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Yellowstone Biographies   H

Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the author.

Hague, Arnold.  Arnold Hague was born December 3, 1840 to Rev. Dr. William and Mary B. (Moriarty) Hague in Boston, Massachusetts. He served as a geologist with the US Geological Survey from 1879 until his death in 1917. Hague graduated from Yale and studied at several universities in Germany. He specialized in the geology of Yellowstone beginning in 1883 and continued his surveys of the park through two decades. He and his staff were responsible for naming many of the park features. He was a member of Clarence King's US Geological exploration of the 40th Parallel from 1867-77 and investigated mining and mining processes in Nevada, China, and Guatemala. Hague was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and other professional societies, and authored numerous scientific books and professional papers on the geology of the West. In 1899 he co-authored "Geology of the Yellowstone National Park" and wrote numerous other treatises on geology. [Who's Who in America, 1902; Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1948; The 20th Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, 1904] [25L;46]


Hall, William A.   W.A. Hall, familiarly known as 'Billy', was born April 30, 1861 and came to Montana from Humansville, Missouri as a foster child of the C.D. Fisher family. He married Lulu F. Brown in 1886 and they had four sons: Arthur W., Earl H., Warren E., and James Raymond. Hall built the W.A. Hall store in Gardiner near the Arch and rail depot in 1903 and provided all of the basic necessities of life for the tourist, hunter, and resident. The large upstairs was home to many community dances in its heyday. The store was a Golden Rule store, the forerunner of the J.C. Penny franchise. Hall originally ran a store in Aldridge, but built a new and larger store in Gardiner with the opening of the railroad to that town. He left Aldridge completely after the coal strike of 1904-05. Hall also operated a Golden Rule store at Cinnabar in the 1890's. The W.A. Hall Company at Cinnabar housed a general store, a beer hall and a restaurant. Hall closed the store down in 1903 when the railroad continued on into Gardiner and the town of Cinnabar was abandoned. Hall later moved to Bozeman and his sons operated the Gardiner store until 1955. Lulu Hall passed away in 1931. The W.A. Hall building was sold in 1961 to Cecil Paris. Reportedly architect Robert Reamer designed the building for Hall. However, there is some doubt about whether the building that was erected actually used the plans drawn up by Reamer. Reamer's blueprints of the store show many design characteristics that were not included in actual construction, perhaps as a means to save both time and money. [25L;101] [71c] [56o;Hall, Warren] [1m;Hall, W.A.]


Hamilton, Charles A.   Charles Hamilton was founder of the Hamilton Stores business that operated general stores in the park from 1915 to 2002. He was born in 1884 in Winnepeg, Manitoba and went to work for the YPA in 1905. In 1915 he purchased the Klamer store at Old Faithful from Mary Klamer with financial backing by H.W. Child. The following year, with an increasing amount of autos in the park, he went into the service station business with Child. Hamilton opened up his second store and filling station in 1917 at Lake in the old E. C. Waters building in front of the Lake Hotel. Construction on a new store at Lake began in 1919 and was ready for opening in 1922. Hamilton married May Spence in 1920 at the Fort Yellowstone chapel. By the mid-1920’s he had campground stores and filling stations at West Thumb, Fishing Bridge, and Old Faithful. In 1926 he helped form the Yellowstone Park Service Stations (YPSS) with Child and Anna Pryor. The Upper Hamilton store was erected at Old Faithful in 1929-30 using a design by Robert Reamer. He bought out the Brothers Geyser Bath operation at Old Faithful in 1933. His daughter Eleanor May and husband Trevor Povah took over much of the day-to-day management of the business in 1940. In 1953 Hamilton purchased the Pryor & Trischman stores at Mammoth and Canyon, giving him a monopoly on the general store business. He died in 1957 and his family controlled the business through 2002. [25g] [25k]

For addition information on the Hamilton Stores, please visit my web page.


Hamilton, Eleanor.  Eleanor Hamilton was the daughter of Charles Hamilton, she married Trevor Povah in 1940. After her father’s death in 1957, Eleanor (Ellie) and her husband took over the Hamilton Stores operation. [25L;47]


Harriman, E.H.   E.H. Harriman was president of Union Pacific RR and decided in ca1905 to build a branch line to the western entrance of Yellowstone. The line was opened in 1908 at what would eventually become the town of West Yellowstone. The family donated 14,750 acres of their ranch to the state of Idaho in 1977 for use as a state park. The park was named after the Harriman family. [25L;46]


Harris, Capt. Moses.  Capt. Harris was the 1st military superintendent of the park. He took charge on August 20, 1886 with the 1st Cavalry, Troop M. The troop consisted of two officers and 50 enlisted men. He hired Jack Baronett as a guide, and James McBride as scout. He served until May 31, 1889. [25L;47]


Hartzog, George B.  George Hartzog was appointed NPS Director in 1964. He canceled all of the Mission 66 objectives that year. The following year he notified YPCo that the government was going to terminate their contract. [25L;47]


Harvat, John.  John Harvet was a Livingston area businessman who received the beef contract for the park hotels for the 1890 season. D.B. May held the contract for the two previous seasons. Harvat contracted with Henry Klamer to manage the operation. Klamer himself received the contract the following year and maintained it for the rest of the decade. [25k]


