silver mines, with his father apparently bankrolling the operations. He married Adelaide Dean in 1883. He formed the Helena, Hot Springs and Smelter Railroad Co. in 1889 with Edmund Bach and two other men. The business was forced into receivership and sold at public auction in 1891. For a time he was also an agent for the Gilmer & Salisbury Stage lines. He began his Yellowstone career in 1892 with the creation of the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. (YNPTCo) with Edmund Bach and Silas Huntley, along with Aaron and L.H. Hershfield. In 1898 Child, Huntley, and Bach formed the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) that took over the operations of the YNPTCo. All of the transportation operations in the park were consolidated into YPTCo under Child’s control after the 1916 season. Child got involved in the hotel business in 1901 when he, along with Bach and Huntley, purchased the YPA. By 1905 Child owned 50% of YPA and the NPRY owned the other half. He formed the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. in 1909, and bought out the camping/lodge operations in 1928. Child purchased a large interest in the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. in 1905, but was forced to give up his holdings with the consolidations of 1916-17. He took over the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. in 1911 and created the Yellowstone Park Boat Co. He ran all of these businesses until his death in 1931 at La Jolla, Calif., at age 75. Son-in-law Wm. Nichols then took over and all of the operations, which were merged together to form the Yellowstone Park Co. in 1936. The family continued to own the operation until 1966 when the company and assets were sold to Goldfield Enterprises. [25g] [YNP Archives, A17, Box YPC153] [62k; Helena, Hot Springs and Smelter RR Co. files]


Child, Huntley.  Huntley Child, son of H.W. Child, served as vice-president of Yellowstone Park Hotel Co in 1909 and held a 2% share of the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co in 1916. During that time Harry Child became ill and Huntley was trying to manage the business for him. He was an impetuous youth and ran into trouble with NPS Director Mather in 1917. His father soon recuperated and banished him from the park business. He moved to New York, then on to Seattle, eventually dying in La Jolla, Calif. [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004]

Child, Huntley Jr.  Huntley Child, Jr., son of Huntley Child and grandchild of Harry Child, came to work for the family business in 1938. He became manager of the Lodge Division of Yellowstone Park Co. in 1949 after Ed Moorman retired at the end of the 1948 season. He became a vice-president of YPCo in the 1950’s, along with John Q. Nichols, son of William Nichols. [25L;27] [Email conversation with Harry W. Child, 10/3/2004]

Chittenden, Hiram.  Hiram Chittenden was in charge of road design and construction from 1891-93, and 1899-06. He designed the original Chittenden Bridge at Canyon, the Roosevelt Arch and the original Fishing Bridge. During his tenure the Sylvan Pass and Craig Pass roads were completed, the Tower Bridge constructed, and the road over Washburn was completed with a spur to the top. By the time of his departure, over 100 miles of road were being sprinkled with water for dust control. In 1895 he published “The Yellowstone National Park”, a classic history of the early days of the park that is still in print. [25L;28] Chittenden was born Oct. 25, 1858 in Yorkshire, New York. He graduated from West Point in 1884 and joined the Army Corps of Engineers. He later published a 3-volume tome entitled "The American Fur Trade of the Far West." He also published histories on early steamboat travel on the Missouri River and on the life of Father de Smet. He suffered a stroke in 1910 and retired from the military as a Brigadier-General. He died in Seattle Oct. 9, 1917. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography]


Clark, James A.  James Clark constructed a small tent hotel at the base of Capitol Hill in 1885 and was granted a 4-acre lease for 10 years that permitted him to build a hotel and necessary outbuildings. He also established a transportation and guide service that year for his guests. It was a partnership with E.O. Clark and was known as the ‘National Park Hack & Express’. They advertised renting carriages, hacks, and saddle horses, with or without drivers. The Livingston Enterprise noted in 1885 that “Clark’s Town" is located at the foot of Capitol Hill and contains five houses and a number of tents.” By 1886 Clark was operating the ‘Cooke Stage & Express Line’, and received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail and stage contract in 1887. Two years later he was making tri-weekly trips to Cooke, with an overnight stop at the Soda Butte Stage Station. James sold his transportation business in 1889 to A.T. French, who received the Mammoth-Cooke City mail route franchise. Clark was never able to build the hotel as promised in his lease and sold out his hotel interests in 1888 to George Wakefield and the firm of White, Friant & Letellier. Early in 1889 Clark applied for a lease to erect a hotel at Soda Butte, but was turned down by Interior due to his past record. Clark was also involved in several mining ventures at Cooke City. [43m] [LE; 5/15/1886; 6/13/1885; 6/21/1885; 5/28/1887; 6/16/1888; 10/27/1888; 5/29/1889; 12/21/1889] [YNP Army Files Doc. 85] [25g]


