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  • Prospecting Gold in Paradise |

    Prospecting in Paradise The Early Gold Seekers ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my old Prospecting in Yellowstone page at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Union Pacific RR |

    Yellowstone's Supporting Railroads ​ Union Pacific RR Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Union Pacific Railroad - Yellowstone's Western Access A Pictorial History of the Early Days Union Pacific Railroad - Beginnings . . . In 1862 President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act that named and directed two companies to construct a transcontinental railroad. The companies would be known as the Union Pacific and Central Pacific. The Act authorized land grants along the rail routes for the railroads as incentive for construction. The Ames brothers, whose shovel business flourished during the ‘Gold Rush’ years, provided the much needed immediate financing. The Central Pacific began construction in 1863 at Sacramento, California and headed east. Union Pacific started at Omaha, Nebraska to head west. The two lines connected in 1869 on May 10 at Promontory, Utah and the famous ‘Golden Spike’ was driven as the official last spike. The company fell into bankruptcy and was sold to a group of investors in 1897 that included railroad tycoon E. H. Harriman. It was Harriman that made the decision in 1905 to run tracks accessing the West entrance of Yellowstone. The Oregon Short Line & Utah Northern . . . The Oregon Short Line & Utah Northern came about in 1897 through a reorganization of the Oregon Short Line & Utah Northern RR. That railroad resulted from a merger between the Utah & Northern RR and other small ‘short lines’ in 1889. The Utah & Northern Railway was organized in April 1878 by Union Pacific interests to own and operate the bankrupt Utah Northern Railroad, with the intent to build a rail line from existing tracks in Northern Utah to the gold mines of Montana. Construction began the following year at Brigham City, Utah on a narrow gauge line. The tracks reached Butte on December 26, 1881, after a long lull in construction resulting from the ‘Panic of 1873’ Right Top : Utah Northern bridge at Eagle Rock (Idaho Falls) ca1880 Right Bottom : Union Pacific train crossing trestle enroute to West Yellowstone, undated. Yellowstone Historic Center. The Bassett Brothers began stage service that year to Yellowstone from Beaver, Idaho. Stage service to the park from the Monida station, located along the Montana-Idaho, border began in the 1890’s. The St. Anthony RR began building tracks from the main line at Idaho Falls to St. Anthony in 1899. Six years later UPRR President Harriman decided to open a line from St. Anthony to the west entrance of Yellowstone. The line was completed in November 1907 and the 1st scheduled passenger train arrived in the town of Riverside (now West Yellowstone) on June 11. The Oregon Short Line took over legal ownership of the line from St. Anthony RR in 1911 and in 1935 merged with the Union Pacific RR. Union Pacific provided much of the financing for these ventures Monida ​ The small town of Monida was located along the Montana-Idaho border where Interstate I-15 currently passes through between Dillon, MT and Idaho Falls. The old stage route also passed along that route, along with the Union Pacific RR. There was a post office there between 1891-93 and 1896-1964. The Bassett Brothers continued to haul their stage passengers from Beaver into Yellowstone, while FJ Haynes’ Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. began hauling tourists into Yellowstone from Monida in 1898 and continued until 1907, when the UPRR extended their lines to the west entrance of the park. The old route to the park roughly followed Montana Route 509 through the Centennial Valley and past Henry’s Lake. It skirted the Centennial Valley, Red Rock Lakes, passed through Alaska Basin and crossed the Divide to Henry Lake; then over Targhee Pass to the west entrance of the park. Left Top : Town of Monida, Real-Photo PC postmarked 1908. Right Top : Summit Hotel in Monida, from 1902 brochure. Right Bottom : Railroad depot at Monida, from undated glass slide. Where Gush the Geysers Cover page from the UPRR pamphlet, "Where Gush the Geysers" published in 1899. This was the first year for this publication and it was produced to publicize not only the Oregon Short Line's route into Yellowstone through the West entrance, but the firm of the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Co. This company began providing reliable stage service from Monida to Yellowstone the previous year, and was viewed as more professional and better financed than the Bassett line. The brochure contained full-color pictures of various park wonders, along with descriptions of the features. Each page was decorated with elaborate and delicate scroll art work. It also included information on the four major hotels available at that time: Fountain, Lake, Canyon and Mammoth. The tour lasted for eight days. Beginnings of West Yellowstone The town was originally called Riverside upon its founding October 23, 1908, even though the town site was two miles from the river. The site was located on Forest Service lands and permission was required for any homesteaders. The first residents were issued permits for stores and homes late in the fall of 1907, but did not actually own the land. Prior to 1908 the area was referred to as ‘the Boundary’, or ‘at the Boundary’. To avoid confusion, the name was changed to Yellowstone on Jan 31, 1910. Confusion continued for years with the town named the same as the park, so the name was changed again in 1920 to West Yellowstone. Above : West Yellowstone depot, from 1910 UPRR brochure. Below Left : Yellowstone Special, undated. Union Pacific’s first passenger train rolled into West Yellowstone in 1908, It has been noted in many history books that the original train arrival was on June 10, but according to Paul Shea of the Yellowstone Historic Center, a rock slide across the tracks delayed the train until the 11th. That day is now celebrated as Train Day. The train became known as the ‘Yellowstone Special’ after WWI, and was equipped with sleeping cars and would arrive in town early in the morning, where passengers could have breakfast before starting their journey into the park. It ran one trip daily during the summer season until the end of the 1960 season when declining passenger numbers could no longer support the service. A second train, the Yellowstone Express began service in 1922 and ran for 20 years. Union Pacific Depot ​ The depot was built in 1909 at West Yellowstone and replaced a rail car that had been used temporarily. Soon after its construction, the Union Pacific described the depot as “built of stone, very substantial, spacious, and artistic. It is electric heated by steam, and provides large waiting rooms, an individual dressing room for ladies, two large fireplaces, drinking fountains, etc. In it are the usual ticket and Pullman offices and the office of the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Co. The trains approach on the south side while the stages receive and deliver passengers under the porte-cochere on the north side.” (From the UPRR Collection of the Yellowstone Historic Center) Tourists were loaded onto stagecoaches of the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. to tour through the park until 1913, when the service became known as the Yellowstone-Western Stage Co. Beginning in 1917, White Motor Co. auto stages of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. replaced the stagecoaches. The depot was donated to the town of West Yellowstone in 1969, and a private museum opened up in the old depot in 1972. In 2000, the Yellowstone Historic Center leased the depot from the Town of West Yellowstone and spearheaded many major repair and restoration projects. The depot now is the home of the Yellowstone Historic Center Museum. Top Left : Depot, colorized lantern slide by J.P. Clum, 1908. YNP Slide File Top Right : Depot, undated. YP 39 Bloom Bros. postcard. Bottom Left : UP Dining Lodge, Real-Photo postcard. Bottom Right : UP Dining Lodge Interior, Real-Photo postcard. Dining Lodge The first eatery was a crude tarpaper and wood frame building in 1908. It was replaced by the 'Beanery' in 1911 and in 1925 UP had the ‘Dining Lodge’ constructed near the depot. It was a grand structure of stone and timber designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwood. Visitors by train would arrive early in the morning and partake in breakfast prior to starting their journey into the park. Diners would be seated in the Mammoth Room, a massive dining room with a 45-foot ceiling, large windows, and a fireplace large enough for a man to stand in. Several hundred people could be seated at one time. Visitors returning from the park could have supper there before they started their train ride home around 6:30 p.m. The Dining Lodge closed, probably during the mid-late 1950’, due to declining visitation. The lodge was donated to the town of West Yellowstone in 1969 and is currently used as an event center, serving as a venue for weddings, gatherings, celebrations, and more. ​ For additional information, visit the Yellowstone Historic Center website. Gilbert Stanley Underwood Underwood became associated with the National Park Service, the UPRR and other park concessionaires in the early 1920’s. He was trained in the California Arts & Crafts movement in 1910-11. Using those concepts he designed buildings that utilized natural and native materials, such as rock and logs, to blend the buildings in with their environment. He designed a multitude of buildings in the western United States including: the Dining Lodge at West Yellowstone; Old Faithful Lodge; lodges at Zion, Bryce, and Cedar Breaks; the Grand Canyon Lodge; Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite; Timberline Lodge at Mt. Hood, Oregon; Sun Valley Lodge in Idaho; and the Jackson Lake Lodge in Grand Teton. He also designed many other railroad depots for the Union Pacific. ​ G.S. Underwood, ca1925. NPS photo The Union Pacific Bears . . . ​ Walter Oehrle, a commercial artist was hired by the Union Pacific Railroad in 1923 to illustrate the covers of a promotional pieces announcing the opening of Yellowstone each June. The subject was always bears. The UP bears were drawn to look cute, silly, and anthropomorphic. The most common theme of the illustrations is of performance and entertainment. Of the 92 bear illustrations, 37 depict the bears being either mischievous or inept, like clowns. A number of them show the bears performing as artists, or in films, circuses, parades, or beauty pageants. The bears are presented as happily performing for their human visitors.” ​ Images of these happy-go-lucky bear were published in a small pamphlet that was given away by the Yellowstone Park Company. They were later rendered into woodcuts, which graced the inside of the Bear Pit Lounge at Old Faithful Inn for many years. A couple of these woodcuts are still on the walls of the Old Faithful Inn Snack Shop. During a recent remodeling, the images were redone in cut glass,

  • Canyon Hotel & Lodges |

    Yellowstone - Canyon Hotels & Lodges Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the author. Canyon Hotel ​ 1st Canyon Hotel This crude wooden structure was located in thick timber above Lower Falls, near the current Brink of Lower Falls parking lot. It was built in 1886 by the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA). This building housed the office, dining room, kitchen, and lobby. About 70 guests could be housed in nearby tents. It was permitted by the Army for the 1886 season only, but remained in use until a larger hotel was opened in 1890. ​ [Photo courtesy of Montana State University, Haynes Photo Collection] 2nd Canyon Hotel This hotel was located on the hill above the Grand Canyon, near where the current Xanterra horse operation is operated. The building contained 250 guest rooms and featured steam heat. Problems with the foundation necessitated repairs in 1896 and 1901. Twenty-four rooms were added in 1901. The hotel was in operation until 1911 when it was incorporated into the construction of the new Canyon Hotel. Top Left: Front of 2nd Canyon Hotel, Haynes post card No. 144 Top Right: Close-up of front of 2nd hotel, Wyoming State Archives, Stimson Collection Bottom Left: Colorized slide of the image to the right. Bottom Right: Haynes Photo, YNP #143227 3rd Canyon Hotel ​ This grandiose structure opened in 1911 with 375 rooms that accommodated 500 guests. It incorporated the 2nd Canyon Hotel into its floor plan, located on the left end of the hotel. The hotel was designed by Robert Reamer and construction continued through the winter of 1910-11. The cost was over $750,000 and financed by the YP Hotel Co. and Harry Child, who obtained loans from the Northern Pacific RR. Capacity was expanded to 600 guests in 1922 and a new wing was added in 1930-34 increasing total capacity to 900 guests. The perimeter was reported to be one mile long, and orchestras played nightly in the expansive lounge area. The hotel closed down after the 1958 season and guests were forced to stay in the new Canyon Village Lodge cabins. This magnificent building burned down in 1960 during demolition, the cause of which was never officially determined. Magnificent New Hotel in Yellowstone Opened Butte Miner, August 5, 1911 (Special Correspondence to the Miner.) Grand Canyon Hotel, Yellowstone Park, Wyo., Aug. 2 - The formal opening of the great lounging room of the new Canyon hotel in Yellowstone park, which marks the completion of the $700,000 structure, was celebrated tonight by a ball, in which the guests of the hotel, campers in the park, fisherman, hotel employees and everybody else within a radius of 50 miles, joined. The hotel is unique among all the resort hotels in the world, and the mammoth lounging room is the most striking feature. This room, 186 feet by 95 feet in dimensions, is finished in natural birch and furnished with large upholstered and willow pieces of original patterns designed by Mrs. H.W. Child. The floor coverings are rugs, especially made in Austria, the large middle rug being 56 feet by 25 feet. The color scheme is green and brown, with an occasional dash of red. The lighting effects are secured by a series of specially designed lanterns suspended from the great beams overhead.. . . [The hotel] was built under incredible difficulties, and every pound of material within this great structure, which stretches along the mountain side for 700 feet and is full five stories in height, was brought in by freight wagons and sleds from Gardiner, 40 miles away, and for several months through snow drifts 10 to 12 feet in depth, with the thermometer far below zero for weeks at a time. The hotel has 450 rooms, 75 bath rooms and every modern convenience, including electric elevators. Left Top: Exterior View, Detroit PC 71062 Right Top: Exterior view, Bloom Bros. PC YP60 Left Middle: Entrance ramp, Haynes PC No.220 Right Middle: Lounge from Office, Haynes PC No.10172 Left Bottom: Tea Room, Haynes PC No.217 Right Bottom: Hotel Office, Haynes PC No.10150 Canyon Camps & Canyon Lodge ​ ​ The Canyon Camp was built on the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. site, located near the current Uncle Tom's Parking Lot. It was operated by the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. from 1917-1919, the Yellowstone Park Camps Co. under Howard Hays from 1920-24, and taken over by Vernon Goodwin that year, who retained the same name. In 1928, Harry Child bought out all the camps operations and they began being called ‘Lodges’ with the name changing to Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. until 1936. Goodwin was retained and managed the camps operation. The hotel, transportation, boat, and camps operation’s were reorganized and the name was changed to Yellowstone Park Co. Top Left: Canyon Lodge Exterior, Haynes PC 15040 ​ Top Right: Canyon Lodge Cafeteria, 1951. YNP #29658 ​ Bottom Left: Canyon Lodge Lobby, YNP #133440 ​ Bottom Right: Canyon Lodge Demolition, late 1950s. YNP #59672 ​ New tent cabins were erected in 1923-24 and the log lodge building was greatly expanded in 1925. Twenty-four new 12’x14’ cabins and five 12’x12’ permanent lodges were constructed in 1927. The lodge and cabins were closed down in 1957 with the opening of the new Canyon Village. The area was later cleaned up and rehabilitated and only a few relics can now be found in that area. Many of the cabins were moved to the Lake area. ​ When Canyon Lodge was closed in 1957, many of the structures were moved to other locations in park, while some were demolished, and others were sold off, as was the case of the old Lodge Lobby, which was disassembled and moved to Nevada City (Virginia City), Montana by Charlie Bovey as part of his historic restoration/recreation of a historic Montana mining town. This modern new lodge was built, and opened in 1957 under the provisions of the Mission 66 plan, mandated by the Interior department. Yellowstone Park Co financed the construction to the tune of 5 million dollars and 500 boxy, flat-roofed cabins were eventually built. The lodge building featured a lounge, coffee shop, cafeteria, gift shop, and modern decor. The lodge is still in operation and is run by Xanterra Parks & Resorts. Quite a few of the original cabins have been demolished, while many others have been remodeled. Canyon Village ​ This modern new lodge was built, and opened in 1957 under the provisions of the Mission 66 plan, mandated by the Interior department. Yellowstone Park Co financed the construction to the tune of 5 million dollars and 500 boxy, flat-roofed cabins were eventually built. The lodge building featured a lounge, coffee shop, cafeteria, gift shop, and modern decor. The lodge is still in operation and is run by Xanterra Parks & Resorts. Quite a few of the original cabins have been demolished, while many others have been remodeled. ​ Left Top: Canyon Village Main Lodge. Haynes PC K57157. Left Middle: Lodge Lounge. Haynes PC K57060 Left Bottom: Lodge Lounge, Haynes PC 57069 Right Top: Lodge Dining Room, Curteich PC 8C-K595 Right Middle: Lodge Cafeteria, Haynes PC K57120 ​ ​ To provide additional guest rooms, Cascade Lodge was built in 1992 containing 37 rooms and is located in the cabin area. Dunraven Lodge was constructed nearby six years later and features 44 rooms. Since then, three additional lodges have been added, Washburn Lodge, Moran Lodge, and Rhyolite Lodge, replacing many of the old 1957 cabins.

  • Jardine |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Jardine, Mont. Gold Mining on the Edge of Yellowstone ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Undated photo of the Bear Gulch Mining District - Jardine, Montana. Note the row of houses along Bear Creek at far right. Mineral Hill is center, with the main mill below . The quaint small village of Jardine, Montana, was never considered a Gateway to Yellowstone National Park by any means. However, it was an important part of local history, and an economic boom for Gardiner , Cinnabar , and the Northern Pacific RR .The mining history is quite complicated and involved, so only the basics are discussed in this narrative. More extensive information may be obtained from the sources at the bottom of the page. "and finding also a hairless cub, called the gulch Bear.” ​ Eugene S. Topping , in his Chronicles of the Yellowstone, a classic and important history of the greater Yellowstone Valley written in 1885, claimed that in 1863 a group of thirty miners lead by George Huston prospected their way up the Yellowstone River from the mining community of Emigrant Gulch and continued past Soda Butte toward what later became the New World mining district. Attacked by Indians who ran off all their horses, the prospectors cached their excess supplies and continued afoot toward Clark’s Fork with one lone jackass. Finding a few prospects, but no pay, they returned back along the Yellowstone. Topping related that, “On the way they found fair prospects in a creek on the east side of the Yellowstone, and finding also a hairless cub, called the gulch Bear.” Even though today the creek goes by the name Bear Creek, the name Bear Gulch, also referred to as the Sheepeater District, still identifies the classic mining areas around the town of Jardine, Montana. Left : Eugene S. Topping, author of "Chronicles of the Yellowstone." Center : Joe Brown , one of the discoverers and developers of gold in Bear Gulch. Right : George A. Huston, one of the discoverers of gold in Bear Gulch, and a founding Father of Cooke City. Sporadic prospecting around Bear Gulch continued uneventfully the next few years after Huston’s journey until Joe Brown and partners John Zimmerer, Dan Royer, and an unknown man struck rich, gold-bearing gravel in 1866 on a bar at the mouth of Bear Gulch, as it empties into the Yellowstone River. They staked a claim and reportedly took out $8,000 in gold. News traveled quickly in the mining communities and in 1867, Lou Anderson, A.H. Hubble, George W. Reese, Caldwell, and another man discovered gold in a crevice at the mouth of the first stream above Bear Gulch, and named it Crevice Gulch. That same year George Huston returned to the area and built a cabin on Turkey Pen Flats across the Yellowstone River from Bear Gulch. Living on land that later became part of Yellowstone National Park, Huston’s cabin is believed to be the first white residence in Yellowstone. Historic illustrations of early gold mining. At top is a rocker that separated the gold flakes from the gravel, which was afterward panned out. At bottom is an arrastra that used a mule to drag a heavy stone over the ore to crush it, which could then be panned or separated from the host rocks. Meanwhile, placer mining was conducted on gravel bars along the creek, or in ancient channel deposits accessed by tunnels or drifts into the hillsides. During the years 1875-77, Joe Brown and other miners built over 3000 feet of ditch to carry water to the various gravel bars they were working. In either 1870 or 1874, depending on sources, Joe Brown and James Graham discovered quartz gold deposits in upper Bear Gulch on a hill later known as Mineral Hill. Although not developed for several years, the Bozeman Times reported in July 1877 that Wm. Heffner, Joe Brown, and James Graham were successfully crushing ore with a crudely-built, mule-drawn device known as an arrastra, based on a primitive design from the early Spanish and Mexican miners. The paper also noted that George Huston and Stoker Henderson would have their arrastra operating by October. Hard rock mining digs in . . . Hard rock mining escalated in 1878 when Z.H. “Zed” Daniels and three other men began working a quartz lead on Bear Gulch and built an arrastra to process their ore. In July the Bozeman Times reported that George Huston, Jimmy Dewings, and Joe Brown discovered a “fine gold lead . . . [that] panned out one dollar to the pound of rock.” A later article described a 9-foot vein with free gold running through it; a 4-ton run through the arrastra yielded $50 per ton. In 1879 the following mines were recorded at Bear Gulch: Legal Tender (Joe Brown); The Wonder of the World (Beattie, Anderson, and Lovely); The James Graham Lode; Joe Brown & Graham; The Monitor; The Mountain Bride; The Coan & McCauley Lode; The Mountain Chief (Geo. Huston); The Champion Lode; The Summit Lode; The Great Western; Mountain Chief (Brown, Huston, & Graham); and the Home Stake. Various newspapers touted the richness and auspicious future of both Bear Gulch and Crevice Gulch, where similar successes and operations were occuring. The Bismarck Tribune in May of 1879 claimed, “The belief is that erelong Bear Gulch is destined to become one of the richest camps in the Territory.” In April of that year a new town site was being laid out with corner lots going up, a harbinger of anticipated stability and prosperity. Outside investors were now beginning to see the potential of Bear Gulch and as a sign of things to come, George Huston and Dewings sold a third of one of their claims for $3500. Huston went on to concentrate his efforts in the New World Mining District, amassed dozens of claims, and became one of the original founders of Cooke City . Article from the Bozeman Avant-Courier, 22May1879, touting the wonders of the riches of the Bear and Crevice Gulches Major Eaton and the Bear Gulch Placer Co. ​ In 1882 Major George O. Eaton and a man named Sturgess formed the Bear Gulch Placer Co. and filed articles of incorporation in Gallatin County with capital of $40,000. Eaton bought out Brown’s Legal Tender mine and over the next few years purchased other mining properties. His crews tunneled into the canyon walls following old river channels in search for placer gold. Eaton also began hydraulic mining in 1884 on Joe Brown’s 40-acre placer claim on Bear Creek; about three miles below what would later become the town of Jardine. Installing equipment served by 1200 feet of 12-inch pipe with a vertical drop of 400 feet through a six-inch nozzle, it was reported to be the most powerful hydraulic placer operation in the world. Blasting away huge sections of the canyon walls in the quest for auriferous bounty, Eaton realized few riches from his efforts and left a scarred landscape, still visible to this day. Hydraulic mining is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment. In the placer mining of gold or tin, the resulting water-sediment slurry is directed through sluice boxes to remove the gold. Hydraulic mining developed from ancient Roman techniques that used water to excavate soft underground deposits. Its modern form, using pressurized water jets produced by a nozzle called a "monitor", came about in the 1850s during the California Gold Rush in the United States. Though successful in extracting gold-rich minerals, the widespread use of the process resulted in extensive environmental damage, such as increased flooding and erosion, and sediment blocking waterways and covering farm fields. "Placer Mining in Bear Gulch, Montana. Scenery Along the Northern Pacific Railroad F. Jay Haynes , Publisher, Fargo, D.T." The inscription reads: "Compliments Eaton His Mines(?) The little Giant engine My Father and I visited the scene" (Author unknown) To watch a fascinating video about hydraulic mining, click on this YouTube link. View of Bear Gulch in 1884. The town grew up along both sides of Bear Creek. [Courtesy Montana Memory] Changing direction, Eaton built the first quartz mill in Bear Gulch, a five-stamp combination mill to process the oxidized ores from the various lode claims. The mill operated successfully for about two years, but shut down around 1886 due to internal company dissention and the difficulty in hauling ore to the Cinnabar railhead. Minimal organized mining efforts occurred until 1890 when the firm of E.D. Edgerton and W.E. Jewell of Helena took over the operation and added five stamps to the mill. Operating successfully for three years, the operation was shutdown during the Panic of 1893 and the resulting economic depression. Changing direction, Eaton built the first quartz mill in Bear Gulch, a five-stamp combination mill to process the oxidized ores from the various lode claims. The mill operated successfully for about two years, but shut down around 1886 due to internal company dissention and the difficulty in hauling ore to the Cinnabar railhead. Minimal organized mining efforts occurred until 1890 when the firm of E.D. Edgerton and W.E. Jewell of Helena took over the operation and added five stamps to the mill. Operating successfully for three years, the operation was shutdown during the Panic of 1893 and the resulting economic depression. A new town takes shape . . . ​ By 1895 a few businesses had been established, including a hotel, sample room, general store, and four log cabin residences belonging to George Welcome and two other men. In 1895 a new post office was been established at Crevasse with Mrs. M.E. Cowell as postmistress and on Dec. 9, 1898 the community of Bear Gulch became known as Jardine, when the post office was established with J. B. McCarthy as postmaster. This gentleman also had a general store, while other businesses in town included a hotel, saloon and barber shop. Additional business enterprises followed later in the summer. The hotel in Bear Gulch went into bankruptcy in 1896 and was purchased by Cinnabar businessman W.A. Hall . It came into the possession of John Jervis at some point and was known as the Jervis Hotel. The Anaconda Standard reported on Oct. 31, 1898 that, “John Jervis, a recent arrival from Victoria, B. C. secured a license, Tuesday, to open a saloon at Bear Gulch. Mr. Jervis is interested with Helena parties in mining property in that district.” Walter Hoppe leased the Bear Gulch Hotel from Jervis in September 1899, and operated the hotel until about 1905, whereupon it reverted back to Jarvis. Top Right : Ad for the Bear Gulch Hotel in Jardine ca1900. [R.L. Polk Directory] ​ Bottom Right : "Hotel of Walter M. Hoppe, Bear Gulch," ca1899. [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir, 1Jan1900] Left : Bear Gulch Hotel in Jardine ca1903. [Keystone-Mast Collection, UCR] ​ Right : Bear Gulch Hotel, ca1903. [Underwood & Underwood stereoview] A correspondent writing from the town about the middle of October 1907, stated that 100 buildings were then in existence or in course of construction, and that the mining company contemplated the erection of thirty more cottages. At its peak the town boasted of a population of 500-600 souls. A Cultural Resource Survey of the area conducted in 1982 claimed that, “Within a year [1898-99] there were 130 new buildings, including two hotels, three mercantile establishments, office buildings, a mine company office, a guest house, a school and work started on a new mill. A water system and telephone service soon followed.” A hydroelectric dam was built on Bear Creek in 1903 near the mouth of the creek that produced electricity to the mines, businesses and residents of the Jardine area until 1948. A correspondent writing from the town about the middle of October 1907, stated that 100 buildings were then in existence or in course of construction, and that the mining company contemplated the erection of thirty more cottages. At its peak the town boasted of a population of 500-600 souls. A Cultural Resource Survey of the area conducted in 1982 claimed that, “Within a year [1898-99] there were 130 new buildings, including two hotels, three mercantile establishments, office buildings, a mine company office, a guest house, a school and work started on a new mill. A water system and telephone service soon followed.” A hydroelectric dam was built on Bear Creek in 1903 near the mouth of the creek that produced electricity to the mines, businesses and residents of the Jardine area until 1948. F. Jay Dean Bear Gulch Lodge No. 76, A.O.U.W. Jardine, Mont., 1901 [Author's Collection] Left : Ad for George Welcome, with stores in H orr, Aldridge, & Jardine. [Gardiner Wonderland , 21Aug1902] ​ Right : Ad for the F.J. Dean general merchandise store in Jardine [Gardiner Wonderland , 17Jul1902] A New Mining Era Begins - 1899-1948 . . . By 1895 a few mines and two stamp mills were again in operation. In the midst of the mining operations, despite promising discoveries by Uncle Joe Brown and others, the community remained relatively quiet until 1898, when the arrival of Harry Bush, a native of England and active in the South African mines, arrived and inaugurated a new era in Bear Gulch. Backed in part by Canadian capitalists, he secured a lease on the Legal Tender mine and the Edgerton & Jewell properties on Mineral Hill. Bush organized the Bear Gulch Mining Company in August, 1898, and began buying additional claims that included the Sowash mine on the same vein as the Legal Tender, the Revenue from George Phelps, and five mines from George Welcome. Bush enlarged the Eaton mill to twenty stamps, attracted additional investors, and laid out the townsite of Jardine. New businesses developed and the mining district boomed. With the beginning of the 20th Century close in sight, a new epoch was emerging that would experience the cyclic triumphs and failures, joys and sorrows, so typical of the mining industry. "In March of 1899, Bush laid the foundation for his Revenue (Red) stamp mill, with a ground area of 93 x 120 feet and a height of 103 feet. The foundation of this building contained six hundred perch (perch = 1 cu.yd.) of stone and required 400,000 feet of lumber . . . a five hundred foot tramway ran from the mine to the mill and discharged into a Cammett crusher which pushed it into a 500-ton pocket. The ore was then fed into eight batteries of five stamps each by eight automatic feeders. Eight plates then caught the free gold. This mill was finished in December of 1899 and Bush celebrated with a Christmas party at which 700 guests were entertained by a twelve piece orchestra and fed roasted buffalo.” [Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation Project – Jardine, 1982] “[Bush] resolved to give Jardine a Christmas which would linger in the minds of those who attended for years. Accordingly, arrangements were made for a grand banquet in the Revenue Mill on Christmas Day. Mrs. Bush was given charge of the arrangements, and the success which attended the affair is a splendid commentary upon the ability of Mrs. Bush as an entertainer and is a fact showing that Hurry Bush is not the only person in Bear Gulch who makes no mistakes in laying plans.The scene of the banquet was the machine shop of the Revenue Mill, the room being vacant on account of the machinery not yet having arrived. The room was decorated in a manner that rendered it a perfect bower of loveliness. The roof was a solid bank of evergreens, dotted hene and there with electric lights of various hues. Bunting of national colors swung in graceful folds around the room, and the most exquisite cut flowers lent their delightful perfume and beauty to the scene. Harry & Ada Bush [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 1Jan1900] The tables were laid for 100 persons and were profusely decorated. At 6 o'clock the banquet began, and it was 10 o'clock before the guests who had assembled to enjoy the hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Bush … The menu abounded in delicacies, and every luxury in the line of edibles that could be found in the market graced the tables. As a reminder of early days in Montana, a buffalo had been purchased by Mr. Bush. The juicy steaks and tender roasts of the monarch of the plains in days gone by contributed a share of the feast. Elk and deer, fowl of every description, and products of the salt seas and of the clear waters of the Yellowstone River w ere there in generous abundance. The best of everything was none too good for the guest assembled at the banquet, and it is safe to say that no greater enjoyment was ever had by any crowd than was furnished Christmas Day to the assemblage at Jardine. After the banquet was over, an orchestra of eleven pieces furnished music for the promenade and, as the first strains of the grand march swelled forth, the entire machinery of the Revenue Mill was set in gentle motion. Mr. and Mrs. Harry Bush led the march and, to the dropping of the stamps, the host of guests were conducted through every floor of the vast structure, winding the various rooms until the starting point was again reached: then a quadrille was formed. The remainder of the evening was most pleasantly spent and the breaking up of the assembly marked the close of the greatest social event ever held in Montana.” [Anaconda Standard, 31Dec1899] “However, during this period, Harry Bush struggled with problems obtaining ore with sufficient value to run since his most productive mines were tied up in litigation. He continued to process low-grade ore in his mill and problems with other members of the Bear Gulch Mining Company developed. A split in the Bear Gulch Mining Company developed and Bush broke away and formed the Revenue Mining Company, incorporated in Helena on June 21, 1899 . . . By the summer of 1899, Bear Gulch, now renamed Jardine, had two distinct mining groups operating in opposition to each other. These were the old Bear Gulch Mining Company, still under the direction of A. C. Jardine, and the new Bush Company.” [Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation Project – Jardine, 1982] In early 1900 creditors began to press Bush for payments on his huge debt load. After much wheeling and dealing, and many negotiations Bush was forced into bankruptcy. On August 18, 1900, Bush's properties including the Revenue Mill, 72,000 shares of Bear Gulch Mining Company stock, 275,000 shares of King Solomon Quartz and Placer Company stock, electric light plant, water plant, guest house and mine office buildings, were sold at auction in Livingston, with the First National Bank of Butte the new owner. The short reign of 'King Harry' rapidly came to an end. In the fall, new directors of the Bear Gulch Mining Company were elected with A.C. Jardine, B.C. VanHouten, and Andrew J. Davis representing Montana, while Alfred C. Blair, W.H. Barnaby, and W.G. Merritt from St. John, New Brunswick and mining and milling resumed. Top Left & Right : Construction of the Revenue stamp mill in Jardine. ​ Bottom Left : Construction of the Revenue Mine Tramway. Bottom Right : Completed construction of the Revenue Stamp Mill [All photos ca1899, from Livingston Enterprise Souvenir , 1Jan1900]] Meanwhile, a collection of local Bear Gulch mining people created a new mining company, as per the Anaconda Standard, Jan. 26, 1903. “NEW COMPANY IN BEAR GULCH Will Carry On a General Mining and Milling Business, Says Articles of Incorporation. The Livingston Post says that a new mining company has been organized for the purpose of operating in the Sheepeater district of Park county. It is known as the Bear Gulch company , the incorporators being Alex Livingston of Livingston and George Welcome, John Jervis, Frank Ackelmire and H D. Andrews of Jardine. These gentlemen are also the directors. The company has a capital stock of $500,000, divided Into 500,000 shares at a par value of $1 each. Of this stock only a small number of shares has so far been subscribed for, the present holders being Messrs. Livingston, Ackelmlre, Welcome, Andrews, Jervis, A.J. Campbell of Butte, and S.H. Crookes of Livingston. The stock is non-assessable.” ​ By March, the new operation was bought out by the Kimberly-Montana Gold Mining Company, operated by a syndicate from Chicago. It was reported that a new 40-stamp mill was being constructed in concert with the soon-to-be completed cyanide plant operation, bringing a total of 80 stamps under the company’s direction. The new management consisted of: P. L. Kimberly, William H. Barnaby, John H. Thompson, Moise Dreyfus, H. M. Ryan, Samuel Deutsch and Miles Finlen. Cyanide Mill in Jardine, 1908 [University of Montana, Missoula] Scene in Bear Gulch, 1899 [Montana Memory Project] Jardine Cyanide Mill Burns [Billings Gazette ,14May1948] The Jardine Gold Mining & Milling Co. takes over . . . In 1914 the Jardine Gold Mining & Milling Co. was formed to take control of the Jardine gold mines and was renamed the Jardine Mining Co. in 1921. By 1906 tungsten was being mined and milled by the various mining properties. The mineral was found in scheelite, a combination of tungsten and lime, occurring mostly in pockets. Wolframite is tungsten and iron, occurring in regular veins. Tungsten ore ran between $1000 to $1200 per ton, making it more valuable than silver. Mining activity was interrupted by an extended period of litigation from 1909 to 1916 and the mines operated continuously from 1923-26 and 1932-36 producing gold, arsenic and tungsten, but tended to operate off and on until 1948. Operations were temporarily suspended in 1942 because of the Federal restrictions on gold mining, but increasing war demands for arsenic led to the reopening of the mines in 1944, which operated until May 8, 1948, when fire destroyed the cyanide plant and the mines closed down in July. High shipping costs of arsenic ore were claimed as a reason for the mining shutdown. About 90 men were abruptly thrown out of work. Production figures from 1899 -1942 indicate that over 155,000 ounces of gold, 27,000+ ounces of silver, 4,000+ ounces of copper, 765,000+ pounds of tungsten and 12,615,000 tons of arsenic were produced. Perhaps an additional 40,000 ounces of gold were produced 1944-48. News article about the closing of the Jardine Mine. [Butte Montana Standard , 5Aug1948] Downtown Jardine, ca1930s [Montana Memory Project] The Mine Office in Jardine, ca1940s. The building still stands and was used as the mine office during the Mineral Hill Mine era in the 1980-90s. [Library of Congress] Entering the modern age of gold mining . . . In 1988 a new era in gold production began when TVX Gold, Inc. of Canada began mining efforts with tunnel/adit development, mill and crusher construction and pre-production activities such as erection of administrative and lab facilities. After much controversy regarding potential environment hazards of a mine so close to Yellowstone and potential pollution of the Yellowstone River fromm Bear Creek, permitting was finally approved and gold production officially began in September of 1889 at the 556-acre Mineral Hill site. The mine operated successfully until early Sept. 1996, when problems of access to new ore bodies dwindling ore supplies from existing workings caused the facility to close and about 130 workers were permanently laid off. Since closure, TVX has removed surface buildings and attempted to restore the area to a natural condition. Treatment of water draining through the tailings pile and from the tunnels continues to be processed to this day. The mine was located two miles from Yellowstone's boundary, five miles by road from Gardiner and produced about 40,000 ounces of gold a year for an approximate total of 260,000 ounces. ​ Today the community supports a small population of about 50 souls and and a few businesses such as outfitting, fishing & hunting guides, and vacation rentals. It is a popular area for hiking, biking, horse riding, skiing, and snowmobiling enthusiasts. Commemorative belt buckle given to employees to celebrate the opening of Mineral Hill Mine on September 26, 1989 [From the author's collection] Left : Article discussing the opening of Mineral Hill Mine in September 1989. [Great Falls Tribune , 23Sep1989] ​ Top : The closing down of TVX Mineral Hill Mine in September 1996, after only about 7 years of operation. [The Missoulian , 5Sep1996] ​ Below : Current view of Bear Gulch and Jardine looking toward Yellowstone Park. ​