Hatch, Benton.  Benton Hatch was in charge of the Firehole Hotel in 1890 and became manager of the new Fountain Hotel when it opened in 1891. However, he had differences of opinion on management of the hotel with the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA), and retired from the position in September. He was well-liked by his employees, and 20 of them left with him in a show of support. [LE;10/18/1890;9/12/1891]


Hatch, Rufus.  Rufus Hatch was one of the original investors and partners in the YP Improvement Co. in 1883, along with Carroll T. Hobart and Henry Douglas. Hatch was born in Wells, York County, Maine in 1832 and later became a grocery clerk in Rockford Illinois. He entered the grain commission business in Chicago in 1854 and amassed a fortune. In 1862 he went to New York to establish a stock brokerage on Wall Street. YPIC went bankrupt and into receivership in 1885. He died in 1893. [25g] [2]


Hayden, Ferdinand V.   Born in Westfield, Mass. on September 7, 1829, Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio in 1850. He studied medicine at the medical college in Albany, New York before heading west in 1863 to explore the Badlands of Dakota and other areas of the Upper Missouri. F.V. Hayden began the Hayden Survey in 1867 and conducted a geological survey of the new state of Nebraska. The government assumed control of his survey in 1869 and it became known as the U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories. He obtained $40,000 from Congress and became the leader of the 1st government-sponsored expedition to Yellowstone in 1871 that explored, named, mapped, and later published accounts of this historic trip. His efforts were of great assistance in the campaign to protect Yellowstone as a National Park. Artist Thomas Moran, photographer Henry Jackson, and other scientists accompanied him on the expedition. Hayden also conducted Yellowstone expeditions in 1872 and 1878. The author of numerous scientific papers and government publications, he retired from government service in 1886 due to health issues and died two years later in Philadelphia. [Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette, 1-7-1888] [25L;47]


Haynes, Bessie.  Bessie Haynes was Frank Haynes' oldest daughter, who married Lt. Frederick T. Arnold. She was born around 1880 in Minnesota and passed away 100 years later in Arizona. [25L;46]


Haynes, Frank J.   Frank J. Haynes  (F.J. Haynes, F. Jay Haynes,) was known as the ‘Official Park Photographer’ and was originally employed by the Northern Pacific RR in 1875 to take pictures along their route from Minnesota to the West Coast for advertising and promotional purposes. Frank Haynes was born Oct. 28, 1853 in Saline Michigan and married Lily Verna Synder in 1878. Haynes established a photo studio in Moorhead, Minnesota in 1876 and moved it to Fargo, North Dakota in 1879. Ten years later he moved the studio to St. Paul, Minnesota where it was maintained for many years. In 1884 he obtained leases for 4 acres at both Old Faithful and Mammoth, where he opened his first photo shop in 1884. His son Jack was also born that year. Frank eventually operated Haynes Photo Shops at all major locations in the park. In December of 1885, he joined up with George Wakefield to form the Wakefield & Haynes Stage Co. The concern was short-lived and Haynes sold out in June 1886, but Wakefield continued the operation for several more years in the park as Wakefield Stage Lines. Haynes was a part of the Schwatka winter expedition in 1887 and took the 1st winter pictures of the interior of the park. He and two others finished the trek after Schwatka got sick and turned back. The Haynes Guidebook was first published in 1890 and continued almost yearly until 1966. In 1900 he produced his first set of ‘picture post cards’, and went on over the years producing tens of thousands of these cards and stereoviews, many of which are now collector’s items. Haynes and W.W. Humphrey formed the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Co. in 1898 that operated from the Union Pacific rail line at Monida into the park. It began operating out of Yellowstone (West Yellowstone) in 1908 and became known as the Yellowstone & Western Stage Co. in 1913. In 1909 Haynes made an attempt to break into the hotel business in Yellowstone, but Harry Child offered Haynes one-half of his interest in the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. to keep Haynes from building a hotel. By 1913 Haynes was a stockholder in the Madison Fork Ranch Corp. located near the Madison Basin west of the park. Haynes owned the Cody-Sylvan Pass Co. in 1913 and became president and largest shareholder of the first motorized bus fleet in the park in 1916. That venture was known as the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. and was co-owned by William Nichols, Wylie and Shaw & Powell. That business was taken over by the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) in 1917. He lost all of his transportation businesses in 1917 when YPTCo was awarded the contract for the transportation franchise in the park. Haynes was also forced to sell off his Wylie shares when the camping companies were reorganized. F.J. retired from the transportation and camping businesses after the 1916 season and turned over the photo shops to his son Jack in the beginning of 1916. Frank passed away on March 10, 1921 at age 68. Supt. Albright renamed Mt. Burley to Mt. Haynes in his honor. [43j] [25g] [18t] [YNP Archives, Box C17] [31]

For additional information, please visit my Haynes Photo Shops page.