Clark, John.  John Clark was Postmaster at the Firehole PO from 1886-91. [25L;29]


Clawson, Calvin C.  Calvin Clausen was a member of the Raymond-Clawson tourist party of 1871. He was accompanied by Rossiter W. Raymond, A.F. Thrasher and others, and was guided by Gilman Sawtell of Henry’s Lake. The group has been recognized as the 1st commercial tourist party to enter Yellowstone. [25L;29]


Clause, Joe.  Joe Clause (Joe Claus) built the first cabin around 1906-07 in the area that would later become West Yellowstone. For a number of years he took camping parties into the park with horses and wagons. In 1918 he offered 5-day trips that included transportation, board, and lodging for $25.00. It was $2.50 extra for each day if a guest wanted to stopover at a given location. Saddle horses were an extra $1.00 per day. [18t] [Ed. Frank Allen, A Guide to the National Parks, 1918]


Cody, William.  Wm. Cody, also known as Buffalo Bill Cody, helped to found the town of Cody in 1896. He built the Irma Hotel there in 1902 and also established the town’s 1st newspaper. He opened up the Pahaska Tepee Lodge at the east entrance in 1903-04, and the Wapiti Inn about midway from Cody, serving both tourists and hunters in the nearby forest areas. He applied to the park to take over the business of the ailing Holm Transportation Co. in 1915. However, Holm’s business improved and Cody’s request was denied. He died in 1917 on the way to Denver and was buried there, much to the chagrin of the residents of Cody. [25L;29]

Colpitts, George.  George Colpitts was born in 1855 in New Brunswick, Canada, he and his wife Mary arrived in Coulson Mt. (present day Billings) in 1880. They moved to Livingston in 1882, following the progress of the Northern Pacific RR. Within a few years he had opened a blacksmith shop at Gardiner, and later became employed by the Army at Mammoth. He also opened a blacksmith shop in Castle (NE of Livingston) in 1889. Later that year his shop in Gardiner burned down, along with other businesses. George followed old gold miners to Alaska in 1897-98 to seek his fortune. He returned to Livingston in 1898 and eventually set up a shop with Al Robertson - "Colpitts & Robertson, General Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights." Colpitts received a blacksmith contract in December of 1903 for work on the new Old Faithful Inn, which was under construction. He and his helpers made all the wrought iron work for the Inn, including the massive front door hardware, the fireplace clock, screens, tongs, popcorn maker, iron candelabra, and all the guest room door numbers and locks. The job necessitated his opening a second shop in Livingston and using Frank Holem's shop in Gardiner. [18p]


Colter, John.  John Colter was born ca1774 near Staunton, Virginia and enlisted with Lewis & Clark's expedition October 15, 1803 and became one of their favorite hunters. He traveled with the Lewis & Clark expedition in 1804-06 and on the return trip, met up with Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock. Lewis & Clark allowed him leave to quit their party and join the two trappers. They returned to the Greater Yellowstone area, probably settling in on the eastern side of the Absaroka Mountains for the winter. Colter later received credit for being the first white man to set foot in Yellowstone. He became a fur trapper and discovered what became Yellowstone Park and Colter’s Hell (near Cody Wyoming, along the Shoshone River) in the winter of 1807-08. A few years later he was forced to `run for his life’ from the Blackfoot after his trapping partner John Potts was killed while traveling near Three Forks, Montana. He is reported to have covered over 300 miles in eleven days – naked and on foot. His only gear was a blanket and broken spear point. In 1810 Blackfoot again attacked him while he was in the company of Andrew Henry and members of the Missouri Fur Co. Eight of the men were killed. He decided afterwards he had enough of the Rocky Mountains and left the country April 22, 1910. He returned to St. Louis, Missouri, taking 30 days for the trip. He married and became a farmer, settling near the famed Daniel Boone. He died in 1813 of jaundice. [25L;30] [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography]


Comfort, N.W.  N.W. Comfort and his wife were permitted to graze cattle in the Blacktail Plateau area in 1879. They had driven and team and 400 head of cattle from Oregon via Henry's Lake and through the park. [25L;30] [1879 Supt's Report]