  • Storekeepers |

    Yellowstone's Storekeepers Click on Link above to begin your tour. Stores, Photo Shops and Misc. Businesses in Yellowstone Hamilton Stores, Inc. is the concessionaire in the park currently (2002) authorized to sell generalsundries, supplies, groceries, and curios to the public. There are three main branches to the Hamilton family tree. The main branch of the tree started in 1897 when Henry and Mary Klamer (daughter of G.L Henderson) were granted a 10-year lease to build and operate a store at Old Faithful. They built a 2-story building and began operations. Apparently they were successful, for in 1913 they began construction on a 16' addition. After Henry's death in 1914, Mary sold the store to Charles A. Hamilton, an employee of YPA, who obtained financial backing from Harry W. Child. In 1917 Hamilton opened up a new store at Lake, and a filling station at Old Faithful. By 1930 Hamilton had stores with filling stations at Lake, Fishing Bridge, West Thumb, and two stores at Old Faithful. He continued to expand his business by buying the Brothers Geyser Baths and Swimming Pool at Old Faithful in 1933, which he rebuilt and expanded. The Hamilton Stores were replaced by Delaware North Co. in 2002, after some 80 years of service. The second branch of the Hamilton tree starts in 1889 when Ole Anderson opened up a shop in Mammoth selling curios and objects coated with residues from the mineral waters. In 1908 sisters Anna Trischman Pryor and Elizabeth Trischman bought out Anderson, and opened "The Park Curio & Coffee Shop." In 1924, they opened up a cold drink and ice cream stand on the Mammoth Terraces called the Devil's Kitchenette. At that time they also purchased George Whittaker’s’ deli in the auto camp. Whittaker, who also operated small stores at Mammoth and Canyon, sold out to Pryor & Trischman in 1932, giving them a monopoly in the northern half of the park. They continued to operate until 1953 when they sold their operation to Hamilton. The third branch of the family tree has the oldest beginnings, but was the latest acquisition. In 1884 Frank J. Haynes opened up a photo shop at Mammoth and Old Faithful. F. Jay was the Official Photographer of both the Northern Pacific railroad, and the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. Frank was also involved in the stagecoach business for a number of years, but it is his photography that made him famous. By 1905 his work in Yellowstone was such that he severed his connections with the NPRy and concentrated on his park business. Eventually he was to have Haynes Photo Shops at all locations, with the exclusive right to sell images of Yellowstone inside the park. His son Jack ran the business from 1916 until his death in 1962. His wife continued to run the business for a few years, but finally sold out to Hamilton Stores in 1967. There is one more segment of the Hamilton tree that currently operates under the name Yellowstone Park Service Stations. This company was formed in 1926 as a joint venture between Hamilton Stores, H.W. Child and Anna Pryor. They created a monopoly on gas sales and auto repairs in the park. YPSS is presently owned [2001] by Amfac Recreational Services and Hamilton Stores. There were a variety of other small business ventures started in the park in the late 1800's to early 1900's, most of which were short lived, or bought out by other companies. H.B. Calfee seems to have had one of the earliest recorded stores in the park. He was a photographer from Bozeman who, by at least 1881, had set up a crude tent store near Old Faithful to sell photos of the park. The following year saw the Henderson family setup a store and post office at Mammoth in one of James McCartney's buildings. There were several different laundry operations and bathhouses in existence at various times. Even Calamity Jane was issued a permit in 1897 to sell postcards of herself, reportedly to keep herself in drinks in Gardiner's finer establishments. After 1916, most all the small enterprises were gone, and the park was more or less 'officially' divided up among the businessmen and women mentioned earlier.

  • Gateways |

    Yellowstone's Gateway Communities ​ Click on Link above to begin your tour. Yellowstone’s Gateway Communities The existence of the gateway communities has been viewed historically (incorrectly I think) by the early military authorities and the Park Service as a sort of ‘necessary evil’. From the earliest days these towns, which have provided many of the necessary visitor services, have also provided a relatively safe haven and a base for a variety of social misfits whose interests were generally contrary to the best interests of the park. Some of the biggest problems in the early days were the poachers of wildlife, and exploiters of park resources. There were also the occasional stagecoach robbers, and trouble-making drunks that had to be taken care of by the authorities. Until 1894, there were no effective laws governing the park, and no judicial system to deal with the lawbreakers when apprehended. Usually the most the authorities could do was to evict a troublemaker from the park and confiscate his gear. It was a small price to pay in return for some of the profits that could be made by selling buffalo heads, game meat, etc. Passage of the Lacey Act in 1894 provided for legal protection of the park’s features and established a working judicial system. Although this did not stop wrongdoing, as no laws will, it helped tremendously to control the problems and at least gave the military authorities the power to punish these people. Problems such as ‘horn-hunting’ and poaching continue to this day, as certain locals, and of course out-of-towners, look to the park’s resources to help supplement their incomes. Gardiner , because of its lower elevation, lack of significant snows, milder climate and easy access, became the first gateway community in the early 1880’s. The area was traversed frequently starting with the fur trade in the 1820-30’s. Gold miners passed through the area in the 1860’s, with the precious element being discovered on Bear Creek in 1866 by Joe Brown. Gold ore was discovered in the hills around Jardine about 13 years later. The early exploration parties also passed through the area in 1869-72 as they followed the Yellowstone River into the park. These included the Folsom-Cook-Peterson, Washburn, and Hayden expeditions. The impetus to development came in 1883 with the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad to Cinnabar, 3 miles north of town. Even though the railroad did not reach town until 1902, Gardiner continued to prosper. It became the center of freighting activities not only for the park, but also for the gold mines at Jardine and Cooke City. It was the primary entrance for tourist travel through the park for many years. The town provided much labor for the road crews in the park, and for the transportation and hotel companies, and still does. The town also provided entertainment for the soldiers of Ft. Sheridan/Yellowstone in the form of bars, gambling, and houses of ill repute (much to the chagrin of the commanding officers no doubt). Amenities necessary for the comfort of the tourists, Sagebrushers, outfitters, hunters, and locals were also well provided for. West Yellowstone came into being around 1907 with the arrival of the Union Pacific Railroad. It was originally called Riverside even though it was not located at the river’s side, and the name was confused with the soldier station and stage station located a few miles inside the park. Two years later the town was renamed Yellowstone. It retained this name until 1920 when, to eliminate confusion it was changed again, this time to West Yellowstone. The west entrance of the park had been used since the early days of the trappers, who followed the course of the Madison River in search of beaver. Gold miners followed this route in the 1860’s, and by 1873 the “Virginia City and National Park Free Wagon Road” was built. By 1879 Gilmer & Salisbury were running stagecoaches from the UPRR station in Spencer Idaho into the Lower Geyser Basin. Although the post office was established in 1908, it was not until 1913 that lands were removed from Forest Service ownership in order to form the townsite. The town served primarily as a summer resort and fall hunting retreat until the early 1970’s when the Old Faithful Snow Lodge began operating for the winter season, and the Park Service began grooming the roads for snowmobiles. Cooke City , located near the northeast entrance, had its beginnings as a mining town, with gold being discovered in the area around 1869-70. It was originally named Miner’s camp in 1872, changing to Clark’s Fork City and Galena, before becoming Cooke City in 1882. The only real way in or out of the area was the trail from Gardiner through the park. The road to Cooke City was marginal at best until the early 1920’s, and even then the road would be impassable to wagons most of the winter. This area did not really become a ‘gateway community’ until the mid-‘30s when the road over Beartooth Pass was completed. This road was then advertised by the railroads as the ‘most spectacular’ entrance to the park. NPRR had a branch line into Red Lodge and bus service was available from there. This road is still generally only accessible mid-June through September because of the deep snows on the 11,000’ pass. Like West Yellowstone, their basic season is summer and fall, but it has become a very popular winter snowmobile resort. The closest gateway community to the east entrance is about 50 miles distant at Cody Wyoming . This town came into existence in the late 1890’s with help of the famous Buffalo Bill Cody, the railroad and agricultural interests. The first known white man to see the area was John Colter who passed through the area in the winter of 1807-08. The designation Colter’s Hell actually came from this area, not Yellowstone Park. Around 1902 Wm. Cody opened up his ‘Irma Hotel’, and established a trading company, campground and newspaper in town. He built Pahaska Lodge and the Wapiti Inn hunting lodge at the east entrance of the park. That same decade was fairly momentous for the new town, as the Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy railroad arrived, a road over Sylvan Pass into Yellowstone was built, and construction started on the Shoshone Dam and Reservoir outside of town. In 1912 Holm Transportation Co. started regular passenger service to Yellowstone, and four years later the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. became the first motorized transportation company to enter the park. They traveled as far as Lake Hotel where the guests were transferred to stagecoaches. The following year the stagecoaches gave way to the automobile and a new era was begun. The town is home to the world-famous Buffalo Bill Museum, Plains Indian Museum, and the Winchester Collection. Although seasonal in nature, the area has a variety of other business interests to help keep the town thriving year-round. Jackson Wyoming , although really a gateway community to Grand Teton National Park, has been included here because of the many historical ties the area has to Yellowstone. Colter is reputed to have passed through the area in 1807-08, and the area was well known to the fur trappers. The 1860’s saw gold seekers, but paydirt was never really found here. The Hayden Expedition explored the area in 1872 and ‘78. James Stevenson and Nathaniel Langford of the 1872 expedition claimed to have scaled the Grand Teton that year. However, Wm. Owen and his party who scaled the peak in 1898 disputed that earlier claim. The first known permanent settler arrived in 1884, but growth in the valley was slow. Access to the valley was difficult and the nearest railroad was over the mountains to the west in Idaho. The primary economy of the valley in the early days was ranching, cattle, horses, and dudes (probably the more profitable of the three). As with the other communities, poaching was a well-established custom for many years. In 1929 Grand Teton National Park was established and was expanded considerably in 1950. The first ski area was founded in 1946, and about 20 years later the Jackson Hole Ski area was established. The area now competes successfully with many of the renown ski hills of Colorado and Utah. The communities of Jardine, Aldridge, Electric, and Horr have been included mostly because of personal interest by the author. They have never been considered gateway communities, although they had considerable impact on the town of Gardiner in the early days. Gold ore was discovered on Crevasse Mountain near Jardine in 1879. In 1898 the post office was established and the town was quite a bustling little metropolis. Mining for gold, along with tungsten and arsenic was somewhat sporadic over the years. When the cyanide plant burned down in 1948, that was the end of any prosperity until 1988 when gold production started up at Mineral Hill Mine. That too was short-lived, closing down in 1996. Aldridge, Horr and Electric were relatively short-lived towns. Horr was founded in 1888 the service the nearby coal mines. It changed its name to Electric in 1904 because, as the old joke goes,“…the women were tired of living in Horr houses.” Aldridge, also related to the coal boom, was established in 1894 and was first called Lake. The coal mines shut down in 1910, and by 1915 both post offices had been closed down. By then many of the businessmen had already moved their operations into Gardiner, having seen the handwriting on the wall.