Haynes, Isabel.  Isabel Haynes, nee Isabel Nauerth, was manager of Roosevelt Lodge in 1927and married Jack Haynes in 1931. Their only child was a daughter born in November of that year named Lida Marie. She skied competitively in high school and learned to fly while attending college. She had been expected to take over the family business, but unfortunately died in a tragic traffic accident at age 20. Upon Jack’s death in 1962, Isabel operated the Haynes Photo Shops until 1967, when she sold out to Hamilton Stores. In 1970 she donated the company pictures, negatives, and papers to the Montana Historical Society in Helena. Personal and non-business papers were donated to Montana State University at Bozeman. She passed away in 1993 and the estate auction was held that year in Bozeman. [25L;49]


Haynes, Jack Ellis.  Jack Haynes was son of Frank J. Haynes and born Sept. 27, 1884 at Fargo, Dakota Territory. Jack received his college degree at the Univ. of Minnesota, graduating in 1908 and took over the Haynes photo business in 1916 when his father retired. Jack was commissioned in the US Army Reserve as a 2nd Lt. in 1918. He was an integral part of the Place Names Committee in 1927, and three years later he obtained exclusive rights to sell images of Yellowstone in the park. He was a member of the Masons, Elks, and Rotary clubs. Haynes married Isabel May Nauerth June 11, 1930 and they made their home in Bozeman. Their daughter Lida was born in 1931, but died in a tragic accident in 1952. He was known to many as ‘Mr. Yellowstone’ and successfully operated the Haynes Photos Shops until his death in 1962. Isabel ran the business until 1967 when it was sold to Hamilton Stores. There were 13 photo shops in the park at the time of sale. [25L;49] [56o; Haynes, Jack Ellis]


Hays, Howard.   Howard Hays was born on November 23, 1883 in Metropolis, Cook Co., Illinois. He attended the University of Illinois and the University of Chicago Law prior to coming out to Yellowstone in 1905 to begin work for the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. as a surrey driver. He served as the traveling passenger agent for the company from 1906-16. In 1915 he married Margaret Mauger of Salt Lake City.  Early in 1917 he became employed by the Union Pacific RR, and later the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Tourist Bureau, and the National Parks Bureau of the US Railroad Administration. In 1919 he purchased the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. with Roe Emery, changing the name to Yellowstone Park Camps Co. After becoming ill with tuberculosis, he sold the company in 1924 to H.W. Child and Vernon Goodwin for $660,000. He later went on to become President of the Sequoia & Kings Canyon NP Co.  In 1927 Hays purchased the Glacier Park Transportation Co. and ran the company until 1955.  During this time hays purchased an interest in the Riverside Press newspaper, in California. He eventually moved up through the ranks to become president of the company, a position he held until his death in early January of 1969.  [25L;49]


Heap, David Porter.   David P. Heap was part of the Barlow-Heap expedition of the Army Corps of Engineering in 1971. They had orders from General Sheridan to make an exploration of Yellowstone Park. They traveled with the Hayden Expedition for a portion of the journey. Beaver Dick Leigh served as a guide while photographer Thomas J. Hine took the first pictures of Old Faithful in eruption. Unfortunately the Great Chicago Fire of 1889 destroyed almost all of Hines' negatives from the expedition and only about 16 are known to have survived. Heap was born March 24, 1843 in Stephano, Turkey. He immigrated to the United States and attended Georgetown College in Washington DC. He graduated from the US military academy in 1864 and served out the remainder of the Civil War on the side of the North. He was promoted to Captain, later to major of engineers in 1882, and lieutenant colonel in 1895. In 1899 he became in charge of the 3rd lighthouse district and depot at Tompkinsville, NY. He authored several treatises on electric lighting and lighthouses. [The 20th Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable American; Chronology of Wonderland, Goss]

Hedges, Cornelius.  Cornelius Hedges first came to Montana in 1864 in search of gold and established a law office in Helena the following year. He was also an editorial writer for the Helena Herald and a member of the Washburn Expedition of 1870. Following the expedition he wrote a series of articles that were published in the Helena Herald describing the wonders of Yellowstone and proposed the appropriation of Yellowstone for public use. [25L;50]


Henderson, Barbara Gazelle (Lillie).   Barbara Henderson was born in 1861, she was the daughter of G.L Henderson. She became the park Postmistress on July 5, 1882, shortly after the family’s move to Yellowstone. Together with her sister Jennie, who became Postmistress in 1884, they began the Post Office Store at Mammoth in one of James McCartney’s old buildings. The postal position remained mostly in the family for 35 years. She married Alexander Lyall in 1898, who was the construction contractor for the new general store at Mammoth in 1895-96. Barbara later moved to Southern California to live. [1900 Federal Census, YNP] [25j]