Comstock, Theodore Bryant.  Theodore Comstock was a geologist for the Capt. W.A. Jones military expedition of 1873. He was born at Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio on July 27, 1847 to Calvin J. and Amelia M. (Hanford) Comstock. He graduated from Cornell in 1870 and accompanied an expedition to Brazil as an assistant geologist. Comstock was a professor at a number of institutions between 1871 and 1889, teaching natural science and history, and geology. He participated in geological surveys in Kentucky, Arkansas and Texas. In 1891 he became the founder and director of the Arizona School of Mines in Tucson and served as president of the University of Arizona in 1893. He was involved in numerous mining operations and was a member of a variety of professional societies. [16a;105] [The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, Johnson, Rossiter & Brown, Howard, eds., 1904]


Conger, Patrick A.  Patrick Conger was the 3rd Park Superintendent who served from 1882-84. Hiram Chittenden described his administration as weak and inefficient. Conger resigned July 28, 1884. [16a;136]


Cook, Charles W.  Charles Cook was a member of the Folsom-Cook-Peterson expedition of 1869. He first headed west to the Colorado gold fields in the early 1860s before moving on to Virginia City, Montana in 1864. He moved to Confederate Gulch the following year and began managing the Boulder Ditch Co., which supplied water to the mines in Diamond City. He hired William Peterson to work for him and later hired David Folsom in 1868. After the Yellowstone Expedition he went into ranching and raised a family near what is now White Sulfur, Montana. He lived a long life and was able to attend the Park’s fiftieth anniversary in 1922. He died five years later at age 88. [31]


Cooke, Jay.  Jay Cooke became head of the Northern Pacific RR in 1868 and led the company until his bankruptcy in 1873. Prior to the Washburn Expedition, Cooke hired Nathaniel Langford as a sort of publicity agent to help spread the word of the wonders of the western lands that the railroad would be passing through. Cooke City was named after him in their attempts to attract a rail line to the gold mines there. [25L;31]


Coulter, John Merle.  John Coulter, a member of the Hayden Expedition of 1872, became one of the scientific community's greatest botanists. He accompanied geographer Henry Gannett, ethnologist Wm. H. Holmes, zoologist C. Hart Meriam and others. [10;29]


Cowan, George.  George Cowan and his wife Emma were members of the Radersburg party of 1877 that was attacked by Nez Perce in late Aug. While being forced to travel up Nez Perce Cr. with Indians, George was shot in the thigh, the head and was left for dead. The shot to the head did not penetrate the skull and Cowan came to and tried to crawl to safety. He was again shot in the thigh and left for dead. He later revived and spent four days crawling to one of the party's abandoned camps. There he found matches, coffee and other staples. He was rescued by Gen. Howard's scouts, but not before his campfire spread and burned him. It was a month before Cowan made it back to Bozeman, but not before the wagon carrying him overturned, dumping him down the slope. Upon finally entering the hotel, his bed collapsed, dropping him to the floor. He managed to survive all these incidents. He wife was released unharmed by the Ne Perce several days after George was first shot. George was born Feb. 10, 1842 near Columbus, Ohio and raised near Oshkosh, Wisconsin. In 1865 he moved out to Montana and settled in Last Chance Gulch in Helena where he engaged in mining and legal work. He was admitted to the bar in 1872 and moved to Radersburg, Montana, where he married Emma J. Carpenter in 1875. The family moved to Spokane in 1910 where George Cowan died in the late fall of 1926. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [16a;118-20] [30;220-36]


Cowan, Emma J. (Carpenter)  Emma J. Carpenter (Emma Cowan) was born in 1854 somewhere in the East and moved to Alder Gulch, Montana with her parents during the Gold Rush and Vigilante era in 1864. She first visited the Yellowstone region and the geysers in 1873, making her among the earliest women to visit Yellowstone. She moved to Spokane in 1910 with her husband George and died there on Dec. 20, 1938 at age 84. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography]


Crandall, Jack.  Jack Crandall was a gold prospector who had worked the Crevice Gulch area in 1867-69 with Arch Graham and Findley. Crandall and Findley were killed by Indians in Aug. of 1869 in the Crandall Creek area east of the park. [97p;76] has this to say about Crandall: "Jack Crandall was a roaming prospector, who traveled extensively in the area [Greater Yellowstone]. While in route with a partner to a rendezvous to meet several prospectors’ friends at the headwaters of the Clarks Fork, they were tracked and murdered at their camp while eating by a marauding band of Indians. Their heads were found severed and stuck on one end of their picks with the other end in the ground. The cups belonging to the men had been placed in front of their spitted heads. Their bodies were not found until the following year. This happed near the mouth of Crandall Creek on the east bank. Through the generosity of Caroline Lockhart, a bronze plaque was mounted on a large boulder to mark the graves of these hardy mountaineers."