  • Gardiner MT |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Gardiner, Montana ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Main street of Gardiner, Montana, 1888. Among the earliest photos of Gardiner. Most of the town burned down the following August. Photo by H.W. Lloyd. This probably Harry W. Lloyd, of the Lloyd & McPherson Saloon. He also served as freighter and notary. He passed in 1957. [Photo courtesy YNP Archives #1397] The Early Days . . . . Gardiner was the 1st gateway community of Yellowstone Park, located at the north entrance of the park at the junction of the Yellowstone and Gardiner rivers. Due to the relatively low elevation (about a mile high) and the presence of the Yellowstone River, easy year-round access was available. All of the other current entrances are snow-bound a good portion of the year. The area was traversed by Native Americans for at least 13,000 years and evidence of their presence has been well-documented along the Yellowstone River and other tributaries. The Yellowstone was also a favorite route of the fur trappers and early expeditions into the park. The Gardiner valley was visited by white men as early as 1829, when Joe Meek and other trappers were attacked by Indians near Cinnabar Mountain. In the 1830s mountain man Johnson Gardner trapped in Yellowstone, particularly around the Indian Creek/Gardner River area, known as Gardner’s Hole. The river and town were named after Gardner and somewhere along the line an “i” slipped into the spelling of the town’s name. In the 1860 prospectors such as George Huston, Jack Baronette, A. Bart Henderson, and Adam Horn Miller traveled along the Yellowstone River into the park searching for the elusive wealth of gold. Discoveries were made along Bear Creek and Jardine and in the northeast portions of the park around the current Cooke City area. Between 1869 and 1871 the expeditions of Folsom –Cook-Peterson, Washburn, Barlow Heap, and F.V. Hayden traversed along the Yellowstone River and through the Gardiner Valley into the depths of the park and began to bring the wonders of Yellowstone into the public eye. Mountain man Joe Meek, the first known Euro-American to explore the area around Gardiner in 1829. James McCartney is believed to be the rider at left, with President Roosevelt (center) and Acting Supt. John Pitcher in April 1903. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] James McCartney and Harry Horr, homesteaded 160 acres at Mammoth and built the first crude log hotel at Mammoth in 1871. McCartney’s status in the park and his relations with the authorities were unstable at best and he was encouraged to leave the park on an involuntary basis on claims he was trespassing, and his land and buildings taken from him. McCartney eventually settled along the northern park boundary and Gardner River around 1879 in the area that would become the town of Gardiner. He was the town’s first postmaster in 1880, founded the fledgling town, and later became unofficial ‘Mayor’. He was the man who introduced President Roosevelt at the dedication ceremonies of the new Roosevelt Arch in 1903. It has been said that he laid out the town along the park border to get back at the government for kicking him out of Mammoth and negating his claims. The park boundary line still runs right along the sidewalk of most of Park Street. The Town Grows Up (and out) . . . . In 1883 the NPRR extended their tracks from Livingston MT to Cinnabar, about 3 miles north of town. Anticipating that the line would end up in Gardiner, the community quickly grew. By June of 1883 the town boasted of a population close to 200, consisting mostly of tents, log shacks and 21 saloons, 6 restaurants, 5 general stores, 2 hardware stores and several other types of businesses (and no doubt a few brothels). However, a land dispute between the railroad and 'Buckskin Jim' Cutler prevented the rail line from coming all the way into Gardiner, and the town's growth spurt stopped. L.A. VanHome and Harris Doble discovered the marble and travertine cliffs above town in 1887, but they were not fully developed until the early 1930’s by the NW Improvement Co. Visitors in 1883 traveled up the Yellowstone Valley to Gardiner and made these comments about the fledgling town . . . "We soon leave the Yellowstone River and are in the Gardiner River Valley. We stop for a moment at Gardiner City, a town of perhaps 100 log shanties and tents, where most anything can be had. The majority of establishments are, of course, saloons. Curious signs are here used to entice the unsuspecting traveler to stop within. I was lured into a grog shop by the ambiguous announcement In big letters over the door of “Health Office." Another article claimed that Dr. Tippie's Health Office, "is not as might be supposed from the name, entirely devoted to ameliorating the physical ills of mankind, though so far as dispensing invigorating liquors and soothing cigars, [it] may have that effect. In 1885 the town’s first public school was established in a small log cabin and the following year the townsite was formally platted by George H. Robinson. On Aug. 31, 1889, a mere three years later most of the town was destroyed by fire, including 19 businesses and 13 homes. It was a terrible loss and setback for the village, but the hardy and resolute residents, did not let the calamity stop the town’s progress. Only a week after the fire the Livingston Enterprise reported many of the citizens were coming to Livingston to acquire loans and building materials. Two weeks after the fire it was reported of Gardiner, “Times are quite lively here now. Buildings are being erected by R. T. Smith, Tom Foley, Joseph Daily, Chris Nuston, Charley Cowel, and in fact all are getting ready to build. It was a great hardship on all the sufferers by the late fire, but they will live through it and the town will be rebuilt.” The schoolhouse, S.M. Fitzgerald's Hotel, some of J.C. McCartney's buildings and a few other structures survived. [“The Great Gardiner Inferno of 1889,” by R.V. Goss, Montana Pioneer , May 2020] Left: Photo of Gardiner, Aug. 18, 1889. Probably the last photo taken of the town just two weeks before the Great Fire of 1889. [Sibley Watson Digital Archive, Univ. of Rochester, NY } Top: The town of Gardiner in 1890, a year after the fire. The Pratt & Hall Store is front and center. C.B. Scott's Saloon & Billiards and the Gardiner Hotel are to the middle right. Ranger Tavern is far left, with a Restaurant & Bakery to its right. [Photo YNP #33307] The year 1893 saw the first bridge constructed across the Yellowstone River, about a half-mile downriver from the current bridge, creating incentive for development on the north side of the river. L.H. Van Dyck and J.H. Deever were arranging for the opening of a meat market and butcher shop in Gardiner, and John Spiker set up a water wheel near the Yellowstone River that would pipe water up to the town using the pressure from the river. Water had previously been hauled up in barrels. Two years later he installed a 75-lite Jenny Dynamo at his water plant and was able to put in electric lights at his hotel. By 1902 the land dispute with Cutler had been resolved and the rail tracks were extended into Gardiner that year, creating a prosperity boom for the town. That same year the newspaper Wonderland was first printed in town but only lasted until sometime in 1905. It is available online and can provide a wealth of information about those early days. First bridge over the Yellowstone in Gardiner in July 1902. It appears little development had taken place on the other side of the river. It did, however, provide good access to the mines at Jardine and Cooke City. [Photo courtesy George Eastman Museum , Rochester, NY] Swinging suspension bridge over the Yellowstone River in Gardiner. Built in 1914, it was located near where the current bridge was constructed in 1930, replacing the old thilling walk above the raging river. A young woman traveling in 1915 described her trek over the bridge: "The following morning we walk over the village, and one interesting place we visit is an extension bridge over the Gardiner river. It is built for pedestrians and is said to hold up to four people, but wait until you walk out to the center, where the bridge swings up and down with each step, while the rushing, foaming water beneath roars until you do not know whether you are going up or down; then you think it will not hold one." [Above Left: Photo courtesy Jeanie LaCombe Gregorich] Above Right: 1918 Photo courtesy YNP, Everett Judson Collection] Left: Photo of Gardiner in 1896. C.B. Scott's Saloon & Billiards, along with the Gardiner Hotel are plainly visible to the right. [Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1908] Right: The town of Gardiner in 1902. the Gardiner Hotel is center, with Tripp & Melloy's Park Saloon to its right, and C.B. Scott's establishment to its left. [Photo YNP #9130] Excerpt From a Newspaper Account of a Tourist's Travel to Yellowstone in Early 1883 "To a Land of Wonders - A Yellowstone Park Expedition SIx Years Ago" (Brooklyn Daily Eagle , Oct. 27, 1889) "Pushing up against the very boundaries of the reservation there is a veritable Shantyville, Gardiner City, an ideal squatter town, with the rudest houses made of unseasoned boards, with not a few tents mingling with the more pretentious huts, huddled together as though the land was valued by the foot and inch. We took the census of the city and found that of the thirty-two houses which made the settlement, twenty-eight were saloons, the other four being the inevitable bakers' and butchers' shops with a private bar attachment, although not wholly given to the local industry. The town had been built in expectation of being the railway terminus, but there were strange hints that the rails would end at Yankee Jim's, some miles below, and the enterprising squatters were trying to unload their real estate on such guiless tourists as came along. The mining boom was being worked, for a little yellow dust had been found in the prospector's pans; the entire region already was staked out in miners' claims, and in vision the citizens were possessed of millions." The Northern Pacific RR Comes to Town . . . ​ The first train arrived in Gardiner on June 20, 1902. Since there was no turn-around yet, the train had to backup to Cinnabar until the following year. The Missoulian newspaper touted on June 26, 1902 that, “The grading of the Park branch extension was completed to Gardiner Saturday [June 21]. A temporary platform is being erected by the Northern Pacific at Gardiner and the first passenger train reached there Wednesday morning. After this date tourists to and from the Yellowstone park will board the cars at Gardiner instead of Cinnabar and will avoid an uninteresting four-mile stage drive over a bad road. The people of Gardiner will not celebrate the advent of the iron horse to that place until July 4, when they promise to do things up in great style.” Construction of the Gardiner Northern Pacific RR depot during the winter of 1902-03. [YNP #161764] In similar fashion, the Gardiner Wonderland newspaper reported on July 3rd that, “For the first time the regular passenger train on the Park branch ran into Gardiner and unloaded its passengers at the temporary depot and platform erected in the western part of town. Many of our citizens went down to greet the train and witness the fruition of their long deferred hopes. It may be now said that Gardiner in the terminus, although it will be some little time before freight, other than car lots, will be unloaded here. It is understood to be the intention to erect both a passenger and freight depot." Robert Reamer, architect of the Old Faithful Inn, designed the building and the firm of Deeks & Deeks was awarded the $20,000 construction contract on April 27, 1903. Above: View of depot, arch, and W.A. Hall store ca1905. [F.J. Haynes Postcard No. 183.] Above: Interior of the Gardiner Depot ca1905. [From original negative, author's collection. No reproduction without permission! ] Left: Interior of the Gardiner Depot in August of 1911. [Courtesy Utah Historical Soc, SHipler Collection] ​ Right: Interior of the depot, ca1908. [Campbell's Guide, 1909] From the Railroad Gazette, April 29, 1904: "The grounds about, and in the rear of the station are nicely parked, there being within the highway loop a lake, lawns and shrubbery. The arch at the park entrance was designed and built by Major H. M. Chittenden, U. S. Engineers . . . and with its massive lines, rough finish and graceful design, is especially attractive. The corner stone of this arch was laid by President Roosevelt at the time of his trip through the park about a year ago. From each side of the arch there extends a stone wall of the same design and material, the one on the western side continuing around the loop to a point near the platform. The station at Gardiner was designed to harmonize with the other structures [Yellowstone]. It is essentially rustic and is built of native materials. The foundations and lower parts of the walls are rough boulders. The walls above, including the platform shelters are made of unbarked logs. The roof trusses, gables and ceilings are finished with similar material. The interior contains a large waiting room with fireplace, ticket office, express office, baggage room and toilet rooms. The rustic effect is also carried out in the interior, the doors, windows, settees, chandeliers, hardware, etc., all being in keeping with the general design. The projecting ends of logs are smoothed and polished, and where lumber is used for finishing it is of high grade and finely polished. Wrought nails, bearing on their heads the trade-mark of the company, are used wherever they will show. The fireplace at the end of the waiting room is broad and forms a pleasing feature of the interior." Above: Train at the depot preparing to unload freight & passengers, ca1905. [Glass slide, author digital collection] Above: View of depot and stages leaving for Yellowstone Park. Real-Photo postcard. Above: View of depot and carriage, 1909. [Photo from Archibald family collection] President Theodore Roosevelt’s Visit . . . . In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt engaged on a grand western tour, taking him to Chicago, north through Wisconsin, Minnesota and North Dakota. Roosevelt and his companion, famed naturalist writer John Burroughs, arrived at Gardiner, Montana by train on April 8, 1903. The two men were greeted by their host, acting-superintendent Major John Pitcher. The President, Mr. Burroughs, guide “Uncle Billy” Hofer, and an Army escort toured the park for several weeks. Upon their return, Roosevelt dedicated the stone arch that was being built at the entrance of Yellowstone Park. ​ “Livingston. April 24.—Under a clear sky, surrounded by snow-covered mountain points that give grandeur and beauty to the National park and vicinity, tho cornerstone of the magnificent stone arch now being constructed by the government at the gateway to the nation’s pleasure ground was laid amid pomp and splendor this afternoon. It was a national event and one In which the chief executive of the nation participated. The reception tendered the president and the exercises were a complete success from the reception until the last note of the band died away in the recesses of the adjacent mountains. Tlte weather was all that could be asked for and the day throughout was one that would insure success to the undertaking.” [25Apr1903, Helena Independent Record ] Above: Dedication ceremonies for the Roosevelt Arch, 24Jul1903. Arch is to the left with the town of Gardiner in the background. Roosevelt Arch . . . . The Arch was built out of native stone in view of the new NPRy depot. Hiram Chittenden came up with the idea, and Robert Reamer designed the Arch It was dedicated by President Theodore Roosevelt on April 24, 1903 and by September visitors were able to drive through the Arch via stagecoach to enter the park. Around 1904 a wire fence was built from the Arch north along the boundary as an attempt to protect antelope from being shot by local hunters. The field between the Arch and the Yellowstone Park Transportation buildings was used as a hayfield for elk feeding for many years. A stone gatehouse was built near the Arch in 1921 and used as a check-in station until it was razed in 1966. The Arch is also known as the North Entrance Arch. Dedication of Roosevelt Arch, from the Independent Record , Helena, April 25, 1903: The upper Yellowstone valley never looked better than on this occasion. The residents assisted largely in making the affair a success. They turned out en masse and gave a hearty welcome to the hundreds of visitors that thronged their doors. Gardiner, the gateway to the park, was bedecked in national colors in honor of the occasion. Flags and bunting were everywhere and with the martial music and soldiers from Fort Yellowstone the place took on a military appearance. It was a gala day. The miner, the prospector, the ranchman, all were there and lent valuable aid In making the event Interesting and appropriate. Hundreds of Montana's people were present to greet the president on his return from his visit into the wilds of the park, and to participate in the exercises incident to the laying of the cornerstone. Left: Headline for the dedication ceremony from the Helena Independent Record , 25Jul1903 Right: Construction of the arch, 1902. [YNP #37257] A bit of culture squeezes in amongst the legion of bawdy bar-rooms Top Left: 1st schoolhouse in Gardiner, built in 1885 of logs. It was lucky to survive the ravages of the 1889 fire. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] Top Right: The 2nd school built at the east end of Park St. around 1904. constructed of native stone. [Real-Photo postcard] Bottom Right: Around 1915, a 2nd story was added to the 1904 schoolhouse, primarily due to the finances and work of Larry Link and Frank Holem. They postponed payment for their services until the school district could afford it. A new school was built in the area below the Arch in 1951. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] Left: Gardiner Union Church was built in 1904-05 as a community church for the benefit of all residents. Fundraising and construction of the building was spearheaded by WA Hall, CB Scott, LH Link, F. Holem. A committee was formed to raise funds, using dinners, bazaars, horse races, games of chance, and other activities. Harry Child of the YPTCo donated the land for the church. Most everyone in town either gave money or donated their labor in the effort. Larry Link hauled the rock and supervised construction. Mr. Kurtz was the stonemason. Construction was completed in July of 1905. Maintenance and upkeep of the building was provided by a women’s group called the Gardiner Guild. In 1948 the church became known as the Gardiner Community Church. [Photo courtesy Gardiner Historic Resource Survey] Left: St. Williams Catholic Church was constructed in 1954. The congregation used a Great Northern rail car for services from 1915 until the 1930’s. According to the Great Falls Tribune on Dec. 24, 1954, "Dedication of the new St. William’s Catholic Church at Gardiner will take place after the first of the year. Although the church is not quite completed, the first mass was celebrated in it last Sunday afternoon by Msgr. John E. Regan, pastor of St. Mary’s Church in Livingston, of which Gardiner is one of the missions. He was for many years pastor of Our Lady of Lourdes Church in Great Falls." The church was built of travertine from the quarry a few miles above town. [Real-Photo postcard] The Gardiner Opera House aka Eagle's Hall, was constructed in 1910 on the north side of Main St., between 2nd & 3rd Streets. It featured a large hall for staging theatrical performances and moving pictures for the enjoyment of Gardiner residents. It was built from local stone. The Fraternal Order of Eagles was founded in 1898. Gardiner’s chapter, known as an “aerie,” was established six years later in 1904 and dubbed Aerie #669. Meetings were held in the Gardiner opera house. The Gardiner Eagles later took over possession of the facilities until they were disbanded around 1969. The autos were part of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. fleet. They were awaiting gas from the Gardiner Garage's single gas pump across the street. [Photos courtesy Whithorn Collection, Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] Gardiner Post Office The post office was established in Gardiner on February 19, 1880. James McCartney becomes the first postmaster, serving until Sept. 17, 1883. By the early 1900s, the M.H. Link Post Office Store operated the PO. From 1936-1939, J.J. Moore’s store maintained the PO, and from 1939-1960, it was housed in the W.A. Hall store. In 1960, a new post office was completed on West Main St, the first time it had its own building. By 1998 the post office in the growing town had proved too small and a new facility was built on Hwy 89, near the new North Entrance Shopping Center. [Photo, Great Falls Tribune, 21Feb1960] Yellowstone Park Transportation Co moves in south of town . . . . . ​ With arrival of the Northern Pacific to Gardiner, YP Transportation Co. began creating storage facilities for the stagecoaches and horses, and bunkhouses for the stage drivers and related employees. These were created at the southeast of town along the Gardiner River around 1904-05. They were beautifully crafted stone and wood buildings utilizing designs by Robert Reamer. These included the large stable capable of housing 125 head of horses, and an open-sided carriage storage building featuring stone pillars. A duplex structure provided driver bunkhouse and mess facilities. When the transportation system was motorized in 1917, the former carriage house and stables were used for the White Motor Co. automobile fleet. ​ The Butte Daily Post remarked on May 9, 1906 that, “The Transportation company anticipates a large business. The company is erecting a mammoth barn at Gardiner. There are sixty men now employed on the structure, which will house many of the horses used by the company. The company has a great barn at Mammoth Hot Springs, from where all its passengers make the start throughout the park, but it was found desirable to have stables at Gardiner, where stages meet the trains.” Top: Construction of the new horse barns in Gardiner in 1906. It was located in the area in front lf the current bunkhouse. [Photo author's digital collection] Bottom: Horse Barns in Gardiner in 1915. The building has a remarkable resemblance to the current Xanterra Bunkhouse, located closer to the Gardiner River. This building would have been torn down around 1925 during construction of the new concrete auto storage building. No doubt parts of it were used for the bunkhouse. [Photo courtesy Rawhide Johnson] Top: Stage driver's bunkhouse and mess in the foreground. The Carriage House is to its left. followed by the horse barn. 1917 photo by Jack Haynes. [YNP #199718-60] Bottom: Close-up of driver's bunkhouse and mess in 1915. the building survives as an employee duplex for Xanterra Parks & Resorts. [Photo courtesy Rawhide Johnson] Fire at Mammoth and new modern transportation buildings in Gardiner . . . On March 30, 1925, fire broke out in the YPTCo main bus barn at Mammoth, which had been built in 1903-04 and designed by Robert Reamer. Within an hour, the entire barn was a total loss. Included in the damage were the smoldering ruins of about 93 vehicles, including 22 7-passenger White touring cars, 53 10-passenger White buses, and 18 other vehicles. One of the employees described part of the inferno, “Explosion of the large number of presto-light tanks which are part of the equipment of the busses, provided one of the spectacular features of the fire, Mr. Frazer said. Exploding like giant firecrackers, some of the tanks shot into the air a distance of 100 feet, leaving a trail of fire in their wake.” The opening of the summer season would arrive in a mere 2-1/2 months and the vehicles had to be replaced! Harry Child, head of the hotel and transportation companies, quickly got in touch with Walter White of the White Motor Company. Negotiations were soon finalized for the purchase of ninety model 15/45 buses, along with 9 service trucks. The White company scrambled together all their resources and was able to have the new vehicles arrive in time for the opening of the 1925 season. Photo of the tragic fire that destroyed the artistically-designed barn and garage at Mammoth in 1925. [Photo courtesy Bill Chapman] Coincidently, YPTCo had been constructing larger and more modern garage facilities in Gardiner. Although originally scheduled to open in the fall, this project too was rushed to completion in time for the June opening. This new facility included modern mechanics stalls, body and upholstery shops, carpenter shop, blacksmith shop, tire and battery shop, paint shop, and a coal-fired heating plant. The building is still in use and accommodates Xanterra Parks & Resorts Transportation facilities and Human Resource divisions. Around that time, a 2-story stone house was erected next to the driver’s bunkhouse, for the head of transportation, Fred Kammermeyer and his family, as their home had been destroyed in the fire. Top: The transportation garage and shops completed in time for the 1925 season. 1927 view. [Montana Historical Society #H-26469] Bottom: Concrete storage building for the vast auto fleet, also constructed in 1925. It replaced the artistically -designed barn and carriage shed. 1951 view. [YNP #32072] View of Park St. ca1905, from an original negative in the author's collection. No Publication or reproduction without permission. From Left to Right, there is the Park Hotel, the 2-story to the right is "General Merchandise." 2-story bldg in center is a Saloon, advertising Bozeman Beer, Toward the right is a 2-story false front OK Store - groceries, gen. merch. etc., and to its left is the M.H. Link Store. Eventually the Link family took over both buildings. A Trip to Gardiner in 1915 by a pair of Texas Ladies . . . ​ Two young ladies from Denton, Texas describe the Northern Pacific Railroad Depot and Swinging Bridge in Gardiner when beginning a Yellowstone Park tour with the Shaw & Powell Camping Co . Misses Myrtle Cody, Writer of the Article, and Maida Edwards of Denton, were in the party which spent several days in Yellowstone Park" ​ “Tells of Scenic Beauties” “We arrived in Gardiner, Montana, at 5:30 on June 25 [1915]. Gardiner is a typical Western village. It is all built on one side of the street at the north entrance of the Yellowstone Park. We step from out Pullman and we see a beautiful rustic depot built from unhewn pine logs and rough stones. It is a masterpiece of quaint architecture. “The inside of the depot is just as attractive as the outside. The big fireplace in one end of the waiting room with a split log mantle catches our eye. You glance around the room and see on the mantels and walls only decorations of nature, such as pine burrs, curious-shaped pieces of wood, different kinds of stones from the park, and elk horns. At the other end of the room is the ladies’ rest room with all modern conveniences. We would like to rest here awhile, but a twelve passenger coach awaits us at the door, with six big white, impatient horses, ready to carry us to the Shaw & Powell hotel, where we are to spend the night. “We are warmly greeted at the hotel and enjoy our stay overnight. The following morning we walk over the village, and one interesting place we visit is an extension bridge over the Gardiner river. It is built for pedestrians and is said to hold up to four people, but wait until you walk out to the center, where the bridge swings up and down with each step, while the rushing, foaming water beneath roars until you do not know whether you are going up or down; then you think it will not hold one. The coach leaves the hotel at 11:30 for first camp, which is Willow Park, and everyone is ready. The first and second coaches are full, but there is room in the third coach for our party and four more passengers. Denton Record-Chronicle (Texas) Thursday, August 12, 1915 Park Street in the 1920s & 1930s Top Left: Park St. in 1923. The store to the right in front of the old car, is the M.H. Link Store. Eventually the Link family owned the large bldg on the corner also, operating a grocery until 1966. To its left are two Menefee business, probably a saloon and billiards hall. Wm. Menefee drove stage in earlier days and later was a judge in Gardiner. [YNP #11347-7] Top Right: Park St. in the 1930s. To the right is the Grotto Cafe, with a small Lantern Cafe sign lower down. The M.H Link store is to its left, The 2-story bldg down the street is the Welcome Hotel, with a saloon or beer hall to its right. The Park Hotel is the next 2-story, with the Moore Store a few doors down. The W.A. Hall store is at the end of the street. Original photo has been cropped for clarity. [YNP #11347-7a] Bottom Left: Park St. in the 1930s, view from the east end of the street. The Shaw Hotel & Cafe to the right, The 2-story to its left was once the Gardiner Hotel, with what was C.B Scott's Saloon to its left. The Grotto Cafe and M.H. Link Store cab can be seen near the 3rd power pole. [Real-Photo postcard] ​ Below: Park St . in 1939. J.J. Moore's Store to the left, next to the Arch Cafe, the old Park Hotel to its right. The next 2-story is the Welcome Hotel & Cafe, The Ranger Tavern is 3 doors down, in front of the car. Two doors down is the M.H. Link store and then the Grotto Cafe, next to the State 'Theater?'. The Shaw Hotel & Cafe is toward the end of the street. Photo has been cropped for clarity. [YNP #185327-492] Gardiner continues to grow in the 1920s and on . . . . Hwy 89 was extended into Gardiner on the east side of the Yellowstone River in 1926 and the old original dirt road from Yankee Jim Canyon to Cinnabar and Gardiner that navigated along the west side of the river became a secondary road. A concrete bridge was built over the Yellowstone River at its present site in 1929, tying the two sides of town together, encouraging more growth on the north side of town. Tourist courts began to emerge with motels later following that trend. The face of businesses on Park St. seemed to change regularly over the years. Ownerships changed hands, buildings were remodeled and expanded. And of course, the old nemesis - ‘fire’ - took its toll over the years - the Moore Store on Park St. in 1916, The Wylie Hotel and other buildings on Main St. in 1935, the Shaw Hotel in 1950, and the North Entrance Shopping Center on Park St. in 1971. Moore moved his business next to the Wylie Hotel, fine residences replaced the Wylie Hotel, the shopping center rebuilt and reopened, and the Town Club & Café replacd the old Shaw Hotel. No doubt other buildings added to the carnage along the way. But the town continued to grow and thrive, if even only seasonally. The new bridge over the Yellowstone River built in 1930. A community dance and picnic is held on the bridge to commemorate the opening. [Photo courtesy Ron Nixon Collection , Montana State Univ.] Early Hotels Serving the Needs of Tourist and Locals Alike Gardiner Hotel in center, w/C.B. Scott's Saloon to its left, ca1900. [YNP #37094] Gardiner Hotel This was operated by W.A. Hall in at least 1892. Early Sanborn maps showed a Gardiner Hotel located on Park St., about where the Shaw & Powell hotel was located some years later. In 1892, Hall began a Golden Rule Cash Store in Cinnabar and by 1891 he was proprietor of the Cinnabar Hotel. Hall moved his merchandise operations to Gardiner in 1903. A.L Roseborough was listed as being in charge of the hotel in Nov, 1902. The Gardiner Hotel is a rather ambiguous name, and tracking its history is difficult at best. Gardiner Hotel at right, w/C.B. Scott's Saloon to its left, ca1900. The hay wagon was probably one owned by Scott with delivery to the Army at Mammoth. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, M81-0432] Park Hotel to the left, and 2-story General Merchandise to its right, part of the bottom of which was the Tripp & Melloy Park Saloon, 1905 [O riginal negative in the author's collection. No Publication or reproduction without permission. Ad for the Park Hotel and saloon, run by Walter Hoppe, son of Hugo Hoppe. [30Apr1903, Gardiner Wonderland] Park St. 1904, Park Hotel left of center, with General merchandise to its right. The other 2-story became the Welcome Hotel. [Stereoview, no markings on front of card.] Fitzgerald - Park Hotel S.M. Fitzgerald, having served as an Ass’t Superintendent in Yellowstone, moved to Gardiner in Jan. 1886. On July 17, 1887, The Livingston Enterprise announced that Fitzgerald, “has nearly completed a large hotel in Gardiner. It apparently was one of the few buildings to survive the great fire of 1889. Known as the Park Hotel, WW Wylie leased it in 1897 for his camping operation. Walter Hoppe purchased it in 1902 and reopened the hotel. The Park Hotel is a rather ambiguous name, and tracking its history is difficult at best, with numerous Park Hotels in Montana, and that it is regularly confused in newspapers with Yellowstone Park hotels. Cottage Hotel, early 1900s. The sign clearly reads Hotel, but the rest is unreadable. [Real-Photo, author's digital collection] Ad for the Dewing Hotel, [18Apr1905, Gardiner Wonderland] Cottage Hotel, early 1900s. The sign clearly reads Hotel, but the rest is unreadable. [Yellowstone Gateway Museum , 2006-044-0168] Dewing Hotel - Cottage Hotel - Gateway Hotel Located on E. Main St, on the north side ( Lot 2, Block 11). Isaac D. McCutcheon, who platted the area, originally owned the property. Augustus T. French purchased the lot on 12/8/1890 from McCutcheon. It was sold to James McCartney the following year. The hotel was in existence by at least 1905 and run by John H. Dewing. At some time the wife of Jim ’One-Eyed’ Parker ran the hotel. John F. Curl and his wife Zona sold their properties in Cooke City and moved to Gardiner around 1915 and ran the Cottage Hotel. John died October 1, 1924. For a time it was operated by Bob & Anne (Sommerville) Jones, and became known as the Gateway Hotel by at least 1950. It is currently used as an apartment complex on Main Street. Welcome Hotel George Welcome established the City Restaurant in Gardiner by 1885, and in early 1886 it was announced he was preparing to open a hotel in conjunction with the restaurant located on Park St. By June 1886 ads for the City Hotel were running in the Livingston Enterprise, with his wife as proprietor and George running the saloon. The hotel burned down in the great fire of 1889. After that, the family seems to have moved to Jardine and conducted businesses in that mining town. He was also at various times a businessman at Horr and Cooke City. At some point a new hotel and restaurant were built and by the mid-1920s, was operated by George Welcome, Jr. until sometime in the 1950s. George passed in 1958. A hotel continued to operate at that location at least into the 1970s. Top Left: View of Park St. in 1939. The Welcome Hotel & Restaurant is the 2-story at the left. Photo cropped for clarity. [YNP #185327-492] Top Right: Park St. in 1960. The Cafe and Hotel sign can be seen mid-left. The Ranger Tavern is at right, with Callison's Walgreen Drugs to its left and Yankee Jim's Souvenir and gift shop next to the Welcome. [YNP #28326-2] Left: 1886 ad for George Welcome's City Hotel & Saloon. [12Jun1886, Livingston Enterprise ] Top : Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Hotel, with guests ready for a 5-6 day tour of Yellowstone. [Yellowstone Gateway Museum #1317] Bottom : Shaw's Hotel & Cafe, 1930s, looking rather rundown. [Author's digital collection] Park St. in Gardiner, late 1940s. Note the Shaw Hotel & Cafe on right. Photo has been cropped for clarity. [YNP #33335] Shaw & Powell Hotel - Shaw Hotel & Cafe The Shaw & Powell Camping Co. initially brought guests into Yellowstone from the north entrance and in 1909 officially opened the Shaw & Powell Hotel in Gardiner to serve their guests before and after their arrival on the Northern Pacific train. They had been leasing the lot since 1907, and the Sanborn Insurance map of Gardiner in 1907 showed a "Gardiner Hotel" on the site at that time. The S&P Hotel may have been remodeled by the Shaw family for their hotel. Previously, the corner was occupied by C.B. Scott. In the early 1920s, the hotel name changed to the Shaw Hotel & Cafe, owned and operated by Walter Shaw and his wife from 1922-25, Walter also guided tours through the park to the Cooke City area where he operated Shaw’s Goose Lake Camp. Walter drowned in the Yellowstone River in 1925 and his family continued to operate the hotel until 1944. At that time it was sold to Hugh Crossen and J.D. Winters who operated it under the name Park Hotel and Café. They sold it to Paul Spradlin a few years later and in 1950 the hotel burned down, killing two persons. Crossen repurchased the property and built the Town Club & Café utilizing the original stone back and side walls. The property changed hands several times until 1969 when it passed into the hands of Don Laubach. The family still operates the business under the name Town Motel, Lounge, and Café sometime into the 2000s, when other parties took it over. It was torn down around 2019 by new owners.. Wylie Hotel, ca1915. Next door is the Moore's Park Store, selling postcards, tourist curios, etc. [YNP #9555] The tragic fire of Jan. 8, 1935. The Wylie Hotel is at the left, and the former Moore's Store at right. [Photo courtesy Jeanie LaCombe Gregorich] Wylie Hotel, Sept. 7, 1914. Note the changes made in first photo. To the left is the Community Church, completed in 1905. [Tourist photo album, author digital collection]] Wylie Hotel W.W. Wylie and his Wylie permanent Camps Co. originally leased the Park Hotel in 1897 from S.M. Fitzgerald for the use of his guest arriving and departing Gardiner. He apparently used this hotel for about 5-6 years. With the arrival of the railroad to Gardiner, Wylie decided to build a new hotel. Construction began in early May and no doubt opened in time for the new season. The Gardiner Wonderland noted in the spring that, “Wylie is building a barn on Stone St. in Gardiner, facing the RR tracks. Work on his new hotel is progressing rapidly. The Wylies had purchased lots on Main St. north of the WA Hall Store to build the hotel.” The hotel was located on West Main St. behind the A.W. Hall store, which also opened in 1903. In mid-July 1905, the Wonderland announced, “W.W. Wylie has commenced the erection of a large annex to the Wylie hotel which will consist of an office and about forty more sleeping rooms.” After the season of 1905, Wylie sold his camping operation to A.W. Miles, who was secretly backed by Harry Child. Miles named the new company Wylie Permanent Camping Co. The Wylie Hotel continued to operate for another 25 years. In 1917 The Wylie and Shaw & Powell Camping Cos. were merged, and the new Yellowstone Park Camping Co. no doubt assumed ownership of the hotel. At some point the hotel also housed the Lark Lunch Room. Little is known of the details of the hotel in later years. Tragically, the hotel burned down on January 8, 1935. Early Businesses in Gardiner Serving Tourists and Townsfolk Early Saloons Top Left: Larry Link Saloon, ca1890. It catered to locals and soldiers from the Park alike. It later became the Ranger Bar. It is located at the far left on photo top right. [CF Finn photo, YNP Archives] ​ Top Right: Park St. in 1890. The Ranger Tavern is at far left, CB SCott's Saloon & Billiards is at right on the corner. The Gardiner Hotel is to it right and Tripp & Melloy's Park Saloon was located right of the hotel (out of photo) Photo cropped for clarity. [YNP #33307] ​ Left: 1903 ad for Lawrence Link's Saloon and Club Rooms. [9Jul1903, Livingston Enterprise ] ​ Right: Tripp & Melloy Park Saloon, ca1900, run by Dan Tripp and Jerry Melloy. It was later run by Harry Lloyd. George mack took over the business in 1910 and installed a barber chair. A wire screen was installed around the chair to keep drunks from falling into barber patrons. [YNP #37097] Top: Tripp & Melloy Saloon with the Park Hotel at its left. Note the barber pole out front, this would date the photo to post-1910. There is a bath house between, probably in conjunction with the barber shop. The saloon continued to operate in a shared space. ​ Bottom Right: Ad for Park Saloon, Tripp & Melloy. [30Apr1903, Gardiner Wonderland ] Ranger Tavern at Left Top Left: Park St. 1939, showing Ranger Tavern, the 3rd bldg from left. The M.H. Link Store is two doors to its right. In the 1890s, the Ranger was oringinally known as the Link Saloon (See above). The Ranger Tavern re-opened after the repeal of prohibition by Roy ‘Two-Spot’ Brown. He built a house on the old Wylie Hotel site [YNP #185327-493] ​ Bottom Right: Interior of Ranger Tavern, undated. [Photo courtesy Dave Pompper] M.H. Link Post Office Store Top Left: M.H. Link Post Office Store, ca1908. Established by Mike H. Link in the early 1900’s, it was located on Park St., the 3rd store from the intersection with Hwy. 89. Otilla Link was postmaster from 1904 to 1908. By the early 1920’s it was known as the M.H. Link Store. Son Hubert later ran the business and expanded it greatly. He sold out to Gordon Evans in 1966. The Billings Gazette announced in June, “Councilman Gordon Evans [Livingston] has announced his resignation. Evans has purchased Link’s Shopping Center in Gardiner and plans to move to Gardiner about the first of July. He also owns Evans Grocery in Livingston.” Evans operated the Gardiner store under the name of North Entrance Shopping Center. Mr. Evans passed away in Feb. 1971, and a mere two months later, the store, operated by his wife, burned down. The store was rebuilt and operated until 1994 when owners Deb & Larry Demaree, opened a new spacious store on Hwy 89 on the site of the Mountain View Motel. Top Right: Interior of M.H. Link Store, 1900. Mike Link was the brother of businessman Larry Link. [YNP #37098] J.J. Moore Souvenir Store Left: J.J. Moore's Souvenir Store, selling, postcards, Yellowstone views, park souvenirs & novelties. Next door is the Wylie Hotel. View ca1916. [YNP #9555] Right: Moore's Park Souvenir Store, 1939, located on the west end of Park St. The W.A. Hall store would be toward its left. The Wylie Hotel burned in Jan. 1935, and Moore had moved his store sometime before that. Image cropped for clarity. [YNP #185327-493] J.J. Moore seems to have started business in Gardiner around 1903 when he operated a jewelry store out of the new W.A. Hall store. By 1904 he advertised “Do you need anything in jewelry or silverware or a pair of new glasses?” He listed himself as a Jeweler and Optician in the ad. At some point in time he moved into his own store on Park Street that burned in 1916. Sometime after that he opened a souvenir shop in the old Park Hotel on Main Street. It was located east of the Wylie Hotel. During the 1914-16 seasons (at least) he was a stockholder in the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. By 1935 the Moore Store moved to Park St., near the W.A. Hall store and his old store was being used as a telephone office. Around that time the business was advertised as being in the Post Office Bldg. Sale items included: ice cream and soft drinks, candies, cigars, fishing tackle, Kodak supplies, views, guide books, park souvenirs, and groceries. Advertising card from the J.J. Moore Souvenir Store. Likely dated 1903-1916. The Van Dyke & Deever meat market opened in 1895 at the corner of 2nd (Hwy89) and Main St. Van Dyck built the stone house across the street from the market for his residence in 1903. By the early 1900s the meat company was doing considerable business supplying beef and pork to the Army at Yellowstone, and by 1902, they were supplying all the park hotels and camps with meat. In May of 1919, Walter J. Hill, of Hill & McClelland Cattle Co., purchased all of L.H. Van Dyck’s holdings in Gardiner and Park County. Van Dyck & Deever Meat Market K-Bar Cafe & Club From the Billings Gazette, April 1, 1972. At least by the 1940s, the business was a bar and café. Jack Taylor purchased the K-bar in 1972 saying, “he bought a combination bar and restaurant last fall, hoping the legislature would authorize gambling as it had been authorized to do by the new constitution. “I’d be fooling if I said I didn’t speculate when I bought this . . I thought this was an ideal time to buy.” [Mt Standard, 27May1973] The K-Bar was later purchased by Dick & Irene Herriford, who operated the bar and restaurant for 20 years before selling the business and building the Absaroka Lodge. [Real-Photo postcard, author collection] Holem & Pilger - Gardiner Garage Frank Holem & Henry J. Pilger built a stone gas station on the corner of 2nd and Main St. around 1925 (across from the current K-Bar). They later greatly expanded the business. In May 1932, the business incorporated as Gardiner Garage Inc., of Gardiner, in Park county, with capital stock of $50,000. Directors were Frank and Minnie M. Holem and Henry J. and Elizabeth M. Pilger, all of Gardiner. Frank Holem had moved to Gardiner in 1893 as an itinerant blacksmith, gradually learning to repair automobiles as time went on. [Photo cropped from company Christmas card, author's collection] Grotto Cafe Located on Park St., near the intersection of 2nd St. first opened in 1905. According to the Gardiner Wonderland in Aug 1905, "The Grotto Cafe recently opened to the public by C.W. Wardloe [Wardlow?], at the old Elk Restaurant stand, is doing nicely with the trade constantly increasing. Mr. Wardlow certainly runs a first-class house, has nothing but the best of cooks, and his tables are supplied with the best the market affords. He desires your patronage. When in town call on him and get a square meal." The building continued to be viewed in photos next to the M.H. Link Store from the 1930-40s, but by sometime in the 1950s an empty lot began appearing. [Real-Photo postcard, cropped for clarity] O.K. Cash Store Located on the corner of Park St. and 2nd in 1900, it was operated by George (G.E.) and Mamie Settergren. Advertisements were common in the short-lived Gardiner Wonderland. Little else is known about the store. The O.K. Grocery Store was operated in the 1890's by Jos. Dailey, but unknown if same building. Top Left: The OK Store, next to the M.H. Link store, ca1905. [Goss Negative] Top Right: Ad for the O.K. Grocery Store, run by Jos. Dailey. [Livingston Enterprise , 25Jan1890] Right: Ad for G.E. Settergren's O.K. Cash Store. [Gardiner Wonderland, 26May1902] C.E. Wilcox Jewelry and Pictures This store was located on Park St. between the Moore Store and Welcome Hotel, in the small building that was once the Deli. It was run by Clarence Eugene "Gene" Wilcox and his wife Gina, beginning around 1927. They sold jewelry, quartz and agates crafts. Gene also specialized in clock repair and published several wildlife postcards. He died in his store in early 1971, preceded by his wife in 1958. An auction for sale of the goods and equipment was held in June 1971. Advertisement from the Gardiner-Gateway Gazette, 30 May 1940 W.A. Hall Store Above: The W.A. Hall Store in the 1930s. Next to it is a gas station operated by the Hall Company, with the Roosevelt Arch to the left. Behind them on Main St., is the Wylie Hotel. [Cropped image from a W.A. Hall Christmas card, author's collection] Bottom Left: Early image of the W.A. Hall Store on West Park St. Their claim to fame was that, "We Sell Everything." [YNP #37081, ca1905] Bottom Right: Undated early photo of the W.A. Hall Store. The window signs indicate a drug store at the right end of building. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] W.A. Hall Store William A. Hall built this store in Gardiner near the Arch and rail depot in 1903 and provided all of the basic necessities of life for the tourist, hunter, and resident. The large upstairs was home to many community dances in its heyday. The building was originally designed by architect Robert Reamer, but due to cost and time considerations, the building was modified to simplify and speed up construction. Hall originally ran stores in Cinnabar and Aldridge, but with the opening of the railroad to Gardiner, he started a new store here. The Cinnabar store closed right after his move and he left Aldridge after the coal strike of 1904-05. The store was a Golden Rule store, the forerunner of the J.C. Penny franchise. Hall later moved to Bozeman and his sons Earl, Warren, and James operated the store until 1955 and sold the building in 1961 to Cecil Paris. The building still stands and was home to a variety of businesses, including laundromat, bookstore, coffee shop, video store, TV cable service, and gift shop for many years. In 2008 the Yellowstone Association, the nonprofit education foundation that benefits the park is committed $4 million to buy the property and an adjoining lot and refurbish the 12,000-square-foot building to create its new headquarters. The association spent $2.9 million renovating the building and in April 2009 moved its headquarters from Mammoth to the new facility. The building now houses the offices, an educational store, a visitor information desk, two classrooms and a display on the building's history. Undated photo of the interior of the W.A. Hall Store. [Courtesy Yellowstone Association] W.A. Hall Conoco Service Station, ca1920s. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum ] W.A. Hall Store after it became Cecil's Fine Foods. The Four Bears Curio shop was located at the left end. The large neon signs on the roof lit up that end of town for many a year. [Real-Photo postcards, 1960s] W.S. & A.F. Berry Photographic Studio Above : Deck of Wildflower Post Cards. Published By W.S. & A.F. Berry. Set of 12 Each Measured 5.5" x 3.5" with divided backs. The set of cards were "Made in Germany" and dated 1905. Flowers Include: Harebell, Gentian, Mentzelia, Wild Rose, Monkshood, Lupine, Bitter-Root, Flax, Larkspur, Iris, Indian Paint Brush, and Columbine Above Left : Typical postcard trademarks. The earlier cards used the Red Emblem, front & back, while later cards simply had the credit line on the reverse. William Sanford Berry was born December 1866 in Indiana and passed away December 1948 in Pomona, Calif. Aurinda "Aurie" Sophronia Ferris Berry was born Jun 1872 in Illinois, and passed on October 1950 in Pomona, Calif. ​ The Berry family moved into Gardiner in 1902 and established a photo studio in a tent at the north end of town. According to Ruth Quinn, the couple purchased two lots on Main St. in 1911 and had a new building constructed called the Gardiner Studio.. The husband and wife team produced at least 60 known postcards of the Yellowstone area. Many of them featured beautiful fauna and flora depictions, while stagecoaches were featured in several others. Documentary-type photos were also taken in nearby communities. Larger format photos were vailable, 4x5", 5x7" & 8x10", in either glossy or dull finishes. During the sixteen years they spent in Gardiner, one or both of them established temporary studios in other Montana towns to supplement their income. A son was born in 1912 - Ferris Milton Berry, who spent most of his career in the Air Force. The family moved out of Gardiner in 1918 and according to, W.S. served as "warden of Sully's Hill Game Preserve at Fort Totten ND; the preserve being established by President Teddy Roosevelt to help rebuild the herds of elk, deer, and bison which had been over hunted nearly to extinction. After several Dakota winters, William decided there was too much pioneering at Fort Totten for a man his age and in 1920 moved his family to sunny Long Beach CA; and in 1926 relocated to Pomona." They passed away in 1948 & 1950 respectively and were buried in the local cemetery. Unfortunately no photos have yet been located of their studio or of themselves. Tourist Camps & Motels Begin to Replace Hotels in the 1920s - 1960s Reifsteck Cabins These were run by Mrs. Viola Reifsteck, perhaps beginning in the late 1920s. According to the Billings Gazette in 1966, "Mrs. Viola Reifsteck, 79, of Gardiner died Tuesday in a Livingston hospital She was born Oct 27, 1886 at e Perry, Iowa. She came to Gardiner in the early 1920's and then operated a tourist court for many years. Her husband, Phillip F., preceded her in death in 1943. Surviving are a son, Lewis, of Gardiner, one grandson and several brothers and sisters." Hy-Grade Cabins - Hy-Grade Auto Court - Hygrade Motel The Hy-Grade Auto Court Co. was founded in May 1931 by Ed Travaskis, D.T. White, and Lawrence McmAhon. Deade White owned and operated the Hy-Grade Motel in Gardener from 1935 until 1964, possibly with Travaskis for a few years. In 1965, the Montana Standard-Post reported the, “HyGrade Motel at Gardiner has been purchased by Levi Haynes of Gardiner and Ray Yardley Jr. of Livingston, from owner Vaughn Kearns. The new owners said the motel will be closed during the winter months. The North Gate Texaco gas station was added in 1948 and operated under a lease to other persons. When Hwy 89 was widened and improved through Gardiner in the early 1970s, the portion of land upon which the gas station was located, was condemned by the state highway dept for the right-of-way. In 1990, the Absaroka Lodge, owned by Dick & Irene Herriford, replaced the old cabin units with new multi-story guest rooms, retaining the unique stone pillars at the entry way to greet motel visitors. Left: Hy Grade Auto Court & Texaco Station. Postcard ca1950s. Center: Matchbook from the Hy-Grade Auto Court Right: Hygrade Motel, early 1970s. Hwy 89 had been widened and Texaco Station removed. Left : Current photo of Absaroka Lodge , with historic stone pillars. Jim Bridger Log Cabins Located at the north end of town on Hwy. 89, George A. Larkin was noted as proprietor of the cabins in March 1940 (The Missoulian ). The same newspaper mentioned David Fraker as owner of the Jim Bridger Motel Court in Dec. 1972. Another paper called it the Jim Bridger Motor Court in 2016. Jim Kemp built the Best Western motel next door and took possession of the Cabins. The central office building was moved in 1991 to make way for the new First Interstate Bank building. In 2019 Delaware North bought out the Best Western Motel, Rusty Rail Restaurant & Saloon, and the Jim Bridger Cabins. The cabins were moved from the premises in 2020 under new owners. Top Left : Jim Bridger Log Cabins, Real-Photo postcard, ca1940s, probably soon after construction. Note the complete lack of vegetation on site. Top Right : Jim Bridger Log Cabins, ca1950s. Real-Photo postcard. Left: Jim Bridger Auto Court, ca1960s postcard. Mountain View Motel In 1940, the Mountain View Cabins were run by Lester J. Spangelo. Morris & Ida Demaree purchased and operated the motel in 1975 until May 1984 when they retired. Many of the units were torn down when the new Gardiner grocery store was built around that time. Larry & Debra Demaree, relatives of the couple, owned and operated the grocery store for many years and it is still in the family. Postcard ca1960s. The Town Motel and Café The Town Cafe sat on the site of the old Shaw & Powell Hotel, dating from the early 1900s. The Shaw family continued to operate the hotel until 1944, when it was sold to Hugh Crossen and J.D. Winters who operated it under the name Park Hotel and Café. They sold it to Paul Spradlin a few years later and in 1950 the hotel burned down, killing two persons. Crossen repurchased the property and built the Town Club & Café utilizing the original stone back and side walls. The motel was built a few years later. The property changed hands several times until 1969 when it passed into the hands of Don Laubach. The family still operates the business under the name Town Motel, Lounge, and Café sometime into the 2000s. Sadly, it was torn down around 2019 by new owners, including the historic stone wall remnants. Left: 1960s postcard view of the Town Cafe & Motel. Right: Town Steakhouse and Motel ad, 1Apr1972, Billings Gazette Wilson Motel - Yellowstone River Motel The Wilson Motel began around 1947 by LeRoy & Agnes Wilson on the east end of Park St. They operated it until 1970 when they retired to Bozeman, Mont., and Sun City Ariz. At that time Paul Deweese took over the motel and operated until his death in 1989. His family has continued to run the motel since that time, changing the name to Yellowstone River Motel at some point. Top Left : The Wilson Motel, postcard ca1950s. Right: Wilson Motel postcard, ca1960s Left : Yellowstone River Motel , current photo. Westernaire Motel Located toward the north side of town, on the east side of Hwy 89, it was owned by Dick & Irene Herriford, owners of the Absaroka Lodge. The motel has been torn down in the past 4-5 years and has been replaced by the Yellowstone Big Rock Inn, also under the auspices of the Absaroka Lodge. Postcards ca1960-70s Change is inevitable. Change is constant. Benjamin Disraeli The End of Rail Service to the Gateway of Wonderland . . . . Scheduled passenger rail service to Gardiner ended in 1948, although freight service, along with an occasional special tourist train continued until 1954-55. Three trainloads of Girls Scouts brought in at the end of Aug. 1955 were reportedly the last train passengers to arrive in Gardiner. Political wrangling caused the beautiful NP depot to be demolished in 1954 by the backward-thinking Park authorities at the time, and another beautiful historic building was lost to history. It was replaced with a rather mundane-looking building that currently houses the public library, Sheriff’s Office, and Water Dept. A small public park occupies the former pond are and a beautiful log shelter with picnic tables has recently been added. The former railroad lands were eventually offered up for sale and a new public school was built on a portion of that land in 1951. Much of the school burned down in November of 1985 and was rebuilt in the ensuing years. The Changing Face of Progress . . . . A boom in the late 1980’s and through the early 2000’s saw much new construction along the Hwy89 section of town. The grocery store moved from Park St. to Hwy 89 on the north side of town and a new Post Office was erected nearby in the past decade. New hotels inundated the town for a period of years, including a Best Western, Comfort Inn, and Super 8, Yellowstone Village Inn & Suites, Absaroka Lodge (Hygrade Site), Yellowstone Park Travel Lodge, Yellowstone Gateway Inn, Yellowstone River Inn (Wilson Motel), and others in the late-2010s. Most of the older-style mom & pop motels from the 1940-50’s era were either shut down or forced to upgrade to compete with the big chain hotels. Park St. in the 1950s & 1960s - Postcard Views Real-Photo postcard, ca late-1940s at left. Notice the empty lot between the 2-story and M.H. Link store, where the Grotto Cafe formerly stood. The postcard on the right, ca1950s, the Town Cafe, with the Town Club occupying the old C.B. Scott bldg on the corner. 1950s postcard at left looking toward the East at dusk. The Welcome Cafe is still at the left, with Yankee Jim's to it right, followed by the Ranger Tavern, the Blue Goose and the Link Store. 1960s postcard at right looking toward the West. The old C.B. Scott building has been replaced by a Texaco gas station. To the left, the Link Store has expanded into the formerly empty lot. The 21st Century Come to Town . . . . The recent trend of converting apartments to vacation rentals has stricken seasonal and permanent renters alike in this land-locked town that has never had adequate rental housing. The town continues to thrive, although changes and uncertainly in the snowmobile policies of Yellowstone Park have lessened that business considerably over the years. And despite the concerns of the anti-wolf crowd, the area continues to attract many hunters in the fall and winter due to the thousands of elk that migrate out of the park into the surrounding Forest Service lands. The wolves, hated by some and adored by others have created their own cottage industry of avid wolf-watchers. In recent years the white-water rafting business has burgeoned and supports at least five businesses catering to this adventure crowd. Hopefully this rampant commercialism will not drive away the very people required to maintain this huge service industry due to lack of affordable housing, as had happened in all too many other resort towns throughout the West. The changes wrought in this small town during the past 30 years have been significant, and the face of the town has been transformed. It is not the intention to delve into this ‘modern’ history. The author will leave that to a future history junkie. From Left to Right: Park St. 1999, by Jim Peaco, NPS; 2009; and a 2010s Google Earth Street View.