Henderson, Abel Bartlett.    Bart Henderson was born in Tennessee in 1832 to Gideon B. and Jane Ritchey Henderson. He is believed to have prospected for gold in California and the far west at least by the 1860s. He began prospecting around the Yellowstone Park in 1867, coming up from Jackson’s Hole over Two Ocean Pass, around the east shore of Yellowstone Lake, and downriver into Montana. He discovered gold in the Cooke City area in 1869-70 with Adam ‘Horn’ Miller, Ed Hibbard, and James Gourley. He named Soda Butte and Soda Butte Creek during that trip. With help from James Gourley and Adam ‘Horn’ Miller, he began building a road in 1871 from Bottler’s Ranch near Emigrant to Mammoth. The road later passed into the hands of ‘Yankee Jim' James George.  Henderson became the 1st known user of skis in the park when he skied from Stephens Creek to Bozeman in 1871. Bart and his brother Stokely D. (and perhaps a brother named James??), owned a ranch near Stephens Creek, just north of the northern Park border, that came under attack by Nez Perce on August 31, 1877. The ranch was burned and after a short battle, Sterling Henderson (son of Stokely), Joe Brown, George Reese, John Werks, and one other man escaped across the Yellowstone River in a small boat. No relation to George Legg Henderson, Bart died August 4, 1889 at Nelson, BC. [LE;10/5/1889] [32] [25g]


Henderson, David Bremmer.   David Henderson was the younger brother of George Henderson, he became an Iowa Congressman and Speaker of the House of Representatives. It was his influence that no doubt gained George’s appointment as Asst Supt of Yellowstone in 1882. [25L;50]


Henderson, George L.  George Henderson, or G.L. Henderson, was born in Oct. 8, 1827 in Old Deer Scotland and immigrated to the US with his family in 1846. The family later settled in Fayette County, Iowa. George and his wife Jeanette Thomas divorced in 1879 after having 10 children. However, five of them died by 1875 due to various causes. He was hired as an assistant superintendent to Supt. Conger in June of 1882 and moved to Yellowstone with his children. He arrived with his son Walter J., aged 20, and daughters Helen L., aged 28, Jennie A., aged 18, Barbara G., age 21, and Mary R., age 12. They moved into the Norris Blockhouse and the following year lived in one of McCartney’s old hotel buildings. The family built the Cottage Hotel at Mammoth in 1885 and Walter and Barbara were listed as the owners on the lease paperwork. He produced a newspaper-style guide to the park called Henderson's Park Manual. Editions were published in 1885 and 1888. George was an avid supporter of the park, conducted tours, and named numerous features in the park. He became known as the 1st Park Interpreter.  The Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) bought out the Cottage Hotel in 1889, but George continued to work for his former nemesis until the early 1900’s as a promoter of his beloved Yellowstone. He married Hannah Horton in 1889, but the marriage contract was dissolved twice, the final time in 1898. George died in November 14, 1905 in Chula Vista, CA. [111] [Family Records of James Dean Henderson]


Henderson, Helen Lucretia (Nellie).   Born April 25, 1854 in Henderson Prairie, Iowa, Helen Henderson was the daughter of G.L Henderson and became the 1st female stagecoach driver in the park in the mid-1880’s. In her duties she also acted as tour guide and interpreter. She married Charles Stuart Nov. 15, 1887. Helen, also known as ‘Nellie’, worked for the family business at the Cottage Hotel and probably at the general store. The lease for the Henderson business was in her and Walter’s name. [25L;52] [LE;11/19/1887]


Henderson, James.   James Henderson, brother of Bart Henderson, established a small ranch on Stephens Creek, near the northern border of the park, with his brothers in 1871.  In 1877 the Nez Perce Indians burned some of the ranch buildings during their raids through the park. His son Sterling, John Werks, Joseph Brown, George Reese, and Wm. Davis were under attack from the Indians at the ranch for two hours, but managed to finally escape across the Yellowstone River in a small boat. Shortly afterwards Lt. Doane and a detachment from Ft. Ellis arrived and chased the Nez Perce back into the park. The ranch lands became the site of the town of Cinnabar in 1882. The ranch was purchased by Clarence Stephens in the early 1880’s, and was eventually owned by George Huston, C.T. Hobart, and finally the Hoppe family. The lands were transferred to the government in the mid-1920’s. [113] [28g]


Henderson, Jennie.   Daughter of G.L. Henderson, Jennie Henderson was born March 13, 1864 and took over the Postmistress job at Mammoth from 1884 to 1886. She operated a post office store with her sister Barbara beginning in 1882, in one of James McCartney’s old buildings and became the founder of the first permanent general store in Yellowstone. They sold curios, crystals, agates, petrified wood and ‘coated specimens’. The business later began selling general tourist supplies, clothing, boots, camping gear and supplies, and other tourist necessities. In 1886 Jennie married John Dewing and had two children, George L. and Jessie M., but the marriage later ended in divorce.  Marion Baronett took over the Postmistress job and store from 1886 to 1888. In October of that year Jennie was again appointed Postmistress and served until Oct. 1893, when George Ash became Postmaster. George and Jennie were married in June of 1893. In 1895-96 the couple built a new store and post office at Mammoth and lived in the upstairs apartment. Brother-in-law Alex Lyall was in charge of construction of the building. She again became Postmistress early in 1900 after her husband became ill. Several months later George died in a Salt Lake hospital. Jennie received a new 10-year lease for the business in 1905. She retired in 1908 and transferred the lease to Walter Henderson and Alex Lyall. They operated the business until 1913 when George Whittaker purchased it. The business operated under a variety of names: Post Office Store, ca 1883-89; YNP Post Office, ca1889-93; Ash & Henderson, ca1896; Yellowstone Park Tourist Supplies, ca1902; J.H. Ash & Company, ca1907, Yellowstone Park Tourist Supply Co., ca1908; Lyall & Henderson, 1908-1912. Jennie died in 1947 at the age of 83. The store is currently operated by Delaware North Parks Co. [25j] [1900 Federal Census, YNP] 

Click Here to read the article I wrote on Jennie Henderson Ash and her General Store for the Spring 2005 issue of Yellowstone Science.