Crissman, Joshua.  Joshua Crissman was born in 1883 in Madison Ohio, and came west in the late 1860’s. He was in Bozeman by 1871 and accompanied the Hayden expedition into Yellowstone that year as photographer. He took photos alongside Henry Jackson and had prints made of Yellowstone on his return to Bozeman. His prints were actually produced prior to those of Jackson and became the first publicly viewed photos of Yellowstone. He returned to the park in 1873 and 1874 to take additional photos. By 1879 his photos and stereoviews were being sold by Wm. I. Marshall and others. E.H. Train and C.D. Kirkland also sold Crissman’s views under their own names. Many of his early views were mistakenly attributed to Jackson and he never received the fame or respect due him. He moved to Salt Lake City in the mid-1870’s. By 1880 he had setup a photo shop in Laramie City, Wyoming, but eventually moved to Southern California to do business. He died in 1922. [79u; Joshua Crissman] [119b]


Culver, Ellery Channing  E.C. Culver was born April 28, 1842 in Shoreham, Addison County, Vermont. He enlisted in the 34th Ohio Volunteer Infantry in 1861 and served in the Civil War for 4 years. Sometime after his discharge, he moved west to Montana seeking gold and was well established in Virginia City by 1871. By 1881 he lived in the areas surrounding Billings and became a businessman in that city in 1884. He married Mattie Gillette (nee Martha Jane Shipley) on April 6, 1886. Mattie was born September 18, 1856 in Lowell Mass. They had a daughter named Theda born in Billings June 22, 1887. Culver came to the park in 1887 with E.C. Waters as ‘Master of Transportation’, holding that position until 1892. He and Mattie spent the summers of 1887-88 at the Firehole Hotel (Marshall Hotel) and Ellery became winterkeeper for the hotel during the winter of 1888-89. Mattie suffered through the winter from tuberculosis and died March 2 of that spring and was buried nearby. Her grave and headstone can still be viewed at the Nez Perce picnic area. She was 30 years old at the time. Daughter Theda was sent to Spokane to live with relatives. In 1892 Culver was appointed US Court Commissioner for Wyoming, with headquarters at Mammoth, serving for 2 years. He was in charge of the Norris Lunch Station in 1893 and went to work for the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) in 1894. Culver served as the train agent for YPTCo riding the rails from Livingston to Gardiner, giving impromptu talks along the way. He later traveled throughout the country for the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) giving promotional lectures. He became postmaster in Gardiner on Oct. 4, 1897 and ran the nearby Post Office Store. He gave up those enterprises early in 1904 because of his health. Later in the year he returned to work as the train 'runner'. Health problems again forced him to retire in July 1908. In 1909 he moved to the Sawtelle National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers in Southern California He died April 17, 1922 and was buried in the National Soldier's Home Cemetery. [LE 4/3/1892] [31;23,65] [15b] [100e;87-122]


This story about E.C. Culver comes from the New Zealand Star, April 3, 1897




Perhaps the most popular man connected with the Yellowstone Park Transportation Company, is Captain E. C. Culver, of Gardner. In addition to the duties of justice of the peace, he makes a daily trip on the park train, and personally interviews every man, boy, woman and child who travels on it. He is a walking encyclopedia of park information. He knows the height of every peak, the altitude of every important location, and can give you Professor Hayden's theory of the park's geological formation. Besides all this he is a prince of good fellows, and has a fund of humor which sometimes carries him away when touching up descriptions and legends of the park.

Some time ago the captain had an experience which was too good to keep, and he gave it away to a friend in town. He was going from the Springs to Cinnabar, and there were three very bright young ladies on the coach. One of them asked if it were customary to have so many mosquitoes in so high an altitude. The captain assured her that it was not unusual, that they were increasing year by year; that no mosquitoes were ever known in the park until, about eight years ago, a New Jersey schoolma'am had carelessly enclosed some in her trunk and let them out at Mammoth Hot Springs, when, like rabbits in Australia, they became an increasing pest. All agreed that it was remarkable, but one girl seemed to carry a smile of incredulity.