  • Mountain Men in Yellowstone |

    Mountain Men in Yellowstone ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my old Postcard Page at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Henry Klamer |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Henry Klamer at Old Faithful Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Klamer's Early Days and the Firehole Hotel . . . Henry Klamer became the 2nd general store owner in Yellowstone when he began operation of a general store at Old Faithful in 1897. This was just a year after his sister-in-law Jennie Henderson Ash opened her new store at Mammoth. By the time Henry opened his store he was already a seasoned Yellowstone veteran, having worked in and around the park for at least 16 years. He is known to have been a member of the government road crew under Supt. Philetus Norris as early as 1881. In 1885 he entered into a partnership with G.G. Henderson to operate the Firehole Hotel at Fountain Flats. The hotel was built by George Marshall in 1884 and replaced a structure built in 1880 known simply as Marshall's Hotel. In 1886 Henderson gave up his interest in the hotel and in a complicated set of transactions, the hotel became part owned by The Cottage Hotel Association, and eventually passed into the hands of the Yellowstone Park Association. Marshall's / Firehole Hotel, early 1880s T.W. Ingersoll Stereoview ​ Tour Guiding and Supplying Beef to the Hotels . . . Sometime after Klamer left the Firehole Hotel, he went to work for George L. (G.L.) Henderson and the Cottage Hotel Asso. as a Tour Guide and Driver. The Cottage Hotel opened at Mammoth in December 1885 by the Henderson family and Klamer joined G.L.'s four daughters and one son in the operation of the touring and hotel business. Although the business seemed to be successful, the Henderson's were forced to sell out to YPA in 1889, which had been fighting to gain a monopoly on the park's hotel business. Klamer went to work for John Harvat in 1890, the contractor who supplied beef to the park hotels. The following year Klamer received the beef contract and managed that business for about 10 years. In 1892 Henry Klamer married Mary Henderson, daughter of GL Henderson. Beef corrals and slaughter house on Indian Creek. Henry Klamer general store at Old Faithful Left: YNP #7933C - Right: YNP #02804 Opening of the Second general Store in Yellowstone . . . ​ Klamer received a lease from the Dept of Interior for 2 acres of land near the Old Faithful Geyser in 1896 and began construction of his new general store in the spring of 1897. The building was 20' x 30' in size, with two stories, and very plain looking. The store opened in late June and began serving tourists to the area. He later received a contract to operate the Post Office at his store. The store sold general tourist supplies, curios, groceries, periodicals, books, tobaccos, agate curios, precious stones and later on a wide variety of Indian goods and crafts. A 25' x 40' addition was erected in 1902-03 The business did well and in 1904 the Old Faithful Inn opened up nearby, no doubt greatly increasing his business. Around that time the store was remodeled with the outside sporting knotted and gnarled pine posts, resulting in very nice, rustic effect, similar to the décor of the Inn. A 16' extension was added in 1913-14 Klamer ad, from Wonderland newspaper 3July1903 Left Top : Klamer general store at Old Faithful, Castle geyser in background. Detroit PC12542 Left Bottom : Interior Klamer Store. Detroit PC 12541 Right Top : Klamer general store at Old Faithful, 1912 Right Bottom: H.E. Klamer wooden sign at side of store facing OF Inn, 1913 Bad Times and the Transition to Charles Hamilton . . . Midway through the season of 1914, Henry Klamer died, leaving his wife Mary to take care of the business. Overwhelved by Henry's death and the vast responsibilities of running the business, she called for her brother Walter Henderson to help out. Walter had operated the Mammoth general store for five years with Alexander Lyall and took over as the Manager of the Old Faithful store. With her husband gone and the rest of her family living in Southern California, Mary decided it was time to leave the business and return to family. The following year negotiations began with Charles Hamilton to buy the store. Hamilton was a clerk for the Yellowstone Park Hotel Co., headed by Harry Child. With financial backing from Child, Hamilton made a $5,000 down payment to Mary and carried a note for about $15,000 for the store. Interior approved the deal and 10-year lease was issued to Hamilton on June 15, 1915. Charles Hamilton later expanded the building and his family operated this store until 2002, along with general stores at other locations. On January 1, 2003, Delaware North Co., through a completive bidding process, obtained the general store contract in Yellowstone and operates all the stores in the park. The business is known as 'Yellowstone General Stores'. The legacy of Henry Klamer though, still lives on at Old Faithful. Map of Old Faithful area showing Klamer's Store, OF Inn, and Haynes Photo Studio, ca1909. ​ From Campbell's New Revised Complete Guide of Yellowstone Park, 1909, Published by H.E. Klamer. View my Hamilton Stores page to continue this story . . .

  • Shaw & Powell |

    Camping in the Yellowstone Shaw & Powell Camping ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Shaw and Powell Camping Company were permitted to operate 'movable camps' in Yellowstone in 1898. The firm was started by Amos Shaw and J.D. Powell (John D. Powell) with headquarters in Livingston, Montana. Many members of the Shaw family were involved, including son Walter Shaw, Leo Chester, and Jesse Shaw. ​ Shaw & Powell initially brought guests into the park from the north entrance and in 1909 officially opened the Shaw Hotel in Gardiner to serve their guests after their arrival on the Northern Pacific train and prior to their departure. They had been leasing the lot since 1907, and the Sanborn Insurance map of Gardiner in 1907 showed a "Gardiner Hotel" on the site at that time. Previously, the corner was occupied by C.B. Scott. In later years the hotel name changed to the Shaw Hotel, owned and operated by Walter Shaw and his wife. Early camping wagon, emblazoned with L.C. Shaw Camping No. 7. The "L.C." standing for Leo Chester Shaw, son of Amos Shaw. [Undated glass slide] 1903 camping wagon with guests picnicking at an unknown location. The wagon now sports the Shaw & Powell name. [Courtesy Library of Congress, #2016648961] Shaw & Powell transported guests in wagons and coaches around the park to view all of the major scenic attractions. Carrying all their camping materials with them, they setup nightly camps in various locations that featured good grass for grazing and adequate water resources, not to mention in close proximity to renowned natural features. Description of the Shaw & Powell Transportation Co. Livingston Enterprise Souvenir (Montana) in 1900 The firm of Shaw & Powell, hunting camp outfitters and Yellowstone Park guides, are prepared to take parties of any size from five to one hundred, through the National Park, or on hunting trips through Jackson Hole country, Hell Roaring region, Buffalo Fork or Suce creek - in fact to any and all points in Montana or Wyoming where there is an abundance of game, such as elk, bear, deer, mountain lion and sheep, antelope, chicken and grouse. Their pack trains are made up of good horses and plenty of them, who are well able to stand the high latitude and long trips. These outfits include cots to sleep on, which means sleeping off the ground and everybody made as comfortable as possible . . . Amos Shaw, the senior member of the firm, is one of the oldest guides in the park, having assisted in surveying its lake and rivers, laying out the roads and sounding the depths of the geysers and hot pools . . . They carry a full outfit on each trip, including the best cook and the best of food. Shaw & Powell employ only gentlemen, and succeed where others fail. Shaw & Powell Camping Co. Hotel in Gardiner, ca1913. It was located on east Park Street, near the corner of what is now 2nd St. (Hwy 89) [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum #1317] Shaw & Powell Camping Co. camping wagon with three women posing, perhaps the camp matrons. [Real-Photo postcard] Left: Shaw & Powell Mountain Wagon on the road, ca1909. [Real-Photo Postcard] Right: Shaw & Powell Camping Wagon, undated real photo. A Description of Camping Life with Shaw & Powell in 1903, Excerpts from The Oxford Mirror, Aug. 13, 1903, Oxford Junction, Iowa "It is the good fortune of myself and Harold to be with the Shaw & Powell camping company, which numbers twenty-eight tourists and fourteen helpers, or 'savages' as they are called in camp parlance. The camp is moved every day, and all the tents, cots and bedding are piled up on an immense baggage wagon, drawn by four horses. Besides this there is a traveling kitchen, containing range, sink and all sorts of receptacles for holding everything needed in a kitchen. During the travel of the camp from one point to another, the cook prepares for the next meal. There is also a wagon which carries the food supplies, which is called the 'mess wagon.' Last night a bear made a visit to our camp, and in the morning this particular wagon was a sorry looking sight. There are five coaches carrying our party . . . and Mr. Powell gives us every opportunity to see all there is to be seen in the park. He is a most accommodating and pleasant gentleman, and takes great pains for the comfort of his guests. Every trip through the park is personally conducted, either by Mr. Shaw or Mr. Powell, so that the traveler is always assured of first-class treatment in going with this company. When we reach our camping place for the night the large dining tent is at once set up, so that the cooks can begin getting the evening meal. Then one man starts out with a horse to drag in logs to make a camp fire, while several more set up the sleeping tents. These are set as closely together as possible, and in a semi-circle, with the campfire in the center. After supper we all gather around the fire and tell stories, play games or sing songs. Besides the two cooks, there are twelve young men with Mr. Powell, who help about the camp in various ways - driving the coaches and wagons, putting up tents, waiting on table, etc. I think with one exception they are all college boys who are spending their vacation in this way . . . They are all typical college boys, and with their music and college songs, add much to the pleasure of the trip." West Yellowstone The Union Pacific RR began service to what is now West Yellowstone (known at the time as just Yellowstone) in 1908, and the camping company soon started transporting guests from the west entrance. In 1912, the company bought out the Robert C. Bryant Camping Co., also known as Bryant-Spence Camping Co., which had been operating camping tours from the west entrance since 1903. The sale also included the Bryant Way hotel in West Yellowstone, which then became the Shaw & Powell Hotel. Old photos show a sign on it reading, “Inn at the Gate.” It was located on Park Street, one block east of the UPRR Depot, near the entrance to the park. One guest in August 1914, commented about the “Inn:” “The "Inn at the Gate" was not very much of a hotel. There was a large office, with a bare floor and one corner fenced in with a counter, and the room was heated with a stove. It was cold enough too so that a fire felt very comfortable . . . The food was placed upon the table and the guests simply sat down and ate what was before them, helping themselves to what they wanted. It was really a very good breakfast and I think no one complained of the service, though there was a good deal of laughing about the "style" that we put on.” "The Inn at the Gate." Former RC Bryant hotel, became the Shaw & Powell hotel in 1912. [1914 Photo, Univ of Wyo Special Collections] Permanent Camps Shaw and Powell were given permission by the Interior Dept. to build a permanent camp in 1912 at Willow Park, near the current Indian Creek campground. In 1913, permission was received to build permanent camps at all major locations. The Superintendent’s Report noted in 1913 that Shaw & Powell carried over 2400 guests that season. They operated their own stage lines to transport their customers around the park, utilizing Mountain Stages built by the Studebaker Co. Log kitchens, dining rooms, and storerooms were built at all night camps in 1913-15. By 1916 camps were located at Willow Park; Nez Perce Creek; Upper Basin (current O.F. Lodge site); Yellowstone Lake, west of the Hotel; Canyon (Uncle Tom's Trail parking lot - later Canyon Lodge); and Tower, with lunch stations near the base of Gibbon Falls and at West Thumb. Top Left: Shaw & Powell camp at Willow Park, near Apollinaris Springs, ca1912. [Real-Photo Postcard] Top Right: Shaw & Powell metal sign, found at Willow Park camp in 2007. It was left in place. Whether it is still there is unknown. In a memorandum in the Nov. copy of the Superintendents Report of the Yellowstone National Park, in 1947, it was noted that the Yellowstone Park Co. was demolishing the old camp buildings. Remnants of concrete foundations, piling etc., still remain tucked away in the woods. ​ Bottom Left: Camp at Nez Perce Creek, undated. It was located on the north side of the creek and a half mile or so from the present road. Evidence of the site could still be seen in 2007. [Courtesy Yellowstone Gateway Museum, #20060441277] Bottom Right: Little known Shaw & Powell camp at Tower Falls in 1915. Note the elk antler stacks. The camp was located adjacent to the current campground. [Courtesy Montana Historical Society.] Left: Gibbon Lunch Station . It was located near the base of Gibbon Falls, on north side of river. [1914 Brochure Through the Yellowstone National Park] Right: Shaw & Powell camp at DeLacy Creek. It seemed to only be in operation as a permanent camp for the 1913 season, as in 1914-16 the camp was located across from Old Faithful Geyser, at the current OF Lodge site. [Stereoview No. 2094, Bob Berry Collection, Cody, Wyo.] Left: Early view of the Shaw & Powell camp on Nez Perce Creek, upstream from the mouth. The camp was later moved farther away from the stream. [Stereoview #113, unknown publisher/date. Courtesy Buffalo Bill Historic Center , Cody, #P21-1249] Left: Map of Yellowstone in 1913 showing locations of Shaw & Powell Camps. [1913 Shaw & Powell brochure] ​ Right: Advertisement for the Shaw and Powell Way from 1916. By at least 1913, the S&P Way term was being used, copying from the Wylie Way and Bryant Way. [Ogden Standard , 20Jul1916] ​ Click either to enlarge Top Left: Shaw & Powell Canyon camp lodge interior view. The doorway at the end led into the dining room. [Haynes PC No. 231.] ​ Top Right: Shaw & Powell camp at Canyon, main lodge building with guests. The log tower is ready to be ignited for the nightly campfire. [Haynes PC No. 230] ​ Bottom Left: View of Old Faithful Camp taken from the Crow's Nest atop Old Faithful Inn, ca1916. Notice the tents to the left of the main pavilion. [YNP #02784] Excellent description of a day on tour with Shaw & Powell in 1910. Geyser Region of Yellowstone Visited by Waterloo Tourists "Camp Life" The Waterloo (Iowa) Evening Reporter, August 20, 1910 “Everybody is up bright and early in the morning ready for a big day sightseeing. Jim Rainbow is our alarm clock and he surely does his part well as there is no more sleep for the party after he has his eyes open. Then comes the call for breakfast and it is not a light one, potatoes, bacon, breakfast food, pancakes and syrup, etc. While the guests are eating their breakfast the tents are being taken up. Each bed is numbered so that we all have our own bed every night. This wagon is started off to our next campground and they have everything in readiness when we arrive in the evening. “The cook wagon is a marvel. It has a range and places for provisions for the six and a half day’s trip besides all the cooking utensils and dishes. The cook wagon moves on as soon as they get their dishes washed to the place where we stop for lunch. “The tourists leave camp about seven or half past on their day’s trip. We go from 11 to 13 miles before lunch. At 12 o’clock we are all ready for another meal and when they told us the first day it was just lunch we wondered what we would have for dinner. Meat, potatoes, hot biscuit or Johnny cake, sauce, preserves, etc., but no one complains but just eats. We stop for about two hours and usually our guide has some trip planned for us somewhere near our camp. “At 2 p.m. we again proceed on our way stopping here and there and traveling about the same distance as in forenoon, coming into camp about 6 o’clock with good appetites for our dinner, which is surely a bounteous one. Several kinds of meat and vegetables, pudding or pie, besides all things that go to make up a good meal. We have been very fortunate in having Mr. and Mrs. Powell as our cooks on this trip as they are both experts. The regular cook was taken sick and had to return home. “Our camps are located on some of God’s most beautiful garden spots. One of the bright and lasting memories of our trip will be our camp fires. The pine logs are piled high and set on fire and everybody gathers around it as one large family. There is no formality here. Singing, stories and visiting are the pastime of the evening with pop corn and candy mixed in. It is often a great pleasure to just sit quiet and watch the fire and think what a great privilege it is for us to be permitted to be here. “At 10 o’clock we retire for a good night’s rest, and to be ready to rise when our alarm clock goes off. Another remarkable thing that we have noticed and that is the complete harmony among the help of the camp. We have not heard one word that is not becoming to a lady or gentleman. Their main aim seems to be to make it pleasant for the guests, and I have been told that it was the same in all of the six camps. “They start out a cook wagon and everything necessary every day but as the business of the Shaw & Powell company has become so large that they have to start a party out every day. “Every one of the helpers around the camp has a nick name and very often the tourist or dude as they are called, never finds out the name of the driver who has been with them for a whole week. The helpers are called savages. They have such names as Jumbo, Sunny Jim, Professor, Fuzzy, Happy, etc. It is our good fortune to have Happy for our driver and he has surely been rightly named. He is also the very efficient guide of our party. They have a man who stays at each camp who is called the horse wrangler, whose business it is to keep the camp clean. He is out at 3:00 a.m. every morning to round up the horses.” By Mrs. Fred C. Sage​ Final Days ​ After the 1916 season changes brought about by the Interior Dept. forced the company to merge with the Wylie Camps to form the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. (See Chapter Introduction). Many of the Shaw & Powell camps were closed to eliminate duplication and concentrate business at the major locations. The transportation business was turned over to the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., owned by Harry Child. Shaw & Powell camps at Canyon, and Old Faithful were retained for the new Camps operation, along with the Wylie Camps at Lake and West Thumb. Brothers Walter and Arthur Shaw continued on in management of the new camping company with A.W. Miles of the former Wylie Co. Left: Brass luggage tag for the Shaw & Powell Camping Co., ca1913. [Author Collection] Right: Metal pinback for Shaw & Powell, ca1913 Left: 1917 newspaper ad for the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. (1917-1919) Right: Decal for the Yellowstone Park Camps Co. (1919-1927) A.W. Miles (Wylie Camps) and Shaw & Powell, former competitors, apparently did not play well together, it has been said, and finally sold out to Howard Hays and Roe Emery early in 1919. The two men formed the Yellowstone Park Camps Co., and took over the West Yellowstone Hotel and a nearby lot that housed the barn, blacksmith shop, and roofed corrals. The property was sold in 1926 to Sam Hurless and M.K. Musser who build a cabin camp on the site. Walter Shaw and his wife Lillian operated the Shaw Hotel & Cafe in Gardiner from 1922-25. Walter opened Shaw’s Camp & Cabins in Cooke City in 1919, and later guided tours through the park to the Cooke City area where he operated Shaw’s Goose Lake Camp. Walter drowned in the Yellowstone River in 1925 and his wife and Chester Shaw continued to operate the hotel until 1944. At that time it was sold to Hugh Crossen and J.D. Winters who operated it under the name Park Hotel and Café. They sold it to Paul Spradlin a few years later. On August 9, 1950 the hotel caught fire and burned down, killing two guests who were lodged there. One woman jumped out of a window and sustained non-threatening injuries, while the remainder of the guests managed to escape somewhat safely. Hugh Crossen repurchased the property and built the Town Club & Café utilizing the original stone back and side walls. The property changed hands several times until 1969 when it passed into the hands of Don Laubach. The business was sold in the 2000s and has featured several different operations. In 2019, the building, with the historic rock wall over 100 years old, was torn down to be replaced by a new business. Left: Shaw's Hotel & Cafe, Gardiner, ca1930s Bottom: Shaw's Camp in Cooke City, ca1930s. [Sanborn Real-Photo postcard]

  • Yellowstone Trade Cards |

    Yellowstone Trade Cards ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. While this page is under construction, please visit my Trade Cards Page that has been saved at Visit my Home Page to see which of my pages are completed and available. It's a long trip . . . Thanks for your patience. ​