Henderson, Mary Rosetta.  Mary Henderson, born July 15, 1870 in Iowa, was the youngest daughter of G.L. Henderson and was known to have been teaching music in Iowa for part of the year in 1887. She helped her sisters with the Post Office Store at Mammoth and married Henry Klamer in June of 1892. They built and operated the Klamer general store at Old Faithful in 1897. Henry died in 1914 and Mary Klamer sold the store to Charles Hamilton in 1916 and returned to Southern California to live. She died around 1951 at age 81. The Henderson family records note her birth in 1867.  (See ‘Klamer, Henry E.’) [LE; 4/2/1892] [25j] [25k] [1900 Federal Census Records, YNP]

For additional information on the Klamer family and store please visit my Klamer Store web page.


Henderson, Sterling D.   Sterling Henderson was son of James Henderson (see above).  In 1875 he served as a Stock Herder at Mammoth. He advertised in the Bozeman newspaper that he would be prepared to ". . . take charge of, and herd, the stock of visitors at the Springs. Stock will be called for and delivered at the Springs whenever desired." He was at the Henderson ranch in 1877 when the Nez Perce attacked and burned some of the buildings. [Bozeman Avant-Courier 6/11/1875]


Henderson, Walter James.  Walter Henderson, born Oct. 5, 1862, was the only surviving son of George Henderson. Walter and his sister Helen were the official leaseholders of the Cottage Hotel that opened in 1885. Early in 1889 he married Eva S. Fitzgerald, daughter of S.M. Fitzgerald. After the hotel was sold in 1889, YPA hired him for the summer to manage the Firehole Hotel. He used his proceeds from the hotel sale to buy an orchard grove and house in Southern California, California. He lived there on a seasonal basis it seems, for a time, and also had a home in Seattle. In 1908 he and his brother-in-law Alexander Lyall purchased the Mammoth store from his sister Jennie. The two men operated the business until 1913 when they sold out to former scout George Whittaker. After Henry Klamer died in 1914, Walter returned to Yellowstone to help Mary manage the Old Faithful general store. [25j] [25k]


Herschfield, Aaron & L.H.   Aaron Hershfield and L.H. Hershfield were partners with Harry W. Child and Edmund Bach. Together they formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. that was incorporated May 20, 1892 with capital stock of $250,000. The YNPTC actually started operations in March 1891 when George Wakefield lost his Yellowstone Park Association contract.  YPA then leased all of their transportation equipment and facilities to YNPTC, who appointed Wakefield as President. They bought out the Yellowstone Transportation Co. (YTC) and Wakefield & Hoffman operations for $70,000 in 1892 and were granted exclusive transport of NPRR passengers. The following February they received leases for six parcels of land to erect barns and other facilities. The company was taken over by the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. in 1898, under Child, Huntley, and Bach. [25g] [LE; 5/28/1892]


Hibbard, Alfred T.  Alfred Hibbard became one of the first non-family members (with Hugh Galusha) to become a member of the Board of Directors of YPCo in 1956. [25L;52]


Hine, Thomas J.  Thomas Hine was a Chicago photographer who accompanied the Barlow-Heap Expedition of 1871. He took about 200 photos on glass plates during the trip, including the 1st picture of Old Faithful in eruption. He returned to Chicago after the trip, but the disastrous Chicago fire on October 8-9, 1871 destroyed all but 16 of his prints. They were lost until 1998 when author James Brust accidentally discovered seven of them in a collection at the New York Historical Society. Hine was apparently in business with Thomas Copelin and his stereographs had been produced under the name Copelin & Sons. The same fire also destroyed many of the reports and specimens collected by Capt. Barlow. [14m] [119b] [79u]


Hobart, Carroll T.  C.T. Hobart was one of the organizers of the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. in 1883 with Henry Douglas and Rufus Hatch. The company originally received government approval for leases of 4400 acres, a monopoly on the park concessions, and almost unlimited use of park resources for their operation. Hobart was the general manager and his group built the National Hotel at Mammoth on credit. Financial problems caused the company to go bankrupt in 1885, whereupon Hobart opened up crude hotels at the Lower and Upper Geyser Basins with former Park Superintendent Robert Carpenter. [25L;53]


Hobart Charles F.  Charles Hobart was the contractor brother of Carroll Hobart, he built the ‘Shack Hotel’ at Old Faithful in 1885 with former Supt. Robert Carpenter, who managed the operation. Feuding over financial matters between the Hobart brothers caused Carpenter to leave the scene after 1885. [25L;53]