As the conversation continued, Mr. Culver was asked what he considered the most remarkable thing in the park. He said that if beauty and grandeur were to be left out of the count, he thought the most remarkable thing was Alum Creek, a little stream putting into the river between the falls and the lake. Originally, he said, the distance between the hotels at the lake and the falls was twenty-six miles, but when they commenced to sprinkle the road between the two places with water taken from Alum Creek some years ago, they soon found the distance between the hotels shortened by about eight miles. As the hotels were then only about eighteen miles apart and the road still shrinking, the superintendent ordered them to use no more water from Alum Creek.

And then the captain told another little legend about the creek that was quite well authenticated. Last year, he said, a party went through the park on a camping tour, and a young lady with them came into the park wearing No. 8 shoes. After camping on Alum Creek two days and bathing her feet, she went home wearing a pair of No. 2 gaiters. At this point the girl with the incredulous smile said to him, "Don't you think it would be a good plan to bathe your head in that creek a time or two?"


Curry, David A.  David Curry was a teacher who began guiding tourists with his wife into Yellowstone using covered wagons in 1892 out of Ogden, Utah. He conducted two tours that first summer. The first was to leave June 27th for 17 days. The $65 cost included everything. His ads solicited "Teachers, students and anybody of good character." Twenty people was the desired number of travelers for the trip. Apparently business was slow that first summer, as on June 26 an ad appeared cutting the rate to $50 with a scheduled departure of July 4th. In 1895 he led a trip consisting of 37 tourists, transported in five 4-horse wagons, one 2-horse wagon, three 4-horse baggage wagons, along with nine teamsters, a cook and four assistants. An ad in 1897 touted an 18-day trip for $76.40, leaving from Ogden. He conducted tours every summer until he and his wife left Yellowstone in 1899 to found the famous Curry Camp in Yosemite National Park. [25L;33] [98; Ogden Standard Examiner: 6/15/1892; 6/26/1892; 8/3/1895; 7/1/1896;]  Check out my Curry Camping Co. page for mor info!!

Cutler, Robert Eugene.  ‘Buckskin Jim’ Robert Cutler's stubbornness and various mining claims around Gardiner prevented the NPRR from reaching the town of Gardiner for 20 years. The railroad was forced to stop at Cinnabar in 1883 because they were unable to obtain the right-of-way through Cutler’s properties that had been leased from James McCartney. Cutler also sublet parcels of the land to other residents, who later claimed to have purchased them from Cutler. NPRy eventually obtained right-of-way and the line continued to Gardiner in 1902. Cutler also had a homestead in Lamar Valley around 1882 with George Jackson that in later years became the site of the Buffalo Ranch. Representatives of Supt. Carpenter forcibly removed Cutler, Jackson and Jack Rutherford in November of 1884. Cutler drew his gun on the two men, but Rutherford stopped him from shooting. Cutler was arrested and received a $75 fine for his actions from the judge in Evanston, Wyoming. He was later elected Justice of the Peace for Cooke City in 1889. Cutler was also involved in a shooting in Gardiner in 1907. After arguments and a fight with Axel Hill and others regarding contract work for Cutler, Hill left and later returned with a gun and shot at Cutler. He missed but Cutler returned fire hitting Hill in the chest and leg. Hill died and Cutler was later acquitted of a murder charge on grounds of self-defense. [31] [LE; 10/12/1889] [115]


Curl, John F.  John Curl was among the earliest businessmen in the mining camp of Cooke City in 1883 and later moved to Gardiner to operate a hotel in that burg. Curl was born in 1853 in Pennsylvania and moved to Cooke City in 1883 where he operated the Curl House hotel and was involved in the mining business and was in partnership in various mining properties with George Huston and Adam "Horn" Miller. Curl and his wife Zona sold their properties in Cooke City and moved to Gardiner around 1915 and ran the Cottage Hotel on Main Street. The family moved after 2-3 years to Bozeman so that his children Mary Margaret (born 1898) and Thomas (born 1902) could attend college. John died October 1, 1924 at 71 years of age and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston. His pallbearers included W.A. Hall and Herb French. Mary Margaret Ingram died Feb. 9, 1959 and Thomas died in 1961.