  • Monida Yellowstone - YW |

    Coaching in Yellowstone Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. - 1898-1913 Yellowstone - Western Stage Co. - 1913-1916 Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. This stage line was formed in 1898 by Yellowstone photographer Frank J. Haynes and Wm. W. Humphrey , who had previously been superintendent of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. The new company received a 10-year lease from the Interior Dept. to operate a stage line into and around Yellowstone. The Monida & Yellowstone Stage Line provided service from the Utah Northern/Union Pacific RR depot at Monida to the park, using red Concord stages from the Abbot Downing Company, which became known as the 'Red Line.` The route from Monida, on the border between Montana and Idaho, passed through Centennial Valley, past Henry`s Lake, over Targhee Pass, with an overnight stop at Dwelle`s Inn. This was a part of Harry Dwelle`s Madison Fork Ranch that was located about 5 miles west of the park border. In the next morning, the stages passed through the West entrance, before there was a town there, and reached the Fountain Hotel around noon. [See my Monida and West Yellowston e pages for additional information} The Anaconda Standard of Feb. 3, 1898, reported that, "Forty thousand dollars will be expended this year in putting the line in shape. An order has been placed with the factory in New Hampshire [Abbot Downing] for 19 Concord coaches of the latest pattern as a starter for the equipment of the line. The horses, 150 head, will be purchased principally in Kentucky, some in Oregon. Everything will be in readiness for passenger business at the opening of the tourist season on the first of June. Mr. Humphrey will personally superintend the management of the new line." The Bee-Hive stagecoach, built by Abbot-Downing Co. of Concord, New Hampshire. [Courtesy of Yellowstone Historic Center at] Stables, barns, and driver`s quarters were constructed at eight different park locations. A brochure from the year 1900 boasts of a 6-day tour using two, four, and six-horse Concord coaches. Relay stations were placed every 15-20 miles along the Monida route. Hotel stops included two nights at Fountain and one night each at Lake, Canyon, and Mammoth hotels before exiting via Cinnabar on the Northern Pacific RR . An article in the Gardiner Wonderland newspaper in the spring of 1905, noted that M-Y was doubling the number of stages that would be run that year, and purchasing an appropriate number of horses. A "Staged" Robbery - 1904 : The Anaconda Standard, Aug. 9, 1904 Special Dispatch to the Standard. Billings, Aug. 8. - A man who was in Billings yesterday on his return from the National park related the story of a sham holdup of one of the stages that is operated from Monida to points in the park. While the whole affair was a hoax, this fact was not known to the passengers and it required considerable daring to carry it out. The sensational feature of the affair Is that the holdup is said to have been perpetrated by two young ladles, one of them the daughter of a prominent New York newspaper man and the other a Helena young lady. The name of the New York lady was remembered by the Standard's Informant on account of the prominence of her father, but he is unable to give the name of the Helena girl. The young ladles were camping in the park with a party of friends and arranged with the driver of the stage to hold it up at a lonely point on the road. They attired themselves in regulation bandit costumes and rode out on horseback to the point agreed on, and when the stage arrived they drew down on the driver and he courteously came down from the box. The passengers, several of them being men, were compelled to line up at the side of the road and while one of the ''bandits” covered them with a rifle the other went through the party and appropriated money, jewelry and everything else of value that a diligent search revealed. After they had secured everything in sight and had all the fun they wanted at the expense of the travelers, the young ladles pulled off their false whiskers and other disguises and gave the crowd the laugh. The valuables were restored, but several of the passengers were disposed not to regard the affair in the light of a joke and said they would make the girls trouble if there was any law that would reach them. The "sore" ones later concluded when their nerves had settled that such action would redound but little to their credit and they finally came around to see the ludicrous side of the affair and joined in the laugh. In the fall of 1907 the arrival of the Union Pacific rail line to the west entrance ended the long stagecoach haul from Monida and the company began picking up passengers at the new depot in Riverside (now West Yellowstone ). The 1st passenger train arrived at the west entrance on June 11, 1908. The new passenger rail service was named the “Yellowstone Special” and a railroad car was used as depot the first year. The town was originally named Riverside, but the name was soon after changed to “Yellowstone.” Left : Sketch of the Riverside Barns layout near the West entrance. [Courtesy Montana St. Univ. Special Collections, Haynes Papers] Below : Photo of the Riverside Barns. [Courtesy Montana St. Univ. Special Collections, Haynes Papers] The stage company built new headquarters along the Madison River about 1-1/4 miles inside the park line near the Madison River. A 1908 map showed coach sheds, blacksmith and paint shops, corral, a barn and hay shed, office, lodging house, mess house, and granary. The Wylie Permanent Camping Company set up one of their stage operations and tent camp nearby the same year. In 1917 it was necessary to convert the buildings for use by the new motorized White Motor Co. auto stages of the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. When YPTCo built new facilities at Old Faithful in 1926, the Barns fell into disuse. The buildings were razed in 1957 From the Salt Lake Tribune, Aug. 20, 1910, by C.E. Arney: “In splendidly painted barns a mile from Yellowstone, on the westerly bank of the Madison river, are the unique stables of this large overland transportation company. An inspection of their grounds today showed that degree of orderly system essential to the cleanly, sanitary and handy condition of affairs, all of which appeared at every turn. There was a closely built harness room, a harness cleaning room, a room for washing buggies, a blacksmith shop, a woodworking shop, a paint shop, a commissary, granaries, wagon houses and all in the very pink of cleanliness and repair. There is an office, a sleeping quarters and a dining house on the grounds. Near the river is a tank supplied bv a pumping plant and water is carried through underground pipes to all four sides of the spacious grounds. At each corner of each building is a hose attached to a nozzle and in each building an additional patent fire extinguisher. For the most part the wagons of this company are purchased from the Glen Falls carriage works of New York, though they buy also from the Concord Stage Coach company and from the Studebaker firm.” In 1912, the Monida & Yellowstone Co. established a new station near Tower Falls. One of the four standard tours in 1913 offered a trip from Canyon, over Mt. Washburn, and on to the Falls. From that point the coaches proceeded on to Mammoth Hot Springs , and Norris geyser basin. After the consolidation of 1917 when Haynes lost his transportation business, the building became a Haynes Photo Shop. [Photo from M-Y 1914 brochure] The Yellowstone-Western Stage Co. F.J. Haynes bought out his partner Humphrey late in 1913 and reorganized the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. into the Yellowstone-Western Stage Co. The company was co-owned by James Robert Duff, and Richard W. McTavish. Haynes continued transporting visitors into the park from the UPRR depot at Yellowstone (West). By this time, the company already had facilities located at eight locations in the park. ​ During 1915, the peak year of operation, the “Red Line,” known for its red-colored Concord coaches, hauled 20,151 tourists into Yellowstone. Records also show, however that only 4116 passengers were carried in 1914 and 3659 in 1916. This was due to 1915 being the year of the Panama-Pacific Exposition held in San Francisco. The fair greatly increased visitation to the park. The Y-W fleet consisted of 45 eleven-passenger 4-horse coaches, 11 eight-passenger coaches, 13 three-passenger 2-horse surreys, and 61 five-passenger surreys. Two, four and five-day basic tours were available, ranging from $14.25 to $41.25. 2-horse surreys for three people could be rented with driver for $12.00/day. Left : Yellowstone-Western coaches lined up at the Canyon Hotel waiting to load passengers. [1914 Y-W brochure] Above : Cover of a 1916 Yellowstone-Western brochure. Above : The Congress stagecoach, operated by the Yellowstone - Western Stage Co., and built by Abbot-Downing Co. of Concord, New Hampshire. The MY and YW coaches all had names, while the YPTCo used a numbering system. [Courtesy of Eli Anderson] ​ Right : A YW metal cap badge and 1915 YW Pinback. After the 1916 season all of the transportation companies were consolidated into the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co ., under the ownership of Harry Child . Haynes was forced to sell out his transportation holdings in the Yellowstone & Western and the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. and was allowed only his photo shop operations in the park. The Wylie and Shaw & Powel l camping companies were also put out of the transportation business, and were combined into the Yellowstone Park Camping Co . In 1917 the stagecoaches and horses were put out to pasture and replaced with automobiles made by the White Motor Company, forever changing the face of transportation in Wonderland. Examples of 3, 5, 8, & 11-passenger coaches of the Yellowstone - Western Stage Co. From YW 1916 Brochure Top : Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. check. Dated 1909 & signed by F.J. Haynes. ​ Bottom : Yellowstone-Western Stage Co. check. Dated 1915, signed by F.J. Haynes A Day in the Life of a Stage Driver in Yellowstone. The following is an excerpt of a transcription from an oral interview conducted with Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. driver Ira. D. Stanton. His moniker was “Red” due to his red hair and hs family had resided in SE Idaho since the late 1880s. He presents a fascinating description of a typical tour around Yellowstone, beginning at the Union Pacific RR in West Union. He began driving for Monida-Yellowstone ca1911 The Interview was conducted in 1968 by Harold Forbrush under the auspices of the Upper Snake River Valley Historical Society, titled VOICES FROM THE PAST STAGE COACHES IN THE PARK, #18 Well, every night when we were in camp, we’d go in the office and look on the board. Our names would be on the board showing us what place we were to take off at the next morning. Whatever place we had, well, that was the place we kept all the way through the Park. We’d hook up the next morning and we would be in West Yellowstone loading up at 8:00. They could load up about two coaches at a time. While the people were getting in the coaches they would load their suitcases and things in the trunk. They had a great big trunk in the back and it was covered leather. They would buckle them in there so the dust wouldn’t get in. Whoever we were following, that’s what we do to watch for. We’d follow that man till we made the trip plumb around the loop. As near as I can remember, coaches and surreys, they’d be around 50-75 of us from one company. There were four companies that operated out of West Yellowstone. But the MY company, that was the Monida, Yellowstone Transportation Company, that’s what we were. The boys that drove for the MY, they had badges on with the MY and a number. That number was our number all the time through the Park. If we done anything out on the road, why they could take our number and trace it right back where we come from. . . . Maybe I could give you an idea about what our driver was each day. Our first day was from West Yellowstone to Madison Junction, which was fourteen miles. We took off from there and started for Old Faithful. We drove six miles from Madison Junction. There was a hotel there where we had noon. It was called the Fountain Hotel. It isn’t there anymore. Then from the Fountain Hotel, in the afternoon, we’d go four miles to Old Faithful. That wasn’t a very heavy drive but it made a quite a drive for the day, twenty-four miles for the day. The next forenoon we’d drive from Old Faithful to the Thumb. That was seventeen miles. In them days we followed streams of water all the time. The road doesn’t go around where it used to. It goes over some of those passes now. But one reason they were dirt roads. They had to have them sprinkled. The sprinkler had to go by ever morning unless it had rained. They had to sprinkle ahead of the coaches. . . . Well, we went to the Thumb then. That was seventeen miles from Old Faithful. From the Thumb to the Lake was twenty-one miles. So that was a thirty-eight drive that day. That was a quite a long drive for the horses with quite a load. Then the next morning we drove to the Canyon. That was only sixteen miles. We laid over that afternoon at the Canyon because there was so much sight seeing at the Canyon. They had sight seeing busses [Omnibus, horse-drawn] that would take our tours up the Canyon and show them all around. The next morning we would go from Canyon to Norris Geyser Basin. This was eleven miles. There we had another eating place. It’s not there anymore. That was the noon place. From the Norris Geyer Basin sometimes we had to go on to Mammoth. That was twenty-one miles. That was quite a drive. Then the next morning we’d come back to Norris again with those tourists. Then from there on into West Yellowstone. That made an awful drive if you had to drive from Mammoth to West Yellowstone that same day. That gave you thirty-five miles that day and that was awful hard on the horses. They did all that road from West Yellowstone pretty near up to the Madison bridge that year. When we would hit that with our horses, why it was so hard. Our horses on those long drives, why they couldn’t take it. We’d have to drive off into the barrow pits in order to keep from giving our horses right out. A lot of the horses give out right on the road between Norris and West Yellowstone. A Few Side Notes from the Interview: If you went to Mammoth it would be six days. If you just made the round loop it would be four days. Well our schedule was six miles an hour. Outside of the uphill why you were on the trot pretty near every bit of the way. If you walked them uphill you had to make it up somewhere else. Horses can’t walk six miles an hour. So you had to keep them on the tot pretty much of the time. Well, the coaches were come 11 passenger and some 8 passenger. It was 12 with the driver. We had a roof over them so them they couldn’t get wet. We had curtains. If the weather got bad we could throw these curtains down and fasten them and they were closed in. The driver and two other men had to set right up there, no matter if it was raining or what it was. We set up above. The other people were back under shade all the time. Course, as a rule, the fellow who set up by the driver, he was kind of the spokesman for the rest of the company you had with you. When they had any questions asked, why as a rule, they’d send it up to him. He’d ask the driver. The driver would tell him and he would relay it back to them

  • Yellowstone Bios R-S-T |

    Yellowstone Biographies R-S-T ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Randall, Dick. Dick Randall came to Miles City, Montana from Birmingham, Iowa in 1884 at age 17. He was a cowboy for some years prior to buying a small herd of horses and settling in Gardiner. He drove stagecoach for Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. during that time and was known as “Pretty Dick.” He also guided hunting parties outside the park. Dick married Dora Roseborough, who was from Kansas. In 1887 they settled on land located about 12 miles north of Gardiner that would later become the OTO Ranch in. In 1898 the OTO Ranch was established and became the 1st dude ranch in Montana. Twelve cabins and a 12-room lodge were built, along with a 2-story saddle room, shower house, laundry area, and powerhouse with a water-powered turbine. The ranch eventually consisted of 7,000 acres. He once led 368 members of the Sierra Club on a horseback pack trip around the park. Their son Gay Randall helped with the operation and wrote an interesting book about life on the ranch and the surrounding wilderness entitled "Footprints Along the Yellowstone." Activities included cattle ranching, horseback riding, big game hunting, and hiking. The heyday of the dude ranch spanned the years 1912 to 1934. The great Depression and the poor economy caused Dick and his wife Dora to sell the ranch in 1932 after 34 years of operation. The buildings went untended and fell into disrepair until 1997 when the Forest Service and volunteer workers began rehabilitation of the buildings and site in general. Randall died in 1957 at age 91. [78] [71c] [ –OTO Ranch] Raymond, Rossiter W. Rossiter Raymond was a member of the Raymond-Clawson tourist party of 1871. He was accompanied by Calvin C. Clawson, A.F. Thrasher, and others, and was guided by Gilman Sawtelle of Henry’s Lake. The group has been recognized as the 1st commercial tourist party to enter Yellowstone. [25L;87] Raynolds, William F. William Raynolds led a military expedition to Yellowstone that became known as the Raynolds Expedition. The party attempted an expedition into the heart of the Yellowstone area in May of 1859. The party included Jim Bridger, Ferdinand Hayden, and others. They traveled down the east side of the Wind River Mountains, but were unable to cross over them. They continued down over Union Pass and attempts to enter Yellowstone from the south also failed due to deep snows. The party ended up going up the west side of the park and down the Madison River to Three Forks. [25L;87] Reamer, Robert. Robert Reamer was born in Oberlin, OH in 1873. After working several different architectural jobs, he wound up near San Diego, CA., where he met Harry W. Child. Child hired Reamer, now age 29, to design the new hotel at Old Faithful. Reamer became a close friend of the Child family for many years. He was responsible for the design of many of the park’s greatest buildings, including the Old Faithful Inn (1903), Northern Pacific Ry Depot at Gardiner (1903), Lake Hotel renovations (1904-1924), Lake Lodge (1920’s), Canyon Hotel (1910-11), and the Mammoth Hotel renovations in 1936-38. Other buildings to his credit include the Child residence at Mammoth, the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. residences in Gardiner, Thumb Lunch Station (1903), Fishing Bridge Hut (1935), North Entrance Ranger Station (1924), Chinese Gardens Cottage (1909), the Bunkhouse and mess house in Gardiner, (1906), YPTCo barn/garage at Mammoth (1903), the Upper Hamilton Store at Old Faithful, and the famous US map in the Map Room of Mammoth Hotel. He continued to design projects for Yellowstone until his death January 7, 1938 at the age of 64. [25L;87] [75] Reeb, George ‘Morphine Charley ’. He was convicted of the stage coach robbery that occurred Aug. 14, 1897 about four miles from Canyon Hotel along the Norris road. He was aided in the robbery by Gus ‘Little Gus’ Smitzer. Famed poacher Ed Howell was hired to track down the perpetrators of the robbery and later received reward money for his actions. Both men were convicted in District Court in Cheyenne, Wyoming the following May and sentenced to 2-1/2 years in the federal pen. George Reeb was indeed addicted to morphine and the jail time cured him of his habit, of which he was grateful. Smitzer was later hired as an irrigator at the Rose Creek Ranch, and served faithfully for a number of years. Smitzer is buried in the Gardiner cemetery and his headstone notes he was born in 1849 and died in 1931. [31] Reese, George W. George Reese was born Oct. 10, 1837 in Piqua, Miami Co., Ohio, and moved later with his family to Illinois and in 1856 relocated to Kansas. He and two of his brothers left Kansas and headed west to the gold country of California, the Black Hills and Montana. George returned to Kansas in 1861 and volunteered for service in the Civil War, serving until its conclusion. After his discharge in 1865 he hauled freight by wagon from Kansas to Montana. He eventually stayed in Montana and was in the Yellowstone gold country as early as 1867 with Lou Anderson, Hubble, Caldwell and another man. They discovered gold in the first stream above Bear Creek and named it Crevice Creek. He returned to Kansas periodically and married Arvilla Disney in November of 1870 in Topeka. However, she died shortly after in August of 1871. He returned to Montana and was living along the northern border of the park at least by 1877 and was present at the gunfight at the Henderson Ranch with the Nez Perce on Aug. 31, 1877. He then guided for Gen. Howard in his pursuit of the Nez Perce and was known as the “Old Guide of the Mountains.” Reese reportedly was involved in numerous Indian fights during his life. His first cabin south of Reese Creek was burned by the Nez Perce in 1877, and he built a house on upper Reese Creek by 1883, but was unable to obtain title to the land. He built a third home and ranch on lower Reese Creek, which was named after him. George Reese married a woman named Arminda Vice on July 5, 1885 in Missouri. George was 47 years old and Arminda was only 16, and they were divorced about the time their youngest child, Ira Jay, was 6 years old. George raised Ira and his other sons Bertrand Samuel and James George. George and Mr. Hoppe established a school in Cinnabar by 1884, and George served on the school board for several years. He was mail carrier from Horr to Aldridge for four years and served as Sunday school superintendent. He was a religious man, taught bible study classes, led the congregation in singing hymns, and played the violin and organ. He was a big game hunter and had many specimens mounted for exhibition. He took one of his displays to the St. Louis Exhibition in 1904. He died May 21, 1913 at an age of 75 years, and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery at Livingston. His son James and wife (Margaret Curdy) took over the ranch and lived on it until 1922, when they moved to Hiawatha, Utah. [113] [106d] [32] [YNP Vert. File, Biography, Geo. Wash. Reese, by Helen Frandsen Reese, 1986] [56m;1154] Richardson, James. James Richardson published the 1st park guidebook in 1873 that was entitled “Wonders of the Yellowstone Region”. Much of the information was taken from reports of the Washburn and Hayden expeditions. [25L;88] Richardson, Herbert F. ‘Uncle Tom’ Richardson started out as a Wylie Camp employee until receiving permission in 1896 to build a trail down into the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone below Lower Falls. The trail originally consisted of ropes and wooden ladders and required a good dose of fortitude. He rowed visitors across the Yellowstone River just above the current Chittenden bridge site and led them down his trail, at a cost of $1.00 per person. He cooked them all a hearty meal before rowing them back across the river. Uncle Tom had his guide permit revoked in 1903, and construction of the new bridge over the Yellowstone River that year began taking away his business. However, it appears he continued to guide, with permission granted in 1904-06. 1147 people were noted as taking the trip with Uncle Tom in 1905 and he was allowed to erect a tent for his use near the trailhead in both 1904 and 1905. In 1905 the army built wooden stairs down a portion of Tom’s Trail and improved other sections. The following year Richardson was allowed to charge people 50¢ for his guide service, but not for use of his trail, which they could now use on their own. Concrete walks and steel stairways replaced the old wooden stairs in 1965. "Uncle Tom" died at his home in Bozeman on April 22, 1913 due to heart problems. Born in 1854, he was survived by his second wife, a married daughter in Nebraska, and two daughters in Bozeman. [25g] [YNP Army Files Doc.5753-54] [YNP Archives Box 42;20] [32] [Anaconda Standard, 4-23-1913] Rockefeller, Laura Spelman. A foundation was set up in her name in 1918 using funds donated by John D. Rockefeller, and was absorbed into the Rockefeller Foundation in 1929. The foundation donated $118,000 in 1928 to be used by the American Association of Museums for the National Parks. The museums at Old Faithful, Madison, Fishing Bridge, and Norris were built using this money. [25L;88] Rogers, Edmund B. Edmund Rogers was Park Superintendent from 1936 to 1956. [25L;88] Roosevelt, Theodore. Teddy Roosevelt first came west on a hunting trip in 1883 and soon afterwards purchased ranch land in North Dakota. In 1886 he ventured into the northwest corner of the park while on another hunting trip. He met George Bird Grinnell in 1885 and together with other influential sportsmen, created the Boone & Crockett Club in 1888. The organization was formed for the “…preservation of the large game in this country, and…to further legislation for that purpose, and to assist in enforcing the existing laws.” Yellowstone was one of their primary concerns. He visited Yellowstone again in 1890 and for a period of time favored the railroad’s desire to lay their tracks of steel inside the park to Cooke City. He was soon dissuaded from this opinion by his friends in Boone & Crockett. Roosevelt made several other trips to Yellowstone in the early 1890s, but soon the pressures of his political life made those journeys impossible. He became President in 1901 with the assassination of William McKinley. Roosevelt made his most famous trip to the park in 1903 with naturalist friend John Burroughs and was guided by Uncle Billy Hofer. Together they explored the park and saw first hand the condition of the wildlife and the declining buffalo herd. One of their campsites was near Calcite Springs, close to Tower Falls. A legend later sprung up that the group camped under the large tree at what became Roosevelt Camp and lodge. This was however, a promotional scheme devised by the early supporters of the Roosevelt Camp in order to draw business to the location, which was located off the main tour route. Before Roosevelt left the park, he stopped in Gardiner on April 24 and dedicated the new stone arch that was being built at the North Entrance. It was later named after him. The US Forest Service was created during his administration in 1905 and he installed forestry expert Gifford Pinchot as the head of the new U.S. Forest Service. Roosevelt adopted Pinchot’s principle of multiple-use, the nation’s first formal natural-resource policy. The multiple-use policy advocated scientific management of public lands for a variety of uses, including commercial development. Using his presidential powers, Roosevelt set aside a total of 235 million acres of public lands to protect them from exploitation by private interests. [84c] [62i] [25g] Russell, Osborne. Osborne Russell, one of the Rocky Mountain fur trappers in the early 1800s, first trapped in Yellowstone in 1835 and continued until 1939. In 1836 he described the “parting of the waters” at Two Ocean Pass, where water from one lake flowed both east and west of the continental divide. Blackfoot Indians wounded him and a companion near the mouth of Pelican Creek in 1839 and they narrowly escaped capture or death. He later wrote a book describing life in Yellowstone and the Rocky Mountains. The book “Journal of a Trapper” is still being published and is widely read. [25g;10] Salisbury, O.J. O.J. Salisbury was born on the shore of Lake Erie, a few miles from Buffalo, New York. He went west at an early age and became a contractor for the Union Pacific on the construction of their new rail line. In the early 1870's he teamed up with his brother Monroe and J.T. Gilmer to purchase the assets of the Utah, Idaho, and Montana branches of Wells, Fargo & Co. In 1873 this transportation firm was running stages from Fort Benton, Montana to Helena. Gilmer & Salisbury bought out the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage, Mail and Express Line in 1876, operating the Deadwood line between Cheyenne and the Black Hills. They began running stagecoaches into the park from the Union Pacific rail line at Spencer Idaho beginning in 1879 and built a stage station at Henry’s Lake in 1881. The route passed through Virginia City, Ennis, Henry’s Lake and Targhee Pass before arriving at Marshall’s Hotel. They became one of the most powerful corporations in the Northwest in the late 1800’s and amassed a nice fortune. In their final days lines ran from the Canadian border to southern Utah and from the Great Plains to California and Washington. O.J. bought a home in Salt Lake City in the 1880's and spent the rest of his life there. He engaged in politics, as well as real estate, mining, and a farm mortgage loan business. [C.C. Goodwin, "As I Remember Them"] [18t] [25g] [79o;470-71] [25L;91] Sawtell, Gilman. Gilman Sawtell (sometimes Gilman Sawtelle) was the son of Ebenezer and Sally Sawtell, born Dec. 10, 1836 in Groton, Mass. He served with the 8th Illinois artillery in 1861-62 under Col. Farnsworth during the Civil War. He married Carrie Livermore (date unknown) and had a son Eben R. Sawtell in 1866 while living in Jackson County, Iowa. By 1867 the family was living in the west and homesteaded a ranch in the Henrys Lake area in 1867-68 after prospecting in the Nevada City area. In 1868 he built a rough road from his ranch to Virginia City, and five years later was instrumental in completing the road into Yellowstone via Targhee Pass to the Madison River and through the west entrance to the Lower Geyser Basin. The road was known as the Virginia City and National Park Free Wagon Road and conveniently passed by his lodge. It was the first road built into Yellowstone Park. Sawtell conducted the 1st commercial tour in the park in August of 1871, guiding the Raymond-Clawson party. They encountered part of the Hayden Expedition at Canyon. In a newspaper article the following year Rossiter W. Raymond described Sawtell as: "A stalwart, blonde, blue-eyed, jovial woodsman is he, who for years has kept a solitary ranch on the bank of Henry's lake, some sixty miles from the settlement. Half a dozen well built log houses constitute his establishment. There is a comfortable dwelling, a stable, a workshop, a storehouse for skins and game, and an ice house. Mr. Sawtelle's [sic] principal business has been spearing trout, packing them in ice, hauling them in wagons to Virginia City, and even as far as Helena, and disposing of them at handsome prices to the busy population, who haven't time to fish for themselves. A farm supplies him with vegetables and grain, the valleys afford him excellent hay, and land and water all about him swarms with game of every kind." In the 1870-80’s Sawtell caught and sold tens of thousands of pounds of fish from Henry’s Lake and shipped them by rail to markets as far away as Butte and Salt Lake City. The ranch suffered damage in 1877 when the Nez Perce passed through and again in 1878 by the Bannock. The ranch became a stage stop in 1880 when George Marshall began stage service into Yellowstone. Mrs. Sawtell died Dec. 13, 1884 and in 1890 Sawtell transferred his properties to son Eben and lived out his life as a prospector. Eben sold the ranch to Edwin Staley on June 18, 1896 and the area became known as Staley Springs. A nearby mountain was named after him. [25g] [18t] [65e; 5/25/1872, p.4] [YNP H2 History File, Letters] Lt. Schwatka. Lt. Frederick Schwatka was born in Galena, Illinois Sept. 29, 1849, graduated from the US military academy in 1871, and was appointed 2nd lieutenant in the 3rd cavalry. He studied law and medicine and was admitted to the bar in 1875 and received a medical degree in 1876. He took a leave of absence from the military in 1878 and spent most of the next six years exploring the Arctic and the wilds of Alaska. He made a 3,251 mile journey by sled during his travels. He resigned from the military in 1884 and in 1886 lead another exploring expedition to Alaska under the auspices of the New York Times. In 1887 he attempted to become the first person to circumnavigate Yellowstone Park during the wintertime. The New York World newspaper financed the expedition and hired Frank Haynes to document the journey with photos. They were accompanied by scout Ed Wilson and several other men. Winter travel in Yellowstone proved to be much different than in the Arctic, and Schwatka was not prepared for the conditions he encountered. He only made it as far as Norris Geyser Basin when health problems forced an early end to his attempt and he returned to Mammoth. Frank Haynes, Wilson, David Stratton and C.A. Stoddard continued on with the venture, taking the first winter pictures in the park. The men narrowly escaped death in a blizzard while attempting to cross Dunraven Pass. Schwatka wrote several books in the mid-1880’s about his adventures in the Arctic and Alaska. He died in 1892. [25g] [97e] [1p] Scott, Charlie B. C.B. Scott came to Park Co., Montana in 1882 and engaged in the freighting and contracting business near Cooke City for a time. He was one of the five assistant superintendents for Yellowstone National Park in the early 1880’s. He later developed the Scott Water Co. and participated in several other businesses in Gardiner. By 1892 he operated a “billiard and sample room located on Main street and enjoys a liberal patronage from his legion of friends and acquaintances.” He married Adelaide Bigelow in 1904 raised purebred Hereford cattle on a ranch in Tom Miner Basin until his death in 1934. They had a stone house on East Main St. in Gardiner, next to the old Cottage Hotel (west side). In 1904-05 he was active in the fundraising and construction of the community Union Church on West Main St. During the 1914-16 seasons he was a stockholder in the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. In 1924 he became one of the directors of the new Gardiner Light & Water Co. [LE;6/4/1892] [L.Link bio, YNP Vert. Files, Biography] [YNP Archives - Shaw & Powell Financial Records.] Scott, M.D. M.D. Scott was killed in 1885 by lightning while sailing on Yellowstone Lake in the Explorer. [25L;92] Scoyen, Clarence “Pop”. “Pop” Scoyen was born in the Norris Blockhouse on March 4, 1895. He brother Eivind was born there also in 1896 (Eivind was at one time assistant director of the NPS, and Supt. of Glacier and Zion). Pop was a long-standing member of the Gardiner Eagles and American Legion. In his early days he worked as truck driver, dog team chauffeur, ice cutter, winter keeper at the Canyon Ranger Station, and worked for the NPS from 1919-23. In 1923 he went to work for George Whittaker’s general store at MHS until April of 1925. He was then employed by the W.A. Hall store for the next 14 years. He also worked at the Gardiner post office from 1939-43. He then returned to the NPS where he retired in March of 1965. In May of 1923 he married Linnea Britton, and the couple had one daughter named Connie Lee. Mrs. Scoyen died on May 25, 1961. Pop died in 1981. [Conversations with Anne Mitchell] [Park County News; 7/25/1971] Seller, K.R. K.R. Seller was a visitor from Minnesota who was the driver of the first vehicle allowed into the park on July 31, 1915, driving a Model-T Ford. [25L;92] Sevitz, Robert J. Robert Sevitz became a member of the Yellowstone Park Co. Board of Directors in 1959. He was with the Security Bank of Los Angeles, which was providing financing for the company. [25L;92] Shaw, Amos A. Amos Shaw was born June 1, 1848 on the Atlantic Ocean, three days out from Gibraltar, while enroute to Canada. His birthplace was considered legally to be in Michigan, the residence of his parents. He was the son of Amos Shaw (ca1806-1866), a British naval officer and Mary (Cassady) Shaw (ca1809-1871). At 9 years of age Amos began working on the steamer "Globe," plying the waters between Saginaw and Buffalo NY. He was a cabin boy for 4 years and then sailed on the Great Lakes in the summer as a captain of some of the largest vessels, and worked in the lumber woods during the winters until he came to Livingston, Mt. on Dec. 8, 1890. In 1891 he superintended the assembly of the steamboat Zillah for E.C. Waters and the Yellowstone Lake Boat Co. and became the Zillah’s first pilot. He held that position from 1891 through 1893. Captain Shaw married Eunice Conway (1855-1934) on April 20, 1876. He later became part owner of the Shaw & Powell Camping Company . He made his home in Livingston and had a ranch in the Shields River valley. He was married 38 years to Eunice Conway and was survived by their five children. Shaw died Sept. 24, 1913 of heart disease after a year's illness. Prior to his death he traveled to Washington DC where he finally obtained permission to install “permanent camps” in the park, to compete on an equal footing with the Wylie Permanent Camping Company. His sons Arthur and Walter continued on in the camping business after Amos’ death. He and Eunice are buried in the Mountain View Cemetery at Livingston. [25L;92] [83c] [68] [5n] Check my Shaw & Powell Camping Co. page for more info! Shaw, Chester. Leo Chester Shaw, son of Amos Shaw, was born in Burnham, Michigan and moved with his parents to Livingston, Montana in 1890. He served as assistant manager of the Shaw & Powell Company for about 21 years. He took over management of the Shaw Camps in Cooke City following the unfortunate death of his brother Walter in 1925, retiring in 1940. During WW1 he served as a transportation expert with a company working on war-related projects in Alaska. He died in a Portland Oregon hospital in early July, 1944. Chester was survived by his wife Margaret and their two sons William Amos and Richard Chester Shaw. [42e;7/5/1944] Shaw, Walter. Walter Shaw, son of Amos Shaw, assisted in the operation of the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. and became known nationwide as a lecturer and exhibitor of slides and films depicting the Yellowstone region. Walter setup Shaw’s Goose Lake Tent Camp by Goose Lake along the trail to the famed Grasshopper Glacier near Cooke City. The trail to the glacier was twelve miles one-way and required a 10 to 12-hour round-trip on horseback. The savvy traveler could spend the night at Shaw’s Camp and be able to spend more time in the area and not be so rushed. Shaw also maintained a guide service in Cooke City with saddle and packhorses and experienced guides. The trail to the glacier was opened up in 1921 and the camps were in use at least through 1928. The Northern Pacific RR employed Walter during the winters as a promoter and he traveled through the East giving lectures on the beauties of the Rocky Mountain region. Walter and Lillian Shaw ran the Shaw Hotel in Gardiner from 1922 to 1925, when on June 19 he drowned while trying to ford the swollen Gardiner River near town. Friends equipped with spotlights patrolled the river at night hoping to spot his body. Three months later his remains were found ¾ mile south of the Emigrant Bridge. Lillian and her children continued to operate the hotel until it was sold in 1944 to Hugh Crossen and J.D. Winters. His brother Chester took over management of the Cooke City operations. [24d] [39-24] [42e;7/5/1944] [42e;6/25/1925] For additional information on the Shaw family, visit my Shaw & Powell Camping Co. web page. Sheridan, Phillip. Gen. Sheridan was an army general who visited the park in 1882 with a force of 150 men. He cut a primitive trail from Jackson’s Hole to West Thumb, and later recommended military protection of the park. [25L;93] Shively, John S. An important personage in the 1877 Nez Perce foray through Yellowstone in 1877, John Shively, described as an "altogether honest and reliable man," helped guide, albeit under force, the Nez Perce through the wilds of Yellowstone. Chased by the army from their homeland in Oregon, the Nez Perce always seemed to keep a few steps ahead of General Howard in their quest for safety in Canada. Shively and members of the Radersburg tourist party were captured by the Nez Perce in August and held captive for over a week while the Indians negotiated their way through Yellowstone. Eventually he escaped his captors and made his way back to Bozeman to tell of the exciting adventures in Wonderland. Born around 1833 in Pennsylvania, Shively headed west in 1852 to follow the gold rush and eventually landed in Montana Territory. He died February 15, 1889 in Phillipsburg, Montana. [Thrapp, Dan, Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography, Vol.III] Simmons, Glen. Glen Simmons was a government employee who in 1942 was the 1st to use a snowplane in to West Yellowstone in 7-3/4 hours. A snowplane was a propeller-driven cab on skis. [25L;93] Simpson, Gov. Governor of Wyoming who proposed in 1955 that the state of Wyoming buy out the YPCo operation and assets and run the concession. The proposal was later defeated. [25L;94] Skinner, Milton Milton Skinner first came to Yellowstone in 1896 as an employee of the Yellowstone Park Association. He later went on to work for the Corps of Engineers overseeing roadwork. He became the 1st Chief Naturalist in 1920. [25L;94] Smith, A.L A.W. Miles purchased a 1/3 interest in the Wylie Camping Co. in 1905 and A.L. Smith bought the other 2/3 interest for silent partner Harry Child. The company was renamed the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. with Miles as president and general manager. [25L;72] Smitzer, “Little Gus”. Gus Smitzer aided in the stagecoach robbery with George Reeb that occurred Aug. 14, 1897 about four miles from Canyon Hotel along the Norris road. Famed poacher Ed Howell was hired to track down the perpetrators of the robbery and later received reward money for his actions. Both men were convicted in District Court in Cheyenne, Wyoming the following May and sentenced to 2-1/2 years in the federal pen. Reeb was indeed addicted to morphine and the jail time cured him of his habit, of which he was grateful. Smitzer was later hired as an irrigator at the Rose Creek Ranch, and served faithfully for a number of years. Smitzer is buried in the Gardiner cemetery and his headstone notes he was born in 1849 and died in 1931. [31] Snyder, Lily. Lily Snyder married Frank J. Haynes in 1878 and began helping with the photography business almost immediately at his studio in Moorhead Minnesota. [25L;94] Sowash, Z.R. ‘Red’. Red Sowash, sometimes spelled Red Siwash, built a saloon in 1884 in the Round Prairie Meadow of Yellowstone, northeast of the present Pebble Creek Campground. He catered to the gold miners enroute to and from the mining fields of Cooke City. He applied for a lease for the ground he occupied in January of 1887 through House Representative J.K. Toole. However, Interior denied the request stating that visitor accommodations were not necessary in that portion of the park and the army removed him in 1887. Red Sowash arrived in Montana around 1875 and engaged in numerous pursuits in Miles City and the area east of Billings, Montana. He made his way to Park County, Montana and Yellowstone where he mined in the mountains of Cooke City, Aldridge, and the Bear Gulch area above Gardiner. "Red" passed away March 5, 1901 at his home in Horr after a short bout of pneumonia. [Anaconda Standard, 3-12-1901] [YNP Army Files Doc.123] [25g] Spence, May. Born circa 1899, May Spence married Charles Hamilton in 1920. Daughter Eleanor "Ellie" May Hamilton was born the following year. Ellie later married Trevor Povah. May Spence Hamilton passed away September 8, 1955. [25L;95] Spiker, John. By 1892 John Spiker was operating a hotel in Gardiner, which included a bar room that was “…well stocked with liquors and cigars.” He completed construction of a water wheel on the Yellowstone River in April 1895 to force water up to the town of Gardiner. Most water was hauled in barrels prior to that time. The following year he began construction of a 75-light Jenny Dynamo at the water wheel. By April of 1897 the electric plant was working and supplied electricity to light up his hotel. [LE:6/4/1892] 4/13/1895; 5/9/1896; 4/24/1897] Stephens, Clarence. Clarence Stephens was one of the assistant superintendents under Supt. Norris from 1879-82 and was briefly superintendent between the administrations of Norris and Conger. Upon Supt. Conger’s arrival, Stephens was replaced by G.L. Henderson as assistant superintendent. On Mar. 2, 1880 Stephens was appointed the 1st postmaster in the park and served at Mammoth, probably in the Norris Blockhouse. He purchased the James Henderson Ranch at Stephens Creek in the early 1880’s, but sold out to George Stephens and Joe Keeney in 1883 and returned east. Stephens Creek was named after him. [25L;96] Stuart, Alex. Alex Stuart was one of the first few residents of the new town of Riverside (now West Yellowstone) located at the west entrance to Yellowstone and built a general store with Sam Eagle. Alex and his wife sold out in 1910 and purchased Charles Arnet’s “The Yellowstone Store.” They incorporated as the Stewart Mercantile Co. in 1915. Stuart also built Stuart’s Garage, selling Texaco gas, oil, tires, and other automotive supplies. He gained the contract to service the buses of YPTCo in 1917. The yellow buses picked up visitors from the Union Pacific rail depot for tours into the park. Mr. Stuart was born Feb. 17, 1880 in Canada and relocated to Montana in 1894, and then in the area that became Riverside in 1901. Alex and his wife Laura (nee Larsen) had a son Walter in 1909, who in 1936, purchased his father's Texaco service station operation. Laura Steward, a native of Norway, died in the fall of 1939. Alex died Feb. 27, 1961 in Ashton, Idaho and was buried next to his wife in the Sunset Hills Cemetery. Stuart, Charles. Born in 1849, Charles Stuart was a member of the US Geological Survey under Arnold Hague for several years in the late 1880’s. He married Helen Henderson, daughter of G.L. Henderson, on Nov. 15, 1887. He had also served as a tourist guide and outfitter for the Cottage Hotel and assisted with construction of the addition to the hotel in 1887. He died in 1929. [LE;11/15/1887;5/28/1887] [1899 YNP Supt’s Report] Thrall, Nelson C. Nelson C. Thrall was a Philadelphia businessman who was one of the founders of the Yellowstone Park Association in 1886 and served as secretary. [25L;97] Thrasher, Augustus F. A.F. Thrasher was a photographer that accompanied the Raymond-Clawson party in 1871 and took a considerable number of pictures in the park around the same time that Henry Jackson did. Unfortunately, the location of his photos or negatives has yet to be located. He operated in Idaho Territory around 1866 and arrived in Montana Territory the following year or so. He operated in both areas over the next few years and visited some of the mining camps in Montana in 1871. After 1872 he reportedly was active in the eastern United States and died sometime in the mid1870's. [25L;97] [Biographies of Western Photographers, Carl Mautz] Toll, Roger W. Roger Toll was Yellowstone Park superintendent from Feb. 1, 1929 to February 1936. He was killed in an unfortunate auto accident near Deming, New Mexico on Feb. 25, 1936. He left a wife and three children. Toll was born October 17, 1883 in Denver, Colorado and earned a degree in civil engineering at Denver and Columbia Universities. He started work in Washington DC in 1908 with the Coast and Geodetic Survey, working the coast of Alaska for a time. He served in the army during WWI, attained the rank of major, and moved to Hawaii after the war. Toll joined the Park Service in 1919 with service as superintendent at Mount Rainier National Park, followed by superintendence at Rocky Mountain NP. From there he moved on to Yellowstone. [25L;97] [National Park Service: The First 75 Years - Biographical Vignettes] Topping, Eugene S. E.S. Topping, operator of the first commercial boat on Yellowstone Lake, was born on Long Island May 15, 1844. He went to sea at age 12 in the ocean merchant service and headed west in 1868 working as prospector, miner, and stock trader. By 1871 he was working the Clark Fork mines and the following year guided Mr. & Mrs. H.H. Stone through the park. Mrs. Stone was reported to be the 1st known woman to visit the geyser basins. Topping and Dwight Woodruff spotted steam from the top of Bunsen Peak in 1872, and upon investigating its source, discovered the Norris Geyser Basin, and in the process, a shorter route to the Lower Geyser Basin. The following year Topping and Nelson Yarnell prospected on the Stinking Water River east of Yellowstone. Topping and Frank Williams were permitted to operate boats on Yellowstone Lake in 1874. They built a small boat and named it the ‘Sallie’, after the 1st two female passengers they carried on the Lake – Sarah Tracy and Sarah Graham. On Aug. 7, 1874 a Bozeman newspaper noted that Topping ". . . has his little craft successfully launched upon the Yellowstone Lake, and intends to accord the privilege of naming it to the first lady passenger." In 1875 Topping built a cabin and boat dock at Topping Point, west of the Lake Outlet. He operated on the lake for two years. He spent much of his time between 1876 and 1880 in the Black Hills mining and sheep trading. He moved to Mandan and for two years had a wood contract with the Northern Pacific Railroad. Back in Yellowstone in 1882, Eugene Topping supervised a road crew that was charged by Supt. Conger with building a new road from McCartney's Hotel to Swan Lake Flats. They continued the road work on to Firehole and built a bridge over the Gardiner River enroute. In 1885 he published a very interesting book entitled “The Chronicles of the Yellowstone – An Accurate, Comprehensive History.” The book contains a lot of early park history, along with information about mining and Indian conflicts in the greater Yellowstone region during the late 1800’s. [97p] [113] [1882 Supt's Report, p4-5] [Bozeman Avant-Courier, 8/7/1874] [56m;1171] See also my Boat History page for additional information. Townsley, John. John Townsley was appointed Park Superintendent in 1975. Toy, Sam Sam Toy, also referred to as Sam Toi, started up a hand laundry business in the old McCartney Hotel in 1902. The business lasted until the winter of 1912 when the building burned down. [30] Train, Edgar H. Edgar H. Train (E.H. Train) was a Helena photographer who has become known for his early Yellowstone stereoviews of scenes of the early 1870's. Whether he actually took photos himself, or purchased photos from other photographers is unknown. He apparently bought Joshua Crissman's print of E.S. Topping's boat the Sallie, taken on Yellowstone Lake in 1874. He went into partnership with Helena photographer Oliver C. Bundy in 1876, who later that year bought out Train. He was born in 1831 in Stockholm, NY and died in 1899. [ ] Trischman, Anna. Anna Trischman - See ‘Pryor, Anna’ See also my Pryor Store page. Trischman, Elizabeth "Belle". Elizabeth Trischman was born Dec. 22, 1886 at Fort Custer, Montana Territory. She apparently was the twin sister of Harry Trischman, who worked as a ranger in Yellowstone for about 30 years. They moved with the family to Ft. Yellowstone in 1899. In 1912 she joined her sister Anna Pryor in the curio business at Mammoth, after George Pryor left the concern. The two sisters operated the Pryor & Trischman curio/coffee shop for about 45 years. In 1933 they purchased the general stores of George Whittaker located at Mammoth and Canyon. They retired in 1953, sold the operation to Charles Hamilton and returned to their winter home in Los Angeles. Elizabeth never married and passed away in a Glendale hospital on Nov. 20, 1984 at age 98. See also Pryor Stores page. [25h] Turnbull, Charles Smith. Dr. Charles S. Turnbull was the physician with Hayden's US Geological Survey of Yellowstone and the surrounding areas in 1871-73. Born Nov. 10, 1847 to Dr. & Mrs. Laurence Turnbull, he received his Ph.D in 1869 and studied in Vienna a few years later. He served as a surgeon in the Civil War, the Pennsylvania National Guard, and numerous medical facilities in New York and Pennsylvania. [Who's Who in America, 1902]