Hofer, Thomas Elwood.  T.E.Hofer (Thomas Hofer) came out West in 1872 to Colorado where he mined and carried mail on skis during the winter of 1875-76. He left Colorado in the spring of 1877 and mined a bit in the Black Hills. Finding little promise he headed for Montana where he visited the Custer Battlefield and ran into P.W. Norris on the Yellowstone River. After reading Nathaniel Langford's Yellowstone account and talking to Norris, he was determined to visit Wonderland, but with the Nez Perce on the prowl, he stayed in Bozeman until things calmed down. While there he became friends with N.P. Langford and did odd jobs until 1878 when he finally got to Mammoth Hot Springs in the company of a freight outfit. He made the rounds of park, meeting a variety of trappers, hunters, scouts, and military men. Having some experience with sailboats on Long Island Sound, he decided to build a boat and during the winter of 1879-80 gathered up tools and materials. During the summer of 1880 he stayed in E.S. Topping's old cabin and began construction of his “Sharpie," whip-sawing his lumber in the same pit that Topping had used. He ended up with a 20’ sailboat called the Explorer which he used for a few years to transport tourists around the lake. After leaving the boat unattended for awhile one summer, some campers 'borrowed' it and left it unmoored. The poor craft floated into the Yellowstone River where it eventually went over the falls. Hofer then began guiding and outfitting tourist and hunting parties and was still listed as a registered guide as late as 1889. A newspaper article from 1882 proclaimed "Complete packing out-fit, will make trips to Clark's Fork and Yellowstone Park. Freights transported at reasonable rates. Will be located for the season at Mammoth Hot Springs." Also known as “Uncle Billy”, Hofer was a scout for the army in the early days and assisted with the attempts to increase the size of the buffalo herd. During the winter of 1887 he conducted the first wildlife survey in the park. He traveled 225 miles through most of the major areas of the park, chronicling all the wildlife he encountered along the way. He included large and small game, fish, birds and predators, and his reports were published in Forest and Stream magazine that year. He began trapping a wide variety of park wildlife in 1891 for shipment to the National Zoological Park in Washington DC. He also learned the art of photography while in the park. Hofer eventually applied for a lease to maintain a stable and corral at Mammoth in order to conduct his guiding business. He guided Theodore Roosevelt on several occasions, along other many other notable parties. In 1907 Hofer received a 10-year lease to operate up to 10 power launches and 50 rowboats and dories on Yellowstone Lake. He formed the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. the following year, buying out the E.C. Waters operation. Articles of incorporation were filed in March of 1908, and included three directors: Hofer, W.A. Hall, and C.N. Sargent. His company operated the ferry service with the ‘Zillah’ from West Thumb to Lake Hotel, provided fishing boats to hire for visitors, and operated a small store that sold or rented fishing tackle and appliances, grain, hay, and other basic tourist supplies. Financing for the buyout of the E.C. Waters' business and operation of the company was obtained from H.W. Child and the railroad companies. Hofer apparently was not a great businessman, and by 1910 the company was failing. Child used his financial interests to squeeze Hofer out of the business, and Child created the YP Boat Co. the following year. That was probably a benefit to Hofer as in a short autobiography he admitted that he did not particularly relish dealing with the public and much preferred small and close-knit guiding parties. A newspaper ad in the Gardiner Wonderland newspaper of April 30, 1903 lists an ad by Hofer offering to sell his Gardiner properties. They consisted of two houses on 100’ x150’ lots, containing corrals and sheds. They were listed as “cheapest property in Gardiner.” Hofer later moved to Clinton, Washington where he settled on Sunlight Beach. [15b] [25g] [73h] [1889 YNP Supt’s Report] [84c] [YNP History Files; H2 Hofer Biography]

Hoffman, Charles.  Charles Hoffman and Charles Wakefield of Bozeman established the Wakefield & Hoffman stage line in 1883 and provided service from Cinnabar to Mammoth and into the park under an exclusive agreement with YPA. They operated from Livingston to Cinnabar until the Northern Pacific RR’s line was open to Cinnabar. They also received the mail contract for the Livingston to Cooke City route and provided daily mail service (during the summer season) to Mammoth beginning in July 1883. The company built a mail station near Soda Butte as the trip from Cinnabar to Cooke City took more than one day. Wakefield bought out Charles Hoffman in Dec. of 1885 and teamed up with Frank Haynes to form the Wakefield & Haynes stagecoach company. [25g] [LE;6/8/1889;6/1/1895] [Daily Enterprise, Liv. Mt;7/6/1883;7/19/1883] [39-49] [43j]


Holem, Frank.  A prominent and popular businessman in Gardiner, Frank Holem rose up from the depths of the streets of Chicago. Going to work at an early age to help support his family, Frank hawked newspapers, shined shoes, and eventually acquired some blacksmith skills. At the age of 20 left the rough and tumble city streets and landed in Deadwood, SD around 1886 and found work horseshoeing. He moved to Montana in 1892 and Gardiner the following year to become an itinerant blacksmith. Around 1915 he established an automotive repair business and later added a gas station. By 1925 Holem and Henry J. Pilger were operating the Gardiner Garage on the corner of Second and Main streets in Gardiner. Frank's first wife, Margaret A. Williams died in 1918 and Frank married widow Minnie (Ball) Francis. Mr. Holem died January 2, 1940 and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston.​

Holm, Aron "Tex".  Aron Holm, Tex Holm - See "Camps History."