Dean, James H.  James Dean was one of the assistant superintendents under Supt. Conger in 1883, serving until June of 1885. He spent the summer of 1884 with his family at Norris in a small house built for them by the government. However it was unsuitable to withstand the cold, harsh winters and they moved to Mammoth to live that winter. He became clerk at the Firehole Hotel in 1885, serving there for several years. In 1888 he was hired to manage the Cottage Hotel at Mammoth, the year before the GL Henderson family sold the operation to the Yellowstone Park Association. Dean managed the National Hotel in 1891 and was appointed Superintendent of YPA in 1892, having supervision of all the park hotels. His office was located in the National Hotel. He served as president of YPA from at 1896 (or 1898) until 1901, when Harry Child, Edmund Bach and Silas Huntley bought out the company. Around 1902 he resigned from the company and went to live with a nephew Mr. Charles Picken (or Pickings) near Harmony Grove in Maryland. By 1910 James and Rebecca had moved to California and were living in Coronado Beach, near San Diego. James died October 17, 1919 in Coronado Beach after being in ill health and suffering a stroke the previous year. He was about 75 years of age and was survived by his widow.


James H. Dean was born around 1844 in New Market, Frederick County, Maryland. His future wife Rebecca T. Pickings (or Picken) was born in Maryland around 1845. By 1869 Dean was living in the town of Frederick, MD and went to work as a steward at the Maryland school for the Deaf and Dumb. The school had just opened the previous year and served about 60 students, 25 of them that had never received any formal schooling. The school taught sign language, the finger alphabet, writing, speech, lip reading, along with vocational skills such as shoemaking, carpentry, printing, dressmaking, sewing, and housework. He held that position until 1877. At that time he went to work for a hotel and restaurant called the Old Dill House in Frederick. By 1879 the hotel became known as the Carlin House, after proprietor Frank B. Carlin. Around 1898 it was renamed Hotel Burgess, after the new owner. In 1883 he traveled to Yellowstone with Rebecca to work as an assistant superintendent. [LE;7/18/1885;10/10/1891; 4/2/1892;12/19/1896; 4/9/1898] [30;300-02] [10;172] [The News, Frederick, Md; 3/1/1888; 5/3/1890; 10/19/1889; 7/30/1894; 12/12/1898; 1/10/1899; 9/29/1902; [Frederick Post; 10/30/1919]


Deckard, Frank.  Frank Deckard was born December 6, 1874 at Ranier, Oregon, Frank began freighting in Yellowstone at age 17. He married Susan Elnora Hanson on 11/29/1876, but was later divorced. He owned a ranch near Jardine for 35 years that he sold to the government in 1929, but continued to live in Jardine. He was found dead Sunday, Oct. 26, 1930 in his cabin on Buffalo Flat near Jardine. He had a bullet hole through the head above the right ear. A .38 Colt revolver was found in his hand and it was determined that the death was self-inflicted. Services were held in the Gardiner Eagles Hall with Clarence Scoyen officiating. Burial was in the Gardiner Cemetery. [YNP Vert. Files: Deckard; Park County News, 10/30/1930]


DeLacy, Walter W.  W.W. DeLacy was the leader of a gold-prospecting expedition in 1863 (he called his companions the ‘Forty Thieves’) that discovered Shoshone Lake and its drainage to the Snake River. He compiled the first accurate map of the park two years later. Unfortunately his findings were not published until 1876, long after other maps and charts had been produced by various other expeditions in the early 1870’s. His historical ‘claim-to-fame’ was thwarted by his delay in publishing his findings. DeLacy Creek is named after him.  DeLacy was born Feb. 22, 1819 at Petersburg, Virginia. He graduated from St. Mary's College in Maryland and became a railroad surveyor in 1839. He taught for the Navy and spend much time at sea before retiring and returning to civil engineering in 1846. He participated in the war with Mexico, helped engineer the Mullan Road in Montana, and laid out the site of Fort Benton on the Missouri River. He was in the Sioux War of 1867 and participated in numerous other surveys in Montana and Idaho. He later became a city engineer in Helena and died there May 13, 1892. [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography] [25L;34]