  • Old Faithful Camping Co. |

    Camping in the Yellowstone Old Faithful Camping Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Orlando M. Hefferlin and William N. Hefferlin of Livingston Montana began operating portable tent camps in the Yellowstone Park in 1910. This operation was known as the Old Faithful Touring and Camping Co., or more commonly, Old Faithful Camping Co. (OFCC). Copying the logos of the Wylie Way and other camping companies, they advertised themselves as the "Old Faithful Way." The company operated on yearly leases issued by the Interior Dept. with no guarantees that permits would be allowed the following season. ​ William N. Hefferlin (left) was one of four brothers that immigrated to Livingston MT from Kansas and Missouri in the 1880s. Brothers John and Charles arrived in town in 1883 as employees of the NPRR. Five years later, convinced of a bright future, William and Orlando N. (right) joined John and with $1500 capital established Hefferlin Mercantile. They built a handsome store on the corner of Main and Callender streets in 1888 and the next year incorporated as the Hefferlin Mercantile Company. By 1899 business was booming with $100,000 a year in sales but by 1927 the store had gone out of business. William M. & Orland N. Hefferlin, ca1900. [Livingston Enterprise Souvenir, Jan 1, 1900] A newspaper article from a travel series on Yellowstone Park in 1912 related that, ​ "The Old Faithful Camping Company wagons carry five passengers and their driver is a guide, who explains matters without end as the team moves along, making the tour a recreation and a lecture combined. There are no permanent camps, but each camp is pitched for the night at some spot of special interest either selected by the driver or the party, who are given voice in the selection. The drivers of these wagons are not scheduled, and stop quite frequently to explain more thoroughly or let the tourist dismount for a refreshing drink of spring water, or to scald the fingers of the doubting Thomas who does not believe the pool of steaming water is actually hot. Here again is comfort in every particular. All side trips are free of charge. This company operated on equipment which cost $20,000 in the past year, which included 46 horses." [The Bedford Gazette, Bedford, Pennsylvania April 12, 1912] In 1915 the Panama-Pacific International Exposition was being held in San Francisco, which would draw visitors from across the country. With railroad service to the West Coast passing near Yellowstone by the Northern Pacific, Union Pacific, and Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RRs, visitation in the park was expected to be heavy. With this in mind, the OFCC was authorized by Interior to operate four permanent camps in the park, but only for that specific year. The company also opened up an office in Salt Lake City in order to assist in handling traffic on the Union Pacific RR and to advertise their services in local newspaper. The Yellowstone Superintendent’s Report for 1915 stated that, “The Wylie Permanent Camping Co. had 158 wagons in use during the season, the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. had 85 wagons in use. W.N. and O.M. Hefferlin had 42 wagons and 4 saddle horses in use transporting tourists and supplies to their 4 permanent camps in the park.” The OFCC carried 1080 guests into the park through the North entrance and 612 via the West entrance in 1915. By contrast they only entertained 386 guests the following year. Above Left: Advertising card for the Old Faithful Way with their permanent camps. [YNP Archives, LB51] Above Right: 1915 ad for the Old Faithful Permanent Camps. [Salt Lake Herald-Republican, 3Aug1915] Bottom Right: Union Pacific RR postcard advertising the Old Faithful Inn full-size replica at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. [Postcard, author collection] After the end of the 1915 season the Hefferlins applied for a 10-year lease and permanent camps privileges for the following years. In a response to their letter from Col. L.M. Brett, Acting Superintendent of Yellowstone, he declared that, "In my opinion, the limits to handle all the tourists desiring to take their trips will not be reached by the two permanent camps companies [Wylie and Shaw & Powell] now doing business in the park . . . The tendency should be toward a higher standard of camp services and I do not think this can be obtained if the companies are increased in number and have to fight each other for tourists, because the money that should go to improvements will have to go to advertising and compensation to outside agents.” ​ Advertisement form a 1915 brochure for the Old Faithful Camping Co. [YNP Archives] Although the company was allowed a permit for moveable camps in 1916, they were denied permanent status and a 10-year lease. A newspaper article in the Livingston Enterprise noted that the company had purchased a 2-ton REO truck to use to haul camp supplies around the park. But apparently their overall service in 1916 was none too exemplary, as a government report from that year noted that "a man had suffered from more than the normal ptomaine-laden meal and had shot at the cook, although fortunately his aim was off, no doubt by the wormy venison about which he was complaining." The report also described the Canyon Camp as consisting of ". . . old tents without walls or floors . . . Flies were abundant, and some of them reposing on a large piece of ham. In the rear of the tent two large buckets of refuse were found uncovered . . . The river was also apparently used as a latrine." Certainly this report affirmed the government’s negative position on the camps and the Old Faithful Camping Co. was dissolved after the 1916 season. Decorative dishes made expressly for the Hefferlin Mercantile Co., Tourist Outfitters, Livingston and Cinnabar, Mont. This was advertised for Cinnabar, the railroad town that disappeared after 1903 when the railroad continued on into Gardiner. Orlando Hefferlin operated the O.K. store in Cinnabar for a time. Mandated changes by the Department of Interior in 1917 brought about the consolidation of the Wylie and Shaw & Powell companies, while the other permanent camp companies, including the Old Faithful Camping Company were eliminated. With the advent of auto travel and the decreased travel times, many tent camps and lunch stations were closed down after 1916. The new camps company was known as the Yellowstone Park Camping Company (YPCC). YPCC's efforts were concentrated at the major locations in the park - Old Faithful, Canyon, Mammoth, Roosevelt, and Lake.