Holmes, Elias Burton.  Burton Holmes was a traveler and lecturer who published the classic 15-volume series “Burton Holmes Travelogues," first published in 1912. The books describe interesting and varied lands from around the world. Volume 12 is devoted to Yellowstone Park, along with the Grand Canyon and Moki Lands of Arizona. His Yellowstone travelogue describes life in Yellowstone in the early part of the twentieth century and contains pictures found in few, if any other published books on the park. He was born January 8, 1870 in Chicago to Ira and Virginia (Burton) Holmes and was educated at the Harvard School in Chicago. He traveled to Japan, Algeria, Morocco, Greece, Thessaly, Europe, Hawaii, the Philippines, China, and other countries. [Who's Who in America, 1902]


Holmes, William Henry.  W.H. Holmes was an anthropologist who was appointed artist for the 1872 Hayden Expedition and studied and illustrated various geologic phenomena in Yellowstone. He also assisted F.V. Hayden with geologic surveys in Colorado from 1872-74. From 1875-79 he continued his studies in Colorado and the southwest, including many of the cliff ruins of ancient Native Americans. He became curator for the aboriginal pottery department in the National Museum from 1882-93, while exploring artifacts of the southwest. He was later curator at the Columbian Museum of Chicago and was head curator of anthropology at the National Museum in 1897. [The 20th Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, 1902]


Hoppe, Hugo J.   Hugo Hoppe served as a scout for the Cavalry, became the first sheriff at Miles City, and established some of the first breweries in Montana. He ranched in Gallatin Valley and eventually moved to Cinnabar. He was permitted to operate a dairy herd near the mouth of the Gardiner River in 1883 to supply the government and the hotels. He received title to a plot of 160 acres in the Cinnabar area in 1886, and again in 1889. By 1886 he was hauling freight for the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) and engaged in freighting from Cinnabar to Cooke City. The government purchased his ranch in 1925 (some say forcibly) that was located on the south side of the Yellowstone River. It became part of the Game Ranch addition to Yellowstone in 1932. Hoppe Creek, near Electric Peak, was named after him. By 1891 he was a Park County Commissioner. His wife Mary died in November of 1894 and Hugo died in 1895. Both are buried in the Soldier's Plot in Livingston. [YNP Archives, Box A9] [25g] [LE;7/24/1886] [71c]


Hoppe, Walter M.  Walter Hoppe was born Aug. 6, 1864 in Virginia City to Hugo J. and Mary Gee Hoppe. He is known as the first white male born in Montana. He came to the Upper Yellowstone area in 1883. Walter and Ella E. Fitzgerald were married on May 4, 1896 and had four children; Paul, Pearl, Mildred and Harold. Walter purchased the Fitzgerald Hotel in Gardiner in 1902 and re-fitted and refurnished it for opening in June, operating it for fours years. Around 1989-99, he built the Bear Gulch Hotel in Jardine and operated it for 6 years. He sold the hotel to John Jervis about 1906 and the building burned down in 1942. Walter was engaged in the freighting business at least by 1891, when he received a government contract to haul freight between the rail depot at Cinnabar and Camp Sheridan at Mammoth. He served the mining and business interests in Jardine and his freighting outfit was one of the largest in Montana. The Hoppe family owned a large part of what was the Cinnabar township. The ranch was eventually appropriated by the government and became part of the Game Ranch addition to Yellowstone in 1932. Walter passed away in 1940 and Ella lived until 1968. [LE;3/14/1891; 4/9/1892; 6/14/1902] [71c] [106;41]


Horr, Harry Riddle.   Harry Horr, also known as Henry Horr, he was born Sept. 20, 1842 in New York. By 1870 he was employed at Fort Ellis as a civilian employee of the post trader’s store. When Truman Everts was lost in the fall of 1870, Horr and two soldiers accompanied George Pritchett back to Yellowstone to help transport Everts to Bozeman. The next year Horr became co-owner of McCartney’s hotel at Mammoth when he and James McCartney filed claims on July 5 at the Gallatin County Courthouse. They also filed claims a month later in Evanston, Uinta County, Wyoming Territory. The claims were later ruled invalid as the territory had never been officially opened to homesteading. He sold or gave up the business to McCartney in 1873. He claimed “I gave the Springs [MHS] the name they now bear.” He married Aurilla Davis in 1880 in Bozeman. Horr later went on to start the Horr Coal Co. with his brother Joseph and uncle, Dr. Asa Horr, in 1883 at an area north of Gardiner. They were unable to actually develop the mines and Harry sold out his interest in 1889. The town of Horr, which later became known as Electric, was named after him. He died in Feb. 1912 in Seattle, WA. [32] [25g] [106d]


Howard, Oliver Otis.  Gen. O. O. Howard (Nov 8, 1830 – Oct 26, 1909) was the Army general who helped to pursue the Nez Perce during the 1877 wars. His troops blazed a trail over Mary Mountain during the pursuit. That route was used for tourist travel until 1892 when the road over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb was completed. The general's son committed suicide in late August of 1885 while visiting the park with his father. Reportedly he was despondent over a breakup with his betrothed. [25L;55] [13r - 9/1/1885]