DeMaris, Charles.  In 1886 Charles DeMaris discovered and developed the hot springs on the western edge of Cody that still bear his name. DeMaris was born in Ottawa, Canada in 1827 and moved to Chicago with his parents at age nine. He became involving in the building contracting trade and lumber business in Chicago and Michigan. He relocated to Louisiana at the close of the Civil War, but dissatisfied with the area, headed north on a steamboat to Fort Benton and pushed on to Leesburg Basin in Idaho to mine for gold. His efforts were successful and in 1871 he bought cattle and entered the stock raising business. DeMaris sold his mining interests in 1879 and drove his cattle to Montana to graze on lands where Billings now stands. He removed to the DeMaris Hot Springs in 1886 and touted the purported healing qualities of those waters. Around 1895 the future town of Cody was plotted around the Springs area, but various problems caused the town to be moved east to its present location in 1896. DeMaris married Nellie Fitzgerald of Cody in 1898, who assisted Charles greatly in the development of the hot springs. The couple had a son named Charles, born around 1901. Charles Sr. died June 26, 1914 at his home at the Springs. He was 87 years of age and was buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Cody. [Park County Enterprise, 6/2/1914]


Dewing, Jennie Henderson  Jennie Henderson was the daughter of G.L. Henderson and wife of John Dewing, she operated a general store at Mammoth from 1883-1908. (See ‘Ash, Jennie’ and ‘Henderson, Jennie’)  Click Here to read the article I wrote on Jennie Henderson Ash and her General Store for the Spring 2005 issue of Yellowstone Science.

Dietrich, Richard.  Richard Dietrich was a member of the Helena party during the fateful summer of 1877 when the Nez Perce made their forey through the park. Escaping from a skirmish at Otter Creek, Dietrich, along with Andrew Weikert and Leslie Wilkie made it safely back to Mammoth Hot Springs, but their friend Charles Kenck was killed. Weikert and James McCartney went back to Otter Creek to look for Kenck while Dietrich remained at McCartney's cabin at Mammoth. Yellow Wolf, a member of the Nez Perce, later told what happened to Dietrich, a music teacher from Helena: "It was coming towards sundown when we saw a white man standing in the doorway of a house. We stopped not far from him but did not dismount. We sat on our horses, six or seven of us, thinking. Chuslum Hahlap Kanoot (Naked-foot Bull) said to me, 'My two young brothers and next younger brother were not warriors. They and a sister were killed at Big Hole. It was just like this man did that killing of my brothers and sister. He is nothing but a killer to become a soldier sometime. We are going to kill him now. I am a man! I am going to shoot him! When I fire, you shoot after me.' "Dietrich was killed August 28, 1877 and his body was returned to Helena for burial. [Billings Gazette, 8/26/2002, "Wrong Place, Wrong Time for Music Teacher"]


Dingee, William A.  William Dingee was a member of the ill-fated Cowen-Radersburg party that visited Yellowstone in the summer of 1877 and was attached by the marauding Nez Perce Indians (see George Cowen). Dingee and A.J. Arnold managed to escape when other members of their party were taken captive. He was born Jan. 1, 1834 at Highland Falls, New York and joined the Colorado gold rush in 1859. He left for Montana during its gold rush and arrived in Bannack on May 17, 1863. He eventually moved to Helena and became a merchant. He died in Helena November 13, 1899 at age 65. [Society of Montana Pioneers Register, Vol. 1, 1899; The NY Times, 11/14/1899 ]


Doane, Lt. Gustavus C.  Gustavus Doane was born May 29, 1840 at Galesburg, Illinois. He traveled with his parents by ox train to Oregon in 1846. He graduated college in California and enlisted in the Army in 1862 and commissioned first lieutenant in 1864. He retired from the military after the war and served briefly as mayor of Yazoo City in Mississippi. He re-joined the Army in 1868 and was appointed 2nd Lt. in the US Regulars and stationed at Ft. Ellis in 1869. Early in 1870 he was a participant in the massacre of a Piegan village on the Marias River in which 173 Indians were killed, only 33 of which were men. He accompanied the Washburn Expedition of 1870 with a small contingent of soldiers (one sergeant and four privates). The following year he guided the Hayden Expedition into the park. Doane was with the first command to reach the devastated Custer battle site in 1876 and assisted with burial duties. Late that year he and a small crew attempted to float the Snake River from its source to the mouth at the Columbia River. The boat capsized early in the trip and the attempt was given up. He volunteered for Arctic duty late in 1877. In 1878 he married the daughter of the founder of Hunter Hot Springs in Springdale, Montana. He became a captain in 1884 and died in Bozeman May 5, 1892. [15b] [25g;19,26] [Dan Thrapp, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography]


Dobson, David.  David Dobson and Wm. Ramsdell approached Jennie Henderson in 1883 to have her sell coated specimens in her post office store on a consignment basis. The two men had received permission to coat various articles in the mineral-laden waters of the Mammoth Terraces. By 1888 Dobson was serving as the mail carrier for the Cooke City route. [25j]