  • Yellowstone Bios U-V-W-X-Y-Z |

    Yellowstone Biographies U-V-W-X-Y-Z ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Underwood, Gilbert Stanley. Architect Gilbert Stanley Underwood became associated with the National Park Service, the Union Pacific RR, and other park concessionaires in the early 1920’s. Trained in the California Arts & Crafts movement in 1910-11, he used those concepts to design buildings that utilized natural and native materials, such as rock and logs, to blend the buildings in with their environment. He designed a multitude of buildings in the western United States including: the Dining Lodge at West Yellowstone; Old Faithful Lodge; lodges at Zion, Bryce, and Cedar Breaks; the Grand Canyon Lodge; Ahwahnee Hotel in Yosemite; Timberline Lodge at Mt. Hood, Oregon; Sun Valley Lodge in Idaho; and the Jackson Lake Lodge in Grand Teton. He also designed many railroad depots for UPRR, 20 post offices, two major federal buildings, and the US State Dept. Building. [66m] [25g] Villard, Henry . Henry Villard became president of the Northern Pacific RR in 1881 and presided over the “Last Spike” ceremonies at Gold Creek in 1883. The ceremonies celebrated the completion of NP’s line from Minnesota to the West Coast. [25L;100] Wakefield, George W. G.W. Wakefield was born in Bangor Maine on Oct. 15, 1833. He married Margaret Brotton in 1854. Venturing west in 1859, he worked and prospected in many areas, including Colorado, California, Mexico, Nevada, British Columbia, Oregon and Idaho. In 1872 he settled in Bozeman, operating a hotel and livery barn. Wakefield and Charles W. Hoffman of Bozeman established the Wakefield & Hoffman stage line in 1883 and provided service from Cinnabar to Mammoth and into the park under an exclusive agreement with Yellowstone Park Association (YPA).They operated from Livingston to Cinnabar until NPRR’s rail line was open to Cinnabar. They also received the mail contract for the Livingston to Cooke City route and provided daily mail service (during the summer season) to Mammoth beginning in July 1883. The company built a mail station near Soda Butte as the trip from Cinnabar to Cooke City took more than one day. Wakefield bought out Charles Hoffman in December of 1885 and teamed up with Frank Haynes to form Wakefield & Haynes. The company was short-lived and Haynes sold out in June of 1886 for $2400. The concern then became known as Wakefield Stage Lines. In 1887 the line began tri-weekly stage service from Livingston to the mining city of Castle. In 1889 the business incorporated as the National Park Transportation Co. with members Charles Gibson, E.C. Waters, Wakefield, and Thomas Oakes. George Wakefield lost the YPA contract in late 1891, and the operation was purchased by the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. in 1892. By 1894 the firm of Wakefield & Ennis was delivering mail by stage from Livingston to Cinnabar. D.I. Donovan took over the route in 1895. The following year George Wakefield received permission to transport visitors from the Union Pacific rail line at Monida. In 1895 he began operating the Albermarle Hotel in Livingston and held ranch properties in the Livingston area. He used 10-passenger Concord coaches and began operation of a camping company in the park that year. In 1901 he began conducting 10-day camping tours after he traded his ranch in Shields Valley to A.W. Chadborne for his camping company. The tours cost $40 and all the visitors camping needs were provided for. [25g] [LE;6/8/1889;6/1/1895] [Daily Enterprise (Liv.MT); 7/6/1883; 7/19/1883; 1/5/1895] [39-49] [43j] [3m] Wald, Andrew. Andy Wald (Andrew Wald) was the pioneer sand artist who in 1888 originated the idea of filling bottles with multi-colored sand to create images of animals, geysers, and various park scenes. He received permission in 1893 to erect a tent at Mammoth in which to sell his crafts. He also supplied Ole Anderson with sand art for his Specimen House curio business. It is known that Wald worked with Ole in the curio business, but to what extent is unknown. The Federal Census of 1900 showed Wald as a boarder at the Anderson household, and no doubt he was a close friend of the family. After Ole sold out his business to Pryor & Trischman in 1908, they employed Wald at their curio shop in Mammoth. He received permission from various acting superintendents to collect his sand from Norris, Canyon and other areas. He was cautioned “… not to disturb or mar the natural formations or other objects of interest.” He also served as winter keeper at the Lower Basin Hotel for at least the winter of 1889-90. An interesting account in the Livingston Enterprise noted a 1908 beer baseball game in Gardiner between the ‘Fats’ and the ‘Leans’. Wald was the ‘bartender’ and manned the keg of beer located at first base. A single merited one beer and a triple three beers. The game was umpired by famous stagecoach driver and storyteller Geyser Bob (Robert Edgar). The article described Wald as “… the famous old-timer who lives any old place where he hangs up his hat, and is noted for his ability for pounding sand in bottles in the Yellowstone Park.” He was born in 1853 in Sweden and was commonly known to friends and visitors as "Sandy" or "the Sand Man." According to an article written in the Spokane Chronicle, August 20, 1897, Wald would spend the long winter months creating his bottled sand artwork and then enjoy the fruits of his labor during the summer season. It was reportedly not uncommon for him to earn $3000 during the four summer months in Yellowstone. But, the article continued, "he was not a provident man and spent his money almost as fast as he got it in playing poker, shooting craps and drinking. When he would lose a large sum of money he would almost invariably drink heavily for a week or ten days. During such sprees he neglected his business and let many dollars slip through his fingers in that way." Despite those problems, the reporter claimed "he sold his bottles of sand to many of the royal families of Europe when they visited the park, besides the thousands of people of lesser rank and distinction the world over." He passed away on September 22, 1933 in Livingston, Montana at age 82, and was buried the next day in the Gardiner cemetery. His headstone can still be viewed there and reads “Pioneer Sand Artist of Yellowstone Park 1853 - 1933". [1912 Haynes Official Guide] [LE;5/9/1908] [Park County Death Records,Livingston Library] [YNP Army Files Doc.618 &1985] [YNP Archives,Box 68;10] [Anaconda Standard, Aug 18, 1897] [YNP Annual Supt's Report, 1933] Washburn, Henry. Henry Washburn was appointed Surveyor-General of the Montana Territory in 1869. He became the leader of the Washburn expedition of 1870, which produced the 1st official report on the Yellowstone area. There were 15 members of the expedition that included Nathaniel Langford, Lt. Gustavus Doane, Truman Everts, and Cornelius Hedges. Washburn died the following January from a cold caught on the expedition. [25L;102] Wasson, Isabel Bassett . Isabel Deming Bassett was born in Brooklyn, NY on January 11, 1897. Daughter of urban planner Edward Murray Bassett and Annie Preston Bassett, she married geologist Theron Wasson in June 1920 and became Yellowstone’s 1st woman ranger that same year. Isabel earned a master's degree in geology, specializing in petroleum geology, at Columbia University. One of the country's few female geologists in the 1920s, Mrs. Wasson took part in explorations in remote areas of South America. In 1928, she embarked on a career of more than 50 years of teaching, lecturing and public service from her base in River Forest, Illinois. She passed away February 21, 1994 at age 97.For more information on Ms Wasson, check out "Women in Wonderland", by Elizabeth A. Watry. Waters, E.C. Ela Collins Waters (E.C. Waters) was born at Martinsburg, Lewis Co., NY on May 5, 1849 and moved to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin shortly afterwards. He served as a drummer during the Civil War with the Wisconsin 38th Infantry, after being refused by the regular army. He married Martha Bustus Amory March 4, 1878 and had one son and two daughters, the younger of which died in 1905 and the elder in 1913. In 1882 he opened the Merrill (Morrell) House hotel in Glendive, Montana with a Mr. Klaus and operated it until it burned down in 1885. That same year Waters opened the Headquarters Hotel in Billings. He came to work in Yellowstone in 1887 with E. C. Culver. Waters became general manager of the Yellowstone Park Association hotels in 1887, serving until 1890 when he was removed from that position. During that time he became involved in several different mining ventures in the Cooke City area. In 1889 he was one of the incorporators of the National Park Transportation Co. that purchased the Wakefield operation in the park. He became head of the Yellowstone Lake Boat Co. from 1891 to 1907 and built a house and boathouse in front of Lake Hotel that first year. He also brought in the 40-ton steamship “The Zillah ”, which was assembled on site by Amos Shaw (Shaw & Powell). The boat made its first run on June 22, 1891 with a crew of government road workers. Amos Shaw was in charge of the boat for the 1891-92 seasons. The craft served as a ferry from West Thumb to Lake Hotel until 1917. In 1896 he was given permission to establish a wild game show on Dot Island in an attempt to increase business for his ferry from West Thumb to Lake Hotel. He hauled four buffalo in cages on wagons from the Cinnabar depot to the Lake for his ‘show’. He bought out the boat company from YPA in 1897, and obtained a 10-year lease from Interior. In 1905 he bought a second boat and named it the “E.C. Waters.” It was 125’ long with a 26’ beam width and capable of carrying 300-400 passengers. It was used part of the 1905 season, but authorities refused to license the vessel, and it ended up anchored off the east side of Stevenson Island. Waters was not a particularly well respected person or businessman and his wild animal show was a disgrace and a health hazard for the animals. He was ‘encouraged’ to leave the park in 1907 by the army. According to Bartlett’s “Yellowstone – A Wilderness Besieged”, a notice was posted by Supt. Gen. Young stating that “…E.C. Waters, President of the Yellowstone Lake Boat Company, having rendered himself obnoxious during the 1907 season, is…debarred from the park and will not be allowed to return without permission.” It seems though; he did not leave the park completely until 1910. Tom Hofer bought out his boat business with a loan from Harry Child and called it the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. Mrs. Waters died Aug. 6, 1909 and Ela Waters passed away Aug. 25, 1926. He had been in an Old Soldiers Home near Fond du Lac, and his mind was reportedly "entirely gone," and had no recollections of his service in Yellowstone. [56m;918-922] [LE;6/27/1891;10/27/1888;6/8/1889;11/9/1889;6/6/1891;10/15/1892;7/25/1896] [15b] [25g] [YNP H-2, History File] Wear, David W. David Wear was the last civilian Superintendent to serve prior to the takeover by the army in 1886. His administration began July 1885 and only lasted about one year. He was a nephew of Uncle John Yancy. [25L;103] Weed, Walter Harvey. Walter Weed served as a geologist for the US Geological Survey beginning in 1883 and studied Yellowstone from 1883-1889. He discovered that the colors in the hot springs and geyser deposits were due to algae living in the hot waters, and that the deposits were formed by algae life. He also discovered Death Gulch, where wildlife died due to the intense carbon dioxide gas emitted from the ground. He engaged in the geological examination of Montana from 1889-98, primarily from an economic viewpoint, i.e. mining. He authored "Formation of Hot Springs Deposits," "Glaciation of Yellowstone," and was co-author of "Geology of Yellowstone Park," and wrote numerous other papers. Weed was born May 1, 1862 in St. Louis to Samuel R. and Nellie S. (Jones) Weed. He was educated in public schools and graduated from the Columbia School of Mines in 1883. [Who's Who in America, 1902] Welcome, George W. George Welcome was among the earlier residents and businessmen of Gardiner. He was born June 17, 1853 in Ogdensburg, New York and came out West at an unknown date. By 1883 he was running a sawmill above the railroad tunnel on Bozeman Pass, probably supplying railroad ties, tunnel timbers, and trestle material for the Northern Pacific RR. In 1884 Welcome, Al. Coffin, and Alex. Moore built a cabin in Gardiner in the area between the Gardiner River and James McCartney's place. Apparently it was considered to be inside the park boundaries at the time. By 1886 he was operating The City Hotel in Gardiner with his wife as proprietor. He ran the saloon end of the business and advertised Milwaukee Keg Beer on draught. The 1889 Horr Voting Registry listed him as a Saloon Keeper in Horr. By 1894 he maintained a residence in Aldridge near the Lake and owned Welcome Hall, a building that was used for a variety of community events and also sported a saloon. The Livingston Enterprise reported in 1892 that George ran a resort in Horr “where a man can procure anything from a drink to a sufficient quantity to float a steamer. Mr. Welcome carries a mammoth stock of liquors and cigars, employs two mixologists . . . and does a larger business than any saloon in Livingston . . . he also conducts a gambling room.” In 1899 it was reported that he sold the Keats mine in Jardine to local mining magnate Harry Bush for $40,000. He also operated a hotel in Jardine and maintained a residence there, probably around that same time. A Polk Directory for 1904 showed he shared interest in 160 acres of land around Jardine with a man named Double. He had three sons (Harry, George, & ??) and one daughter. George Welcome died of heart failure in his home at Jardine on September 10, 1905 after being in poor health the previous year. His obituary in the Gardiner Wonderland newspaper of Sept. 14, 1905 said he was 56 years of age; although according to the 1889 voting registry he would have been about 52. He was buried in the Jardine cemetery and his large tombstone "Welcomes" all who enter. [Sources: Helena Independent 3/16/1883; 2/27/1884; 6/12/1886. Livingston Enterprise 6/4/1892. Doris Whithorn books on Gardiner and Aldridge] Werks, John. (Also John Works) In 1873 John Werks, George Huston, and Frank Grounds operated a primitive pack and saddle transportation business at Mammoth. Werks began stagecoach service in 1873 from Bozeman with weekly service, or as required. In 1874 “Zack Root's Express” took over the weekly service, leaving Mondays from Bozeman and arriving on Tuesday at Mammoth, carrying both freight and passengers. In 1877 Werks was present at the Henderson Ranch outside of Gardiner when it was attacked my marauding Nez Perce. Much of the ranch was burned, but Werks, Sterling Henderson, and others escaped across the Yellowstone River after a gun battle with the Indians. [25L] [Bozeman Avant-Courier, 7/3/1874] Visit my George Huston web page for additional information. Whittaker, George. Born in Wheeling, West Virginia ca1870, George Whittaker enlisted in the Army for five years in 1889. He was sent to South Dakota in 1890 and participated in the Wounded Knee Sioux Campaign. He was assigned to Ft. Yellowstone the following year, serving until 1896. He was appointed Scout that year and performed those duties until 1898. Around 1897 he conducted hunting and tourist parties in and around the park with Wm. Van Buskirk, a sergeant-major at Ft. Yellowstone. George Whittaker served in the Spanish American War until 1902, with assignments at the Jefferson Barracks in Missouri and in the Philippines as Chief Packer. Whittaker returned to Yellowstone in 1902 as Scout and Packer during the winters until 1910. During the summers Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. employed him as a transportation agent at Canyon until 1913. In February of that year he bought out the Lyall-Henderson post office and store at Mammoth and became Postmaster. The enterprise was known as the Yellowstone Park Store (currently the Yellowstone General Store, operated by Delaware North Parks Services). He began selling gas and automotive supplies at the Mammoth store in 1915 and built the nearby gas station in the fall of 1919. He established a general store and gas station at Canyon in 1917 in an old Holm Transportation building. He built a new store and filling station at Canyon in 1920 that was located next to the ranger station along the rim of the Grand Canyon (current Upper Falls parking lot). By 1923 he was operating a small branch store at the Mammoth auto campground and the following year a deli was added at the camp. He sold the Mammoth camp operation to Pryor & Trischman in 1925, and in 1932 sold the rest of his operation at Mammoth and Canyon to the ladies for $75,000. That sale included his interest in the service station business with YPTCo. He settled in at West Yellowstone where he was part owner of the Hayward Cabin Co., which included tourist cabins, general store, service station, and a beauty/barber shop. Whittaker was also responsible for construction of the first airstrip at West Yellowstone in the mid-1930’s. He continued in business at West until at least the late 1940’s and died in the Old Soldiers Home at Sawtelle, California in 1961 at age 91. [25i] For additional information please visit my Whittaker General Store page. White, Walter. Walter White headed the White Motor Company that manufactured automobiles and trucks. They provided 117 touring buses to the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) for the 1917 season to replace the stagecoaches. That first season there were 100 10-passenger ¾-ton TEB buses and 17 7-passenger buses. A fire at the YPTCo garage at Mammoth in March of 1925 destroyed about 92 White buses. The White Company rushed to produce 90 new White Model 15/45 10-passenger buses in time for the park opening in June. In 1931 eight 14-passenger buses (614 series) were tried out, and in 1936-39 YPTCo bought 98 14-passenger buses of a different design (Model 706). The autos all featured open tops for unobstructed viewing by the passengers. White Co. provided touring cars to many of the other western national parks during that period of time. In 1914 White teamed up with Roe Emery to operate the Glacier Park Transportation Co., with the White Co. providing $60,000 worth of vehicles for the park that season. Two years later White and Emery setup a similar arrange at Rocky Mountain National Park. Walter White was a silent partner in the 1919 purchase of YP Camping Co. with Howard Hays and Roe Emery. [25L;105] [2r] For additional information, please visit my Yellowstone White Buses web page. Wilcox, Jay. Jay Wilcox was permitted with Jim Parker in 1918 to raise potatoes on Turkey Pen Pass to sell to the tourists. [25L;106] Wilder, Capt. W.E . Capt. Wilder was Acting Supt. with the 4th Cavalry for three months in the spring of 1899. [25L;26] Williams, Frank. E.S. Topping and Frank Williams were permitted to operate boats on Yellowstone Lake in 1874. They built a small boat and named it the ‘Sallie’, after the 1st two female passengers they carried on the Lake – Sarah Tracy and Sarah Graham. A Bozeman newspaper of Aug. 7, 1874 noted that Topping ". . . has his little craft successfully launched upon the Yellowstone Lake, and intends to accord the privilege of naming it to the first lady passenger." Williams drowned May 22, 1875 at the Yellowstone Crossing, near the future site of Livingston Montana. He and three others were crossing the river when the wire crossing cable broke and the boat sank. The others survived the ordeal. [Bozeman Avant-Courier 8/7/1874; 5/28/1875] Wilson, Edward. Ed Wilson served as an assistant superintendent in 1885-86 and was selected as a scout for the Army in 1887, serving admirably for several years. He joined Frank Haynes on the winter expedition of 1887 after Lt. Schwatka became ill and returned to Mammoth. He later fell in love with Mary Henderson, daughter of G.L. Henderson, but she spurned his advances. Disconsolate, he took his life on July 20, 1891 after drinking morphine on the hill above the National Hotel. His remains were not discovered until a year later when a daughter of Henry Wyatt found them in early June of 1892. He is buried at Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston, Mt. [113] [31] [LE;6/8/1892] Wingate, George Wood . George Wingate was the author of "On Horseback Through the Yellowstone." The book describes the travels of Wingate, a wealthy and prominent New Yorker, with his wife and 17-year old daughter on a 26-day journey through Yellowstone on horseback in the summer of 1885. Upon his return he noted that "If I had gone to Africa instead of to the Yellowstone, I could scarcely have had more trouble in obtaining reliable information in regard to the journey." So, he wrote his book as an aid and guidebook for others who were to follow in his footprints. He was born in New York July 1, 1840 to Charles and Mary P. (Robinson) Wood. He was a lawyer and was involved in politics and the railroad and insurance industries. As an officer of the NY National Guard, he was instrumental in formulating rules for systematic rifle practice. He obtained the charter for the New York National Rifle Association in 1871 and served as its president for 25 years. He authored numerous books and articles, many on the subject of military matters. [Who's Who in America, 1902; Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1948] Wirth, Conrad L . Conrad Wirth served as NPS Director from Dec. 9, 1951 to Jan. 7, 1964. He was responsible for the Mission 66 plan, a 10-year, billion-dollar program to upgrade park facilities and services in time for the 50th anniversary of the NPS in 1966. [25L;106] Wo, Sam. Sam Wo was gardener at Chinaman’s Gardens along the Gardiner River near the 45th Parallel from 1909-1922. Robert Reamer designed a house for him in 1917. [25L;106] Wylie, William. William Wallace Wylie (W.W. Wylie) was born June 8, 1848 in Concord, Ohio. He later moved with his parents to Washington, Ohio. He attended college at Hopkinton, Iowa, graduating in 1872. He became a teacher and principal in the Delhi, Iowa school system for two years, was principal at Hinsdale, Ill. for one year, and superintendent at Lyons, Iowa for three years. On April 2, 1874 he married Mary A. Wilson of Independence, Iowa. Wylie moved to Montana in 1878 to be a Bozeman school principal. He later became principal of the Bozeman Academy and served as superintendent of public education for the territory of Montana during 1886-87. He brought his first paid visitors into Yellowstone for a tour in 1880. He published his guide “The Yellowstone National Park, or the Great American Wonderland” in 1882. Wylie started 10-day park tours in 1883 using moveable camps. He created the Wylie Camping Company in 1893 and was licensed to operate a transportation business to serve his customers. The Wylie Way was a less expensive way for tourists to be able to tour the park without the necessity of having to ‘dress up’, as was considered proper in the hotels. A 7-day Wylie tour cost $35.00 while a 6-day tour at the hotels was $50.00. The company was given permission in 1896 to establish permanent camps, and two years later camps were located at Apollinaris Springs, Upper Geyser Basin, Lake Outlet, and Canyon, with lunch stations at Gibbon Falls and West Thumb. He operated the business until 1905 when he sold out to Arthur W. Miles and A.L. Smith (fronting for H.W. Child). Sometime after that Wylie and his wife moved from Bozeman, Montana to Pasadena, California. The Wylie Permanent Camping Co. continued to operate in all major areas of the park until after 1916, when the Wylie and Shaw & Powell camping companies were merged and monopolized into the Yellowstone Park Camping Company under joint ownership. In 1917 WW Wylie and wife Mary started a Wylie Way Camp in Zion National Monument (it became a national park in 1919) and his daughter Elizabeth and her husband Thomas H. McKee opened a Wylie Way Camp at the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Monument. The Zion camp lasted until 1925 when the Utah Parks Co. (under the auspices of the Union Pacific RR) unveiled the new Zion Lodge (the Wylie camp had been under UPCo management since 1923). The North Rim camp lasted through 1927 under the McKees and the following season UPCo opened the new Grand Canyon Lodge. Mary Wylie passed on in 1928 and William Wylie died February 7, 1930 in Pasadena at age 82 after a major cancer operation. [25L;107] [56m;1171] [42e;1930] Please visit my Wylie Camping Co. page for more info! Yancey, John F. John Yancey (“Uncle John” Yancey) was a colorful character born in Barren County, Kentucky in 1826 and moved with his family to Missouri while he was still a boy. He fought in the Civil War and was in California in 1849, no doubt following the Gold Rush. He built a cabin and mail station at Pleasant Valley in 1882 to accommodate teamsters and mail stages enroute to Cooke City. He opened the “Pleasant Valley Hotel ” in 1884 and served the ‘undiscriminating’ tourist until his death. The hotel was 1-1/2 stories and measured 30’ by 50’. It could accommodate twenty guests in the upstairs bedrooms at $2.00/day, or $10.00/week. The area was located off of the standard tour route offered by the transportation companies, and his main business catered to fisherman, hunters, miners, freighters, and prospectors to and from the Cooke City gold mines. He knew all the good ‘fishing holes’ and had plenty of tall tales to amuse his guests. Supposedly his whiskey glasses were undefiled by the touch of water. A 1-1/2 story saloon was erected some time between 1887-93, measuring about 20’ x 20’. His nephew Dan took over the business when Uncle John died on May 7, 1903 at 77 years of age. Dan conducted the business until a fire destroyed the hotel on April 16, 1906. The saloon survived the fire, along with a stable and two other log structures. In 1907 Dan applied for permission to lease a site closer to the new road that was being constructed. He was turned down since the Wylie Camping Co. and the Yellowstone Park Association were already in possession of building permits in the area. His lease for the original site was revoked in November of that year. Dan finally received $1000 in compensation for loss of his property in 1935. The saloon was razed in the 1960’s. John Yancey is buried in the Gardiner cemetery at Tinker’s Hill and his tombstone and plot can still be visited. [108a] [25g] [60g] [119o;5/7/1903 & 5/14/1903] Yankee Jim . Like many other Yellowstone pioneers, Yankee Jim (James George, born ca1835 in Penn) came west in 1863 to search for gold in the Bannack, Montana area. He eventually became a meat hunter for the Crow Indian Agency located east of present day Livingston. Actually named James George, this colorful character squatted in the Yellowstone River Canyon about 16 miles north of Gardiner. He came into possession of the primitive road from Bottler’s Ranch to Mammoth in 1873 when Bart Henderson and ‘Horn’ Miller gave up their road building enterprise. In July Yankee Jim declared the road open to within two miles of Mammoth. He set up a cabin and tollbooth in Yankee Jim Canyon 16 miles north of Gardiner and all traffic to the park from the north had to go through his property. Like Uncle John Yancy, Yankee Jim loved to fish, hunt, and tell ‘whoppers’ to folks passing through his ‘Canyon’. The Northern Pacific RR appropriated his roadbed through the Canyon in 1883 against his bitter protestations. The railroad did however; construct a crude bypass for him over the steep hill near the rail line. Jim spent several years attempting to seek justice through the courts, but it did no good. He gradually allowed maintenance of the road to degrade and in 1887 Park County took away his rights to eleven miles of the road north from the Wyoming line. In 1893, his road maintenance continued to decline, along with his sobriety. Park County Commissioners convinced him to give up his road that year in exchange for $1,000. Jim spent most of the rest of his life on his ranch, but deeded it to his brother John early in 1920. A few months later, unable to care for himself, John went to live with his brother in Fresno, California. Yankee Jim died in 1924, at about age 94. [107] [Click Here for Find-a-Grave page on Yankee Jim] Young, Col. S.B.M. Born on January 9, 1840 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Samuel Baldwin Marks Young was the son of Captain John, Jr. and Hahhan Scot Young. He was educated at Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. He enlisted as a Private in the 12th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry in April 1861 at the outbreak of the Civil War. After the expiration of his term he was commissioned Captain, 4th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry in September. He served with distinction in the Army of Potomac throughout the Civil War, receiving promotion to Major in September 1862, to Lieutenant Colonel in October 1864 and to Colonel in December 1864. He was breveted Brigadier General of Volunteers in April 1865 for services during the final campaign from Petersburg to Appomattox. Col. S.B.M. Young served two terms in Yellowstone as Acting Supt. with the 4th Cavalry. He served 5 months in 1897 and from May 14, 1907 to November 28, 1908 with the rank of General. In 1908 he married Annie Dean Huntley, widow of Silas Huntley and sister of Adelaide Dean Child (wife of Harry Child). S.B.M. Young died in Montana on September 1, 1924 at age 85. He rose through the army ranks from a private in the Civil War to the rank of Lt. General and head of the US Army. [LE;3/7/1908] [25g] [NY Times, 9-3-1924] [Arlington National Cemetery Website] Young, Harold. Harold Young founded ‘Snowmobiles of West Yellowstone’ in 1955. His company operated Bombedier snowcoach tours through the park. [25L;117] Yount, Harry. Harry Yount was born in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania on March 18, 1847. He enlisted in the Union Army at the age of 14 and served until the end of the American Civil War, after which he traveled west to the present-day state of Wyoming. Beginning in 1873, Yount spent a number of years exploring Wyoming's mountain country, including the Grand Tetons, as a member of the geological surveys led by Dr. Ferdinand Hayden. Yount was hired in 1880 to be the 1st Gamekeeper in the park. A cabin was built for him near Soda Butte, but he resigned in September 1881 in frustration over his lack of authority and the absence of enforceable laws. The cabin was located on the western foot of Mt. Norris, east of the old Lamar River ford. Younts Peak, located at the head of the Yellowstone River, was named in his honor. After leaving the park, Yount started his own animal trapping and hunting business and did some prospecting for gold. He was well-known as a bear killer and is reputed to have occasionally engaged in “hand-to-paw” combat with one of these dangerous beasts. He also acquired a rather substantial amount of mining property in later years, including a marble quarry.[25g] [66m] [Wikipedia] Zack Root’s Express. Zack Root began hauling freight and passengers to Mammoth from Bozeman on a weekly basis, leaving on Monday and arriving on Tuesday, beginning in July of 1874. George Huston and John Werks, who operated of a string of pack and saddle horses in Mammoth, hooked up with Zack Root’s Express to provide horse and guide service to the geyser basins. An ad in the Bozeman Avant-Courier read "Ho! For The Mammoth Hot Springs and Geyser-Land! The public and pleasure seekers generally are respectfully informed that I will after this date run a Line of Conveyances between Bozeman and the Mammoth Hot Springs for their accommodation during the season. . . " In 1875 Root advertised stops at Hayden, Emigrant, Chico, Henderson and Bear Gulch. He also carried the US Mail to Mammoth that year. The Bozeman paper revealed no ads for his services in the summer of 1876. [30;195-96] [Bozeman Avant Courier, 7/3/1874; 5/14/1875] For additional information, please visit my George Huston web page

  • Sylvan Pass Lunch Station |

    Hotels in the Yellowstone Sylvan Pass Lodge - Sylvan Pass Lunch Station 1924 - 1934 Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the author. Sylvan Pass Lodge & Lunch Station This rustic Sylvan Pass Lodge was the last of the lodge operations to be built in the park. It was designed to serve tourists traveling the 50-mile journey on the Cody Road from the rail depot at Cody to the Lake Hotel . Situated on the eastern border of Yellowstone National Park, the lodge was designed primarily as a lunch station, although tents facilities were available for overnight guests. The site had previously been used by the Wylie Camping Company, who established the Cody Camp there in 1913. The camp closed after the 1916 season, along with several other Camps and Lunch Stations in Yellowstone. Sylvan Pass Lodge - Cody Road. [Haynes PC #24071 The history of the site is unknown between 1917-1923, but the NPS built a free auto camp nearby by the early 1920s. The Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co . began construction of a log lodge on the site in 1923, which opened in 1924, on the former Wylie camp site. The structure was rustic in nature and similar to other log lodges in the park. It was designed by Fred F. Willson of Bozeman, who was also architect for the Old Faithful Rec Hall and Lake Lodge. The first year the lodge was referred to as the Cody Camp, derived from the Wylie days. The name “Sylvan Pass Lodge” became official in 1925. Sylvan Pass Lodge during final construction in Spring of 1924. [YNP Scrapbook, 14a-0131] Sylvan Pass Lodge probably around Spring opening in 1924. [YNP #32187] The Billings Weekly Gazette reported in Sept. 1923 that Howard Hays, head of the YP Camps Company, “Came to Billings for the purpose of conferring with material men on business connected with the latest expansion plan of the Camps company, which is the construction of a lunch station near the east entrance of the park, on the Cody road, 55 miles from that city. The new building is to be 150 feet long by 110 feet deep, and the dining room will have a space of 135x52 feet, wherein 400 guests can be seated at one time. Hauling of material for this new work has been in progress for 10 days, and construction work is to begin at once, the plan being to have the station complete and ready to serve the public entering the eastern gateway the first day of the 1924 season.” Construction was completed for spring opening in 1924. The building was 150’x100’ in size, with a dining room 135’x52’. It served mostly as a lunch stop for travelers coming to the park on the YPTCo. ’s buses from the railroad station in Cody. Sometimes 500 people would have their lunches there. One group of buses would arrive at noon from Cody; and another, coming from the park would arrive at 1 p.m. Oft-times fifty park buses capable of carrying 11 people each would be parked outside the lunch stop. It also served all other travelers in the area for meals and overnight tent facilities. According to Howard Hays at the close of the 1923 season, there were times during the season when 1,000 people were camped at the public auto camp nearby. ​ Mrs. Adelaide Underwood, a long time park employee who managed the Old Faithful Inn for many years, was in charge of Sylvan Pass Lodge. The operation only lasted about 10 years and was torn down in 1940. Left Top : Sylvan Pass Lodge with bus loads of tourists in front. [Real-Photo Postcard, undated] Left Bottom : View of Sylvan Pass lunch Station. [Tamman Postcard #4541, circa mid-1920s] Bottom Photos : Interior views of Sylvan Pass Lodge. The design is very similar to those of Lake, Canyon, and Mammoth lodges. [1926 & 1928 Yellowstone Park Camps Co. brochures ] Yellowstone Yule Carols Fill Park YELLOWSTONE PARK — Christmas carols will fill the crisp mountain air, presents wil] he exchanged and workers will sit down to special dinners today as Yellowstone National Park continues a traditional celebration. The first Christmas in August observance was held during the 1920s at Sylvan Pass Lodge. Since the lodge was small, the number of employes was small and the party begun by the manager was very close. The occasion now is celebrated also in such cities near the park as West Yellowstone, Gardiner and Cooke City as a farewell to park and seasonal employes. New trees are decorated throughout the park, the nation's first, sand the entire crew of park workers and concessionaires — not to mention tourists — join in the celebration. Art Bazata, president of Yellowstone Park Co., will hold a special open house today as part of the observance. Sylvan Pass Lodge was the first overnight stop from Cody, Wyo, The lodge no longer exists. Celebrants opened the festivities Saturday night with a dance. [25Aug1968 Billings Gazette] Couple skiing at Sylvan Lodge in the 1930s. Although the lodge was not open in winter, they may have stayed at Pahaska Tepee or another lodge in Wapiti Valley.

  • Jennie H. Ash |

    Yellowstone Storekeepers - Jenny Henderson Ash Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Henderson family moves to Yellowstone . . . ​ George L. Henderson of Iowa was appointed Assistant Park Superintendent and moved to Yellowstone in May of 1882. He was accompanied by five children - Walter, Helen, Barbara, Jennie, and Mary. Barbara soon became Postmistress and in 1883 opened the post office in one of James McCartney's old hotel buildings. Sister Jennie soon began assisting her, and began selling 'coated specimens' and mineral specimens provided by local entrepreneurs. The business became known simply as 'The Post Office Store.' Jennie became Postmistress in April of 1884, and married John Dewing. However, she lost (or gave up) her position in the fall of that year. She again became Postmistress in the fall of 1888, taking over the Post Office Store. By 1889 she was selling photographic views, stationary, tobacco, toiletry items, fruit, and some clothing items. She married George Ash in 1893 and began construction on a new store and residence in 1895. The Post Office Store, circa 1880. The second building from the left has a sign above the door reading “Post Office.” The first building on the left may have been used as a residence. The building were located at the base of what is known as "Kite Hill" at Mammoth. The old road to gardiner passes above that area. YNP #945 The new store . . . ​ The new store opened up in 1896 and was referred to as 'Ash & Henderson' on their business letterhead, although generally still referred to as the Post Office Store. Additions were built on the property in 1897 and 1902. Although George had been Postmaster since 1893, the business correspondence for the store was generally all in Jennie's name. The store sold a wide variety of dry goods, clothing, tourist supplies, and curios, in addition to the items previously mentioned.. Later on Indian goods, furs and game heads were added to the stock. George died in 1900 from an undisclosed illness, leaving Jennie in charge. Various family members assisted in the operation of the store over the years, particularly after the death of her husband. Alexander Lyall, who was married to Jennie's sister Barbara, became Postmaster in 1906 and also a partner in the business. Jennie began having problems with her health and spent more time in Southern California, where most of her family maintained residences. In 1908 she sold the business to Alexander and her brother Walter Henderson. Below: 1906 Advertisement for the Jennie Henderson Ash store at Mammoth. YNP #6282 Lyall & Henderson take over . . . ​ Alexander Lyall and Walter Henderson officially took over the lease in April of 1908, changing the name to 'Lyall & Henderson'. The men soon applied to Interior for permission to build an addition to the store, but the project became mired down in red tape. The Yellowstone Park Association, who owned the nearby National Hotel, was planning on building a grand new hotel at Mammoth. The proposed building would have extended onto the lot of the general store, requiring the store to be moved. YPA eventually shelved the hotel plans due to the excessive cost, and settled on remodeling the existing hotel. The addition to the store was never completed. By 1913 the men both maintained homes in Southern California and spent much of the year away from their families. They sold out the operation to George Whittaker, former Army soldier and scout in March of 1913. Whittaker operated the store for almost 20 years, selling to Pryor & Trischman in 1932. General Store at Mammoth in 1917. The front section was expanded considerably in 1914. [Courtesy Montana Historical Society] Click here to read my article Yellowstone’s First General Store A Legacy of Jennie Henderson and Her Family Published in Yellowstone Science, Spring 2005 Next - Ole Anderson & Andy Wald

  • Hotels & Lodges |

    Yellowstone's Hotels & Lodges ​ Click on Link above to begin your tour.