Howell, Bill.  Bill Howell began the 1st snowmobile rental business in West Yellowstone in 1968-69 called Yellowstone Tour & Travel. [25L;55]


Howell, Ed.   Ed Howell was a poacher and resident of Cooke City who was caught in the act of poaching buffalo on Feb. 13, 1894 on Pelican Creek by Scout Felix Burgess and Sgt. Troike. F.J. Haynes and Emerson Hough of Field & Stream magazine documented his capture. The publicity surrounding this event spurred passage of the Lacey Act, which finally provided legal protection to the park’s resources. However, due to the lack of adequate laws at his time of capture, he was released from his confinement at Ft. Yellowstone on April 24 by order of the Secretary of Interior. Supt. S.B.M. Young temporarily hired Howell in 1897 to track down the perpetrators of the robbery of fifteen stagecoaches on the road 4 miles west of Canyon. Howell eventually tracked down George “Morphine Charley” Reeb, who was convicted of the crime, along with Gus Smitzer. Howell moved to Manila, Philippine Islands to start a restaurant business and was mailed $150 as his reward money. [25g] [LE;5/5/1894]


Humphrey, Wm. W.   W.W. Humphrey helped to found the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. in 1898 with F.J. Haynes. They were also known under the name Humphrey & Haynes. Haynes bought out his partner in 1913. Humphrey had been manager of Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) prior to his association with Haynes. George Breck took over his job at YPTCo. [25L;55]


Huntley, Silas S.  Silas Huntley was born in 1831 in New York and served in the Civil War for three years in the 37th New York Volunteers. He came up the Missouri R. in 1867 to the Montana Territory and went into the stage line business, organizing the 1st stage line between Helena & Ft. Benton. With his cousin Bradley Barlow they controlled almost all the stage lines in Montana. He also operated stage lines in Utah, Idaho, Oregon and California. He retired from the business in 1878 and began raising standard-bred horses. He married Annie Dean, sister of Adelaide Dean (HW Child’s wife). Silas received the transportation contract in Yellowstone in 1891, and the next year he, along with his brother-in-laws Edmund Bach and Harry W. Child, and Aaron and L.H. Hershfield, formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co., taking over the operation of the Yellowstone Transportation Co. They were granted exclusive transport of Northern Pacific RR passengers in the park. In 1898 he founded the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. with Harry Child, and Edmund Bach. Three years later he purchased the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) with Harry Child and Edward Bach. The NW Improvement Co. (NWIC), subsidiary of NPRY, loaned money for the venture. Huntley died in at his home in Mammoth on Sept. 1, 1901 and his shares in YPA reverted to NWIC. His wife later married former park supt. Gen. S.B.M. Young. [25g] [YNP Archives, Box YPC153] [98 - Ogden Standard Examiner, 9/12/1901]


Huston, George.  George Huston was a gold prospector who is known to have prospected in park areas as early as 1864 when he led a party of 30-40 miners up the Yellowstone River into the Lamar and Clark’s Fork drainages. Later in the year he led another party up the Madison and Firehole rivers. Two years later he led another small group of miners up the Madison River to the geyser basins and prospected around Yellowstone Lake, Hayden Valley, Mirror Plateau, Lamar Valley, and returned to Emigrant via the Yellowstone River. He built a cabin in the fall of 1867 near Turkey Pen Creek along the present Rescue Creek Trail, before the trail rises up into the hills, becoming the first permanent white resident in the park. When Truman Everts was lost on the Washburn Expedition of 1870, it was Huston who carried Everts on his horse to the north side of Yankee Jim Canyon where a wagon could then transport Everts to Bozeman. It was probably his cabin that Jack Baronett and George Pritchett brought Everts to so he could recuperate. In Nov. 1871 Huston assisted Matthew McGuirk in the construction of a house and barns at McGuirk’s Springs on Boiling River. In 1873 Huston assisted John Werks in the rental operation of a string of pack and saddle horses in Mammoth. They later hooked up with Zack Root’s Express from Bozeman to Mammoth, and provided horse and guide service to the geyser basins. Huston operated in the park at least through 1877 and guided the Radersburg party through the geyser basins. He assisted in the search for George Cowen, who was wounded by the Nez Perce and joined Gen. Howard at the Clark’s Fork Mines as a scout for the remainder of the expedition. He was probably with the command at the surrender of Chief Joseph in the Bear Paw Mountains in early October. Huston and Joe Keeney purchased part of the Henderson Ranch at Stephens Creek Nov. 19, 1883, which totaled 116.45 acres. They resold the land later that year to the NPRR and the site became the town of Cinnabar. He was also involved in the Cooke City mining business and in 1884 was one of the incorporators of the proposed rail line from Cinnabar to the mines of Cooke City. His property was known as the ‘Cache of Ore Millsite’, on part of which the Cooke City General Store was built after his death. He died July 4, 1886 in Livingston of typhoid pneumonia and other complications. He was 42 years old and unmarried. An 1877 article in Harper’s Weekly described Huston as “…a man of sterling integrity and indomitable pluck . . . the hero of many a thrilling bear or Indian fight, but told so modestly that you do not suspect him of being the principle actor."                     

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