Douglas, Henry F.  Henry Douglas was the post trader at Fort Yates in the Dakota Territory and apparently had political connections in Washington DC. Douglas and Carroll Hobart filed an application in July 1882 for a 10-year lease on 4400 acres of park land for their exclusive use in constructing and operating a hotel and transportation system. In January 1883 the two men formed the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. with Rufus Hatch as financier. In March the Secretary of Interior negated their lease, changing most of the exclusive terms and lowering the lease acreage to 10 acres, divided between seven areas. The company went bankrupt in 1885 and was replaced by YPA. [25L;35]


Drury, Newton Bishop  Newton B. Drury served as NPS Director from Aug. 20, 1940 to Mar. 31,1951. He was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt due to his uncompromising attitude toward anti-conservationists and commercial interest groups. Earlier on he was with the Save the Redwood League in California and served as a research associate with the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1938-43). He resigned in 1951 over differences with the secretary of Interior under President Truman. Drury returned to the Save the Redwoods League in 1959 and was instrumental in the creation of Redwood National Park in 1968 in California. Drury was an honorary vice president of the Sierra Club. He died December 15, 1978. [25L;35] [Biographical Dictionary of American and Canadian naturalists and Environmentalists, ed. by Sterling, Harmond, Cevasco, & Hammond]


Ducharme, Baptiste.  Baptiste Ducharme was born March 15, 1781 near Montreal and joined Gen. Ashley’s expedition of 1822 as a trapper. He trapped for Bonneville in 1823. He became a free trapper in 1824 and claimed to have gone up to the head of the Yellowstone River. He crossed over to the head of the Snake River and came down the Firehole River past the geysers. Ducharme lived in the Rocky Mountains until the early 1840’s. E.S. Topping talked to Ducharme prior to his writing his book in 1885 and Ducharme was still able to describe the many geysers he saw.  [97p;14-15] [2]


Duret, Joseph.  Joseph "Frenchy" Duret was born in France around 1862. He arrived in Stillwater County in 1885 and in the early 1890s owned property in both Gardiner and Cooke City. For five years he hunted and fished, and operated a butcher shop in Gardiner, providing fresh meat to Fort Yellowstone. He moved to the Slough Creek area, just outside of the park boundary around 1899. He was known to poach park animals and seemed to be in trouble with authorities on a regular basis. His wife claimed he had killed upwards of 200 bears in his 20 years on Slough Creek. Frenchy was killed by a grizzly June 12, 1922 that was caught in one of his traps. He apparently shot the bear to finish him off, but as Frenchy approached, the griz came back to life, broke the chain and mauled Frenchy to death. Rangers discovered his body the next day and buried him on his ranch.  An article from the Roundup Record Tribune, dated August 4, 1922, described the events surrounding Duret's demise: "Yellowstone park rangers are trailing a huge grizzly bear that recently killed and partly devoured Joseph Duret, sixty, and old-time Montana trapper. Duret's body was found on Slough Creek, near the park, with an arm and a leg partly chewed off. Signs indicated the bear had been caught in one of Duret's traps, but had broken loose when the trapper came by on his rounds. Horace M. Albright, superintendent of the park, said there were evidences of a terrific battle, and a rifle, clawed and chewed, was found near the broken trap. One shot had been fired from the rifle and a bloody trail showed that the man crept a mile and a half after receiving his injuries." [Doris Whithorn, Twice Told on the Upper Yellowstone, Vol. 2]


Dwelle, Harry F.  Harry Dwelle moved from Ohio and settled in an area on the south fork of the Madison River about 5 miles from the West entrance in the early 1880’s. In 1884 he established Dwelle’s Stage Stop to service the Bassett Bros. stages that were running to the park from Beaver, Idaho. In 1898 Dwelle’s Inn (also known as Dwelle’s Madison Fork Ranch and the Grayling Inn) became an overnight stop for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. that transported tourists to the park from Monida. Monida & Yellowstone ceased using Dwelle’s Inn after the 1907 season when the Union Pacific RR (UPRR) reached the West entrance of the park. By that time Dwelle was also running a general store. He married Sarah Burnside in 1903. Acting park superintendent S.B.M. Young complained in 1907 that Dwelle’s “. . . place has been a resort of park poachers . . . the principle merchandise he deals in is intoxicants.” [18t]

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