  • Yellowstone Bios M-N-O-P |

    Yellowstone Biographies M - N - O - P ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Marshall, George W. Born in Illinois in 1838 (1838 according to his tombstone in Three Forks, MT; born 1835 as noted in two of his obituaries, and 1846 as quoted by YNP historian Aubrey L. Haines and other authors), George Marshall he went west to California in 1860, working a variety of jobs, including managing a hostelry in Utah and a stage station in Nevada. He married Sarah Romrell in 1875 and in 1876 operated a stage line in Montana between Butte City and Eagle Rock. Marshall received a 1-year mail carrier contract in 1879 for the Virginia City to Mammoth route. He built a house at the Firehole River near Nez Perce Creek that became both a mail station and small hotel. He formed the Marshall & Goff Stage Co. with John Goff in 1880 that traveled the mail route. Their first passengers arrived at the unfinished Marshall's Hotel in early October of that year. That year he also erected a mail station at Norris, possibly in the meadow near the soldier station. Marshall began giving tours of the park that same year and his tours were the first known to originate from ‘within’ the park. The Marshall House was also housed the Firehole Post Office and his wife Sarah was the Postmistress. The Marshall’s had a daughter born January 31, 1881 whom they named Rose Park. She was the first white child born in Yellowstone. The post office closed down in 1882, but by 1886 was open again with John Clark as Postmaster. That service lasted until 1891. Marshall retired from the business in 1885 and moved to Bozeman. He died in 1917 and was buried in Three Forks, MT. [25g] [32] [116] Marshall, S. S. (Si). Si Marshall was born in Iowa in 1860 and came to Montana by wagon train when he was a young man. He and his brother George Marshall operated a large cattle ranch near Melville before moving to Livingston in 1882. Later they formed the Marshall Brothers Camping Company, probably in the late 1890's and operated for about 12 years, escorting tourist parties on camping trips through the park. They purchased a livery stable in Livingston in 1884. After retirement from the camping business Si worked numerous different jobs, including that as manager of the commissary at Mammoth. He became a justice of the peace in Livingston in 1941. He died in early January 1944. Chick Here for more information on my webpage on the Marshall Bros. Camping Co. Marshall, Wm. Issac. Wm. I. Marshall arrived in Montana in 1866 in search of riches from the gold fields around Virginia City. He traveled to Yellowstone with his family in 1873 and 1875. He began selling stereopticon photos taken by Joshua Crissman at least by 1876, without really giving proper credit. Crissman accompanied the Hayden Expedition of 1871 as a photographer, taking pictures alongside of Henry Jackson. Marshall is known to have conducted interpretive tours in the park in 1873, 1875, 1881 and 1882. He later conducted lectures nationwide concerning the park and other parts of the west. [119b] Mather, Stephen Tyng. Stephen Mather was business tycoon who made his money in the borax business in California. He became the first Director of the National Park Service, serving from May 16, 1917 to January 8, 1929. He was responsible for `selling’ the national parks idea to the public to encourage visitation. His visions dictated park policies for many years. Prior to that assignment, he was Assistant to the Secretary of Interior and helped to instigate and implement the idea of controlled monopolies in the park. He played a leading part in the addition of many new parks into the system, and lobbied for increased funding and appropriations for roads, improvements, and upkeep. He would use his own money if necessary, to fund favorite projects in the parks until Congress banned the practice. He passed away on January 22, 1930 after having suffered a breakdown the previous year. [25L;69] Mathews, Larry. Larry Mathews, also commonly spelled Larry Matthews, was quite a colorful Irishman who managed establishments in Yellowstone from 1888 to 1904. He began with the Trout Creek Lunch Station near Hayden Valley in 1888. That establishment served the crowd coming over the Mary Mountain road from the Lower Geyser Basin. When the new road over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb opened in 1891, Larry moved his business to Thumb. These facilities were conducted in tents. He established ‘Larry’s Lunch Station’ at Norris Geyser Basin in 1893 after the second wooden hotel/lunch station burned down in 1892. He entertained guests at this new station until the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) opened the second Norris Hotel in 1901. Matthews then went to work at the crude Shack Hotel at Old Faithful and managed the Old Faithful Inn during the first season in 1904. When YPA refused to increase his pay after 15 years of service, he left the park. Larry was born in Drogheda, Ireland in 1854 to parents Patrick and Elizabeth Fredigan McMahon. Larry immigrated to the United States in 1882 and it is assumed that he changed his name to Mathews at that time, to appear less 'Irish.' He moved to Minneapolis and in 1886 married Bridget Clinton. The following year he went to work in Yellowstone for Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) at Mammoth. His daughter Elizabeth, or "Lizzie," was born in 1891. By 1895 Larry was employed during the off-season as a traveling passenger agent in Canada for the Northern Pacific RR. A St. Paul newspaper article noted in January of 1897 that Larry would soon be "in charge of a party of tourists for the city of Mexico handled by the Grafton Excursion Company." By 1904 it is known that he was working the off-season as a tourist guide for the Gates Touring Company on tours of Mexico, and was probably conducting similar tours much earlier than 1904. He later purchased a farm near Rochester, Minnesota to be near his wife's family, but later removed to Crookston to be with his only daughter Lizzie. Larry passed away in 1922. [32] [25L;69] [Thanks to Elizabeth A. Watry for providing some of this material about Larry's personal life, that she obtained from the Yellowstone Park Archives] Please visit my web pages on Norris Lunch Station, Trout Creek Lunch Station, and Larry's Lunch Stations) May, D.B. D.B. May was a Billings businessman who secured the beef contract for the hotel association in the park for the 1888 and 1889 seasons. He originally had his operation near Norris Geyser Basin, but moved to Swan Lake Flats and Indian Creek due to bear problems. He was awarded a contract in 1890 to build an elevator to the bottom of the Grand Canyon. It was intended to be constructed on a strip of land adjacent to Red Rock Point and carry at least ten persons. Luckily permission was revoked later in the year and nothing became of the project. [LE;5/19/1888;4/27/1889] [25g] McBride, James. Jim McBride was a scout for the army from 1890 to 1918 and became the first Chief Ranger in Yellowstone in 1919, serving in the park until 1938. A lake near Slough Creek was named after him. Born in 1864, he died May 3, 1942 and is buried in the Gardiner cemetery. [25L;69] McCartney, James C. James McCartney was born ca1835 in New York and first came to the Montana Territory in 1866, no doubt to join others in the quest for gold. It is thought he first passed through Yellowstone in 1869 and joined the Cooke City gold rush the following year. The 1870 Federal Census for Gallatin County listed him as 34 years of age and his occupation as carpenter. He became a co-owner with Harry Horr of the first lodgings available in the park. In 1871 they claimed a homestead of 160 acres at the mouth of Clematis Gulch in Mammoth on July 5 and built two cabins that year that became known as McCartney's Hotel. The cabin used as a hotel was a 1-story log building 25 by 35 feet with an earth-covered slab roof. Guests were required to provide their own blankets and slept on the floor. During a Yellowstone visit in 1874 Lord Dunraven commented that it was “the last outpost of civilization – that is, the last place whiskey is sold.” A third cabin and outbuildings were erected the following year. A crude bathhouse was also built on the nearby Hymen Terrace and five plank shacks were eventually built containing wooden bathtubs. In a legal claim to Interior in 1891, McCartney described his buildings: 1-story log dwelling with 4 rooms, 25’ x 35’; 1-story log dwelling house 30’ x 20; log barn, with squared logs, 30’ x 15’; 1-story hewn-log building 30’ x 25’; squared-log building 20’ x 16’. A 50’ x 16’ stable was also on the property. In 1873 McCartney received a 10-year lease from Interior and Horr released or sold his claim to McCartney. Horr later went on to found the Horr Coal Co. and town of Horr a few miles north of Gardiner. McCartney’s cabins were the only lodging available in the park until George Marshall built his hotel in 1880 in the Lower Geyser Basin. During the Nez Perce campaign in 1877, Indians killed Richard Dietrich, a tourist from Helena, while he was standing on the doorstep of the hotel on August 31. McCartney’s status in the park and relations with the administration were unstable at best and he was encouraged to leave the park on an involuntary basis. McCartney eventually settled outside the northern park boundary around 1879 in the area that would become the town of Gardiner. He was the town’s first postmaster in 1880 and later became unofficial ‘Mayor’. He was the man who introduced President Roosevelt at the dedication ceremonies of the new Roosevelt Arch in 1903. After McCartney’s official eviction from the park around 1881, the government used his cabins and burned some of the outbuildings. McCartney claimed to own the buildings until 1883, when Supt Conger officially took possession of them in April. George Henderson and his family moved into one of the cabins in 1882 and operated the post office and store for a few years in another. McCartney finally received $3,000 in 1901 in compensation for his park holdings that were taken away from him. Sam Toy set up a laundry in the hotel in 1902 and operated until the building burned down on December 4, 1912. By 1885 McCartney was advertised as a Lumber Dealer in Gardiner, maintained a feed stable, selling grain and hay, and rented horses and carriages. In 1887 he received a contract to provide hay to Camp Sheridan. McCartney died at age 72 on February 5, 1908 in a Livingston hospital. His estate was valued at $10,000, consisting of various properties in Gardiner and Cooke City. [108a] [LE;6/16/1887;2/08/1908] [43m] [1870 & 1880 Federal Census,YNP] [YNP Army Files Doc.1136-37] McGowen, Mrs. E . Mrs. E. McGowen was the wife of Assistant Superintendent Charles McGowan and gave Morning Glory Pool its name in 1883. She was permitted in May of 1884 to construct and maintain a telegraph line through the park to Cooke City. Some poles were erected, but the project was then abandoned and the lease forfeited. She was also employed by the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) in various capacities. Her daughter, Coda Finch, ran the tent hotel at Old Faithful in 1883-84. [73h] [32] [114] McGuirk, Matthew. Matthew McGuirk established McGuirk’s Medicinal Springs in 1871 along the Gardiner River near the 45th Parallel. The river was originally referred to as Hot River and eventually became known as “Boiling River”. The area had been known as Chestnutville, after a small tent camp set up by Col. Chestnut the previous year. McGuirk settled into the area in Aug. 1871 and on November 11 he began construction of a house, barn, and stables. George Huston, Fenly Johnston and a man named Woody assisted in the project and completed the buildings by March of 1872. McGuirk was the first person to bring a wheeled vehicle into the park when he brought an ox-cart down from Livingston and had to dismantle it to get it through Yankee Jim Canyon. He built bathing pools in the hot spring formations and a rock dam above the pools as protection from the Gardiner River. He continued to build roads and irrigation ditches, investing a total of about $4,000. The house was built with squared timbers measuring 16' x 24'. Split rock was used for the chimney and split cedar covered the roof. McGuirk filed a claim for 160 acres on March 9, 1872, eight days after the bill creating Yellowstone National Park was signed. He applied for a lease in 1873, but was refused. Supt. Langford ordered him out of the park in 1874, and his buildings were used as government housing. In 1889 Capt. Moses Harris had men raze the buildings, although McGuirk claimed it was in 1888. McGuirk later moved to Los Angeles and petitioned Congress for reimbursement. In March of 1899 he was awarded $1,000 compensation for his efforts. [60g] [AF Doc.1149&2702] [25g] [31j] McKay, Robert. Robert McKay received permission in 1915 to operate trucks with trailers on the Gardiner-Cooke City road for the Buffalo Mining Co. of Cooke City. He was given a contract in 1917 to construct and maintain the road from Gardiner to the Northeast Entrance. [25L;71] McLaughlin, John S. John S. McLaughlin was Yellowstone Park superintendent from March 3, 1964 to Oct. 7, 1967. He held a similar position in Mesa Verde NP from 1940-42 & 1946; Grand Teton NP 1946-50; Grand Canyon NP 1955-1964; and Sequoia & Kings Canyon NP from 1967-1972. McLaughlin served as Asst. Regional Director of the NPS in the Midwest Regional Office, Omaha, Nebraska from 1950 to 1955. [25L;71] McMinn, Silas. Silas McMinn opened a small coal mine with E.C. Clark at the northern edge of Everts Ridge in 1883 to supply coal to the new National Hotel at Mammoth. The mine yielded two tons a day and cost $5.00 per ton, half of which went to the teamster hauling it to Mammoth. The grade of coal there was not too high, but operations continued on and off until 1920. The Army employed him as an extra scout from Dec. 1899 to Feb. 1900. He also had a ranch near the park boundary along Reese Creek around 1899-1901 and he was known to do some occasional poaching. Nearby McMinn Bench was named after him as early as 1897. The coal mine was rehabilitated by the NPS in 1993. [30] [25g] [114] Meldrum, John. John Meldrum (Judge Meldrum) became the 1st Judicial Commissioner in the park on June 20, 1894 under authorization of the newly passed Lacey Act. He was 92 years of age when his term ended on July 2, 1935. A stone house was built for him near the edge of the Mammoth Terraces at Clematis Creek. The house remains the residence of the park judge. [25L;71] Merry, Henry G. Henry Merry was general manager of the Montana Coal and Coke Co. at Horr (Electric) Montana from 1900 to 1905. Merry drove his auto through the north gate of Yellowstone illegally on June 14, 1902. The car was an 1897 Winton that had bicycle tires, tiller steering, and an engine under the seat. It became the first known car to enter the park. According to a letter written by his son H.M. Merry in 1951, these are the details of the incident: Henry Merry was highly allergic to horse dandruff and could not approach horses without suffering an attack. When he was invited to a military ball at Mammoth, he decided to drive his Winton to avoid an attack. As he approached the north gate, the horse of the mounted sentry panicked at the sight and sound of the noisy, smoking vehicle, and bounded off into the hills. Merry continued on his merry way to Mammoth unmolested. During the ball Maj. John Pitcher, commander of the post, received a communiqué that a 'horseless carriage' had entered the park. Merry 'fessed’ up to his 'crime' and Pitcher fined him a ride around the park in the forbidden vehicle. Pitcher reportedly regretted that he could not confiscate the auto for his own personal use. Autos continued to be banned from the park until August of 1915. [YNP Box H2 Letters Regarding History of YNP] [30] [25g] [114] Miles, Arthur Wellington. A.W. Miles was born in Westminster, Worcester Co., Mass. June 20, 1859. Miles served in the Army, and was stationed in New Mexico, Ft. Keogh and served with Gen. Miles during the Indian campaigns. He started a hardware store at Coulson after he retired. By 1882 he had a similar business in Billings and joined up with Col. Babcock in Bozeman to create the firm Babcock & Miles. During the winter of 1882-83 he opened a business in Livingston and began to prosper. By the 1890’s his operations included the A.W. Miles Lumber and Coal Co., the A.W. Miles Land and Investment Co., the Park Ice and Storage Co, a sheep ranch, and interests in other businesses around Montana. Between 1887 and 1909 Miles served two terms as the mayor of Livingston and as a Montana State Senator. He purchased a 1/3 interest in the Wylie Camping Co. in 1905 and A.L. Smith bought the other 2/3 interest for silent partner Harry Child. The company was renamed the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. with Miles as president and general manager. Miles was a 20% owner in the short-lived Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. in 1916, but lost all of his transportation holdings the next year due to the consolidations of the park transportation companies. The Wylie and Shaw & Powell companies merged in 1917 to form the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. with Miles owning 51% interest. The company was sold in 1919 to Howard Hays and Roe Emery and became the Yellowstone Park Camps Co. Miles retired to Los Angeles in the late 1920’s and son Daniel took over his businesses, continuing it until 1982. In the early 1900's he served as a Montana State Senator. A.W. Miles died May 7, 1933 after spending the winter in California. He had been ill since November. His obituary noted that his body would be sent to Hollywood to be buried next to an infant son. His wife, a native of Hoillston, Mass., died at age 80 of a paralytic stroke in Pasadena, Calif. on June 10, 1941. She was survived by son Dan and daughters Mrs. Adena Wright of Detroit and Mrs. G.E. Mitchell of Los Angeles. [97s;AW Miles Records] [25g] [56m;1102] [42e;6/11/1941] [42e;5/8/1933] Miller, Adam “Horn”. Adam Horn Miller was born in Bavaria in Oct. of 1839 and moved to St. Louis when he was a child. He came up the Missouri River in 1854 from St. Louis and settled in Emigrant Gulch as early as 1864. (According to Mary Margaret Curl he came to Montana in 1849 [16u]) He prospected in Yellowstone that year with John Davis. He later prospected with Bart Henderson, Ed Hibbard, James Gourley, Sam Shively, Pike Moore, and Joe Brown. He discovered gold in the Cooke City area with Bart Henderson and others in 1869-70, naming their mine the Shoo Fly Mine. The next few years he helped Bart Henderson build the road from Bottler’s Ranch to Mammoth. He acted as guide for Supt. Norris in 1877 in the northeastern portion of the park when Norris was looking for another northern approach to the park. He again guided Norris and photographer Henry Bird Calfee in 1880 on an exploration of the Hoodoo Basin. Miller was one of the scouts under Gen. Howard during the Nez Perce War of 1877. Miller also did guiding and hunting out of Cooke City. When asked if he ever killed and Indian, he replied, "I never went to see, but I shot a good many." Later on he settled down in a cabin across the Yellowstone River from Yankee Jim. Miller Creek and Miller Mountain were named after him. He died in 1913. His obituary described him as a "man of sterling character, a man without enemies of any kind, it is said, and a citizen who always had a kind word for everyone." [16u] [113] [25g] [; Horn Miller obit] Moore, J.H. J.H Moore, or more commonly known as "Pike" Moore, was born around 1832 in Missouri, about 50 miles from St. Louis. When in his late teens, Pike was on a hunting trip and met Adam "Horn" Miller. Together they joined an ox-wagon train to California to join the Gold Rush. Apparently they spent several years in the California goldfields and around 1865-66 headed to Montana Territory where they prospected around Bannack, Virginia City, Confederate Gulch, and Last Chance in Helena. In 1870 the two men, along with James Gourley, discovered gold in the Cooke City area. (Note: some accounts include Bart Henderson and Ed Hibbard) For the next 30+ years Pike prospected the mountains along the northern border of Yellowstone, investing his time heavily in the Shoo Fly Mine. He also worked the JH Moore claim, located along Miller Road, near Cooke City. It was located just across the road from the Horn placer claim. Reportedly Moore was offered $25,000 for his Shoo Fly Mine in the late 1800s, but turned it down, believing it was worth more. That was quite a tidy sum in those days, and would have allowed Pike to live out his days in relative comfort. Pike was also involved with Yankee Jim George in the toll road through Yankee Jim Canyon. During Pike's final days he lived in Gardiner with Charley Scott and died of dropsy (edema) on March 1, 1903, after being ill for several weeks. He is buried in the Gardiner Cemetery. [Anaconda Standard, 3/4/1903; "Old Timers" by Earnest Seton Thompson; Livingston Post, 4-16-1903; Park County News, 3/21/1957, Dick Randall article on Horn Miller; "The Toughest Man in Montana Territory," by Gay Randall, about Horn Miller] Moorman, Edward H. Ed Moorman was born in Cincinnati, Ohio on Dec. 18, 1875. He came west in 1899 and went to work for William Wylie, who operated the Wylie Camping Co. He started out helping Wylie’s son and Uncle Tom Richardson build a house and fence on Wylie’s property on Elk Creek west of Bozeman. The first of June Ed and Uncle Tom drove a herd of milk cows from Bozeman up into the park to supply the camps. Moorman held the position of ‘Camp Man’, and was in charge of keeping the camps warm, dry, clean, supplied, and occasionally chased away bears. He helped Uncle Tom in the construction of his trail to the base of the Lower Falls. Moorman became manager of the Canyon Camp in 1903 and was promoted to Supt of Transportation for the Wylie operation in 1905. Wylie sold out that summer to A.W. Miles and A.L. Smith, who was the front man for silent partner Harry Child. Moorman stayed on and managed the company that season. He soon managed the commissary in Gardiner and later became bookkeeper. He continued on with the company and became a partner and minority stockholder in 1919 and was listed as Secretary/Treasurer of the Yellowstone Parks Camps Co. by 1922. Vernon Goodwin became President of the company in 1924 and Moorman became Manager. Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co. brochures from 1928 list Moorman as General Manager and he maintained that position until 1946 when he stepped down from the position and Huntley Child, Jr. took over. He retired after 1948. [62p] Moran, Thomas. Thomas Moran was a famed artist who accompanied the Hayden expedition of 1871 and created the first paintings and drawings of the park’s many wonders. His works, along with those of photographer Henry Jackson, assisted in the effort to preserve Yellowstone as a National Park. He completed his massive landscape painting of the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone in 1872 and Congress purchased it for $10,000. He was born in Bolton, Lancashire, England January 12, 1837 to Thomas and Mary M. Moran. The family immigrated to America in 1844 and Thomas Jr. was educated in Philadelphia. He studied art and wood engraving in the U.S., Paris, and Italy and became known as an illustrator and landscape artist. He accompanied an expedition to the Grand Canyon in Arizona in 1873 and painted landscapes that were purchased by Congress for $10,000 each and were displayed in the Capitol. The Yellowstone painting was entitled "The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone." Moran illustrated for Scribner's Magazine, Longfellow's Hiawatha, and Whittier's Mabel's Martin. Moran's brother Edward was a marine painter and brother Peter was known for his paintings and etchings of animal life. In April of 1862 Thomas married Mary Nimmo, daughter of Archibald Nimmo of Strathaven, Scotland. Their son John Leon became a figure painter. Thomas Moran died in 1926 at age 89. [The 20th Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, 1904] [Who's Who in America, 1902; Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1948] [25L;74] Click Here for the Wikipedia page on Thomas Moran. Nauerth, Isabel. Isabel Nauerth was wife of Jack Haynes. See `Haynes, Isabel’. Nichols, Ellen Child. Ellen Dean Child was the daughter of H.W. Child and married Wm. Nichols in 1905. Three years after her husband's death in 1960 she became Chairman of the Board of Yellowstone Park Co. Two years later she was Treasurer of the firm, but still controlled a majority of the stock with her son John Q. Nichols. The company was sold in 1966 to Goldfield Enterprises. She was known as the Grand Dame of the Yellowstone Park Co. [25L;76] Nichols, John Q. John Q. Nichols, son of Wm. Nichols, became General Manager of Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. in 1935. In the 1950’s he was a vice-president of Yellowstone Park Co., along with Huntley Child Jr. In 1956 John became President, with his father as Chairman of the Board. He resigned in 1961 due to the increasing financial problems suffered by the company, but remained a major stockholder in the company. [25L;76] Nichols, William Morse. William Nichols was born in 1881 in Hartford, Conn. Familiarly known as “Billie”, he attended the US Military Academy at West Point from around 1899 to 1903. He graduated as a second lieutenant in 1903 and was assigned to the 11th Cavalry and sent to Yellowstone Park. He married Harry Child’s daughter, Ellen Dean Child, in 1905 and resigned his commission in the Army in September of that year. In 1907 he served as secretary to Harry Child, and two years later became Secretary of the newly formed Yellowstone Park Hotel Co. He was the second largest shareholder of the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. in 1916 with 28% of the shares. With the death of Harry Child in 1931, Nichols was elevated to president of the company. The various Child/Nichols enterprises were merged together in 1936 with Nichols as President of the new Yellowstone Park Co. During the lean war years, business was bad in the park and few facilities were open. Nichols was forced to sell his shares of the Flying D Ranch in 1944 to help pay off debts to the railroad companies. During the mid-1940’s his son John Q. gradually began to take over active management of the company. In 1956 Billie resigned as president of the company to take over as chairman of the board of directors of YPCo. He remained with the company until his death on August 6, 1957 at Mammoth, after suffering a heart attack about nine days earlier. [25g] [62k;Wm.M. Nichols Papers] Nicholls, Bill. Bill Nicholls was co-owner with Harold Young of "Snowmobiles of West Yellowstone”. They started winter tours of the park in 1955 in Bombedier snow coaches. [25L;76] Norris, Philetus W. P.W. Norris became the 2nd park superintendent in 1877, serving for 5 years. He was known for his explorations of the park and geyser basins, and wrote extensively of his findings. He established the first written rules and regulations for the park and had them published in local newspapers and posted on signs around the park. He obtained the 1st congressional appropriations in 1878 and set out to build a road from Mammoth to the Lower Geyser Basin. He followed a trail blazed by Julius Beltizer in 1874. He continued to build many other roads and trails in the park, but his detractors claimed he was more interested in the number of miles built, rather than in the quality of the roads. He was severely criticized for this after his departure, however funds were limited and he attempted to stretch them as far as he could. Through his efforts 234 miles of trails and crude roads had been constructed by 1879 and two years later he was responsible for 104 miles of the 140-mile road system. He built the first administrative building in the park on Capitol Hill at Mammoth in 1879. Due the Indian troubles of 1877-78, the building was erected more as a protective fort and became known as the Norris Blockhouse. In 1880 he circumnavigated Yellowstone Lake in a 20’ sailboat called the “Explorer” and deemed the Lake quite navigable. Norris Geyser Basin, Norris Pass, and Mount Norris were named after him. His tenure ended in February of 1882 and he died three years later in Kentucky. [25L;77-78] Norton, Harry J. Harry J. Norton has been described as a "romantic-looking fellow, dark-haired and handsome, and had a history full of incident and adventures . . . He was a man of undoubted nerve; will power was the dominant trait of his character." He fought in the Mexican War, was a government scout, hunted, mined for gold and was the sole survivor of a raid by the Apaches on the Gila River. Norton was among one of the earliest tourist groups to travel the park. He explored the park in early September of 1872, leaving from Virginia City. The following year he published a guidebook entitled “Wonderland Illustrated, or Horseback Rides Through the Yellowstone National Park”. He described the wonders to be found in the park and made note of necessary or optional supplies and equipment that would be needed for the adventure. His guidebook also accepted advertisements for Virginia City businesses. In 1874 he became local editor for the New Northwest newspaper in Deer Lodge, Montana. Norton left Montana in the winter of 1874-75 and went to Silver City, Nevada where he published what was described "as a typical mining camp journal,” the Silver City Mining Reporter. Norton seems to have been a bit hot-headed as one newspaper reported an altercation he had with “Prospecting Bill.” Bill called Norton a few choice names whereupon Norton throttled Bill, drew his gun and smashed it in his face, knocking out a tooth. As he pulled the trigger to fire, another newspaperman grabbed the gun and the hammer came down upon his hand, saving Bill from meeting his maker. While in Silver City Norton fell in love with Mary Blackburn, seventeen-year old daughter of Judge Blackburn. The Judge's beautiful young daughter was besieged with suitors that Norton vied with for her affections. His most serious competitor was a rich and daring Mexican. Feeling that he might lose the battle of suitors, Norton found a pretext to challenge the Mexican to a duel, who instantly accepted. The challenger chose Colt revolvers at 20 paces with the contest set for the following morning. Norton reportedly worked late at the newspaper office that night with a cool and level head and even wrote his own obituary, which he instructed his printers to utilize should he not survive the duel. The next morning the men, back-to-back, paced off and at the count of three, turned and fired. Norton's shot was fired with deadly aim, while his opponent's shot went over his head. He immediately rushed over to Mary's house to explain what happened and told her he must flee town immediately. She agreed to go with him and they fled to Virginia City where they wasted no time in getting married. The couple traveled around the west, living in the Black Hills for a time where they apparently had a daughter. He seems to have worked at a paper known as the Black Hills Newsletter and Mining Reporter. In 1879 he wrote a book entitled “A Bird’s-eye View of the Black Hills Gold Mining Region" and traveled to New York to work on getting it published. Late in 1879 he moved on to Leadville, Colorado but sent Mary back home so as not to expose her to the dangers and wild life of that raucous town. He became editor of The Chronicle and wrote an idealized story of his life, filled with romance and history called "On the Yellowstone." It was made into a play after his death in New York City by Salmi Morse, author of the Passion Play. Critics however, were not particularly fond of the play. In the June of 1880 Norton's reckless life caught up with him and he was taken ill with pneumonia. He summoned his wife by telegram to be by his side and she arrived in town the night he died. Brokenhearted, Mary returned to Nevada to live with her parents, who eventually moved to the Pacific Coast. When a rich relative died, Mary used her share of the inheritance to move to New York City, where she became the leading lady in the play "On the Yellowstone," which Morse produced. In 1884 Morse was found floating in a New York river and an inquest reported that it was an accidental drowning, although reports persisted of suicide. [25L;79] [14u;10/24/1876; 3/1/1884] [42e;7/19/1874] [Black Hills Pioner Newspaper, 1878-80] [Galveston Daily News; 4/7/1884] Oakes, Thomas F. Thomas Oakes was vice-president of the Northern Pacific RR when he formed the Yellowstone Transportation Co. with Charles Gibson in 1886. He also held 10% of the shares in the Yellowstone Park Association that was created that same year. Oakes succeeded Robert Harris as president of NPRR in 1888. It was Oakes that relieved E.C. Waters of his position as general manager of Yellowstone Park Association in 1890. As compensation, Waters was offered the job of managing the boat company on Lake Yellowstone. [25L;80] Omohundro , "Texas Jack". John B. “Texas Jack” Omohundro served as a scout for the Army on the western frontier beginning in 1869. He met Wild Bill Hickok that year, along with Buffalo Bill Cody, who got Jack signed on as a scout. In 1872 Cody and Omohundro served as hunting guides for the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia in Yellowstone. The men also guided for various other visiting European and English nobility, including the Earl of Dunraven, who wrote of his Yellowstone experiences in his book "The Great Divide". In the summer of 1877 Omohundro was guiding a group of English tourists through Yellowstone, during the Nez Perce uprising, but apparently avoided the violence. Texas Jack later performed with Buffalo Bill in the stage shows "Scouts of the Prairie" and "Scouts of the Plains." Jack died of pneumonia on June 28, 1880 at age 34. [10u] Parker, Jim. Jim Parker was permitted in 1918 with Jay Wilcox to raise potatoes on Turkey Pen Pass to sell to the tourists. [25L;84] Peale, Albert Charles . Albert Peale was mineralogist and geologist for F.V. Hayden's US Geology and Geographical Survey of the Territories from 1871-79. He wrote a series of letters to the Philadelphia Press during his explorations of Yellowstone in 1871 that described the many wonders of this natural wonderland. The letters were compiled into a book published in 2005 and edited by Marlene Deahl Merrill entitled "Seeing Yellowstone in 1871: Earliest Descriptions & Images from the Field." Peale was a medical doctor and also served as geologist for the US Geological Survey in 1881-98. He was a member of numerous scientific societies and authored the book "Yellowstone National Park and Mineral Springs," along with numerous other geological reports and papers. In 1898, the United States National Museum appointed Peale as aid in charge of the paleobotany section of the Department of Geology, and he held that position until his death in 1914. Peale was born April 1, 1849 in Heckscherville, Penn. [Who's Who in America, 1902] Peterson, William. Member of the Folsom-Cook-Peterson expedition of 1869, William Peterson was born December 3, 1834 on the Bornholm Islands, Denmark. He went off to sea at age 11 and sailed for 11 years before retiring that profession and joining the California and Idaho gold rushes. BY 1865 he arrived in Confederate Gulch, Montana and went to work with Charles Cook for the Boulder Ditch Co. After the Yellowstone expedition he prospected for gold at Grasshopper Creek near Bannack, Montana, and eventually wound up in Salmon, Idaho. He became mayor on two occasions and built the first power plant in the town. Married and the father of two children who never passed through the rites of adulthood, Peterson died November 28, 1919. [Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography, Daniel Thrapp, Vol.III] [25L;84] Pitcher, Capt. John. Capt. Pitcher was Acting Supt. with the 1st Cavalry from May 8, 1901 to June 1, 1907. According to the Livingston Enterprise, Pitcher “…made every effort [in 1902] to exterminate the wolves and coyotes in the park, owing to the danger to the young game.” More than 200 animals were poisoned that year. Pitcher was from Texas and was appointed to the US Military academy in 1872. He became a 2nd Lt. in 1876 and served with the cavalry during the Indian uprisings in the West. He retired with the rank of Colonel and died Oct. 12, 1926 at his estate in Annapolis, Maryland. He was buried in Arlington Cemetery with his father, Brig. Gen. Thomas G. Pitcher and his brother Col. Wm. L. Pitcher. [LE;5/10/1902] [25g] [Arlington National Cemetery Website] Potts, Daniel. Daniel Potts was a member of the 1822 Ashley-Henry Expedition and he is known to have trapped in the Yellowstone area in 1926 with Jedediah Smith and William Sublette. They visited Yellowstone Lake and the Thumb Geyser Basin. A letter describing his travels in the park became the first published account of the wonders in Yellowstone. It was published in a Philadelphia newspaper on July 27, 1827. Potts Hot Spring Basin near West Thumb was named after him in 1957. [25L;85] Ponsford, John W. John W. Ponsford (J.W. Ponsford) was a miner, Bozeman businessman and occasional partner of Jack Baronett. In 1880 Baronett rebuilt his bridge over the Yellowstone River near the current Tower Junction and Ponsford assisted him in the effort. In the spring of 1882 it was reported in the newspapers that Ponsford and J.L. Sanborn purchased the bridge from Baronett for $2500 with the agreement they rebuilt the approaches to allow for six-mule team outfits to cross. I suspect this was more of a lease agreement, as in later years after the government claimed ownership of the bridge; Baronett sought redress in Congress to obtain compensation for his bridge. In 1884 Ponsford and Sanborn petitioned Interior for a lease of ten acres of ground about a mile west of the bridge as a "stopping place for travelers." The location would have been near Tower Junction. No evidence has been located to show that the request was granted. Ponsford also prospected in the Clark's Fork area with Baronett and others. He was amongst those miners who desired stock in the new town of Cooke City upon its creation in 1880. His fellow miners and potential lot-buyers included George Huston, Baronett, John Dewing, Col. P.W. Norris, Adam Miller, X. Beidler, James Gourley, and Bart Henderson. He also operated coal mines near Bozeman in the 1880's. John Ponsford, also known as James Ponsford, was born March 21, 1847 and at age 22 was a private with the 2nd Cavalry stationed at Fort Ellis. He took part in the 1870 massacre of an Indian village on the Marias River in Montana that took the lives of mostly women and children. By the mid-late 1870's Ponsford owned several billiard halls/saloons in Bozeman. By 1883 he was a deputy sheriff in Bozeman and pulled the spring that hung a man named Clark, was had been convicted of murder. It was the first legal hanging in Bozeman. In 1893-94 Ponsford was Chief of Police in Bozeman. Famed Montana lawman and dispenser of Vigilante justice John X. Beidler dictated his biography to Ponsford in the late 1880s. Ponsford died Sept. 16, 1912 and is buried in Sunset Hills Cemetery in Bozeman. May be same person as above J.W. Ponsford. [Nat'l Archives Letter Rec'd Interior, 2/5/1884; Helena Independent, 10/5/1877 & 12/28/1883; Bozeman Avant Courier 5/22/1879, 6/3/1880, 6/24/2880; Butte Daily Miner 4/5/1882; Sunset Hills Cemetery] Povah, Terry. Terry Poval was son of Trevor Povah and Eleanor Hamilton (daughter of Charles Hamilton). He took over as President of Hamilton Stores in 1979 when his father retired. [25L;85] Povah, Trevor. Trevor Povah married Charles Hamilton’s daughter, Eleanor in 1940. After his father-in-law’s death in 1957, he and his wife took over the operation of the Hamilton Stores. [25L;85] Powell, John D. John Dudley Powell was part owner of the Shaw & Powell Camping Co., formed in 1898 to operate moveable camps in Yellowstone. In 1913 they were permitted to establish permanent camps and operate stages to transport their guests from camp to camp. When the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. was formed in 1916, Powell held one share of stock. Other stockholders included Frank Haynes, A.W. Miles, William Nichols and Huntley Child. The operation only lasted one year, as the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. was granted monopoly status on transport in Yellowstone beginning in 1917. John Powell was born June 1858 in Baraboo, WI to parents John Wm Powell & Harriet Mildred Dudley Powell. He married Viola Taylor of Madison WI in 1885. She was also involved in the Shaw & Powell operation. The couple was residing in Livingston Mt at least by 1900. They had one child, Hollis Dudley Powell who died at about age 20 in 1912. In 1920 John was listed on the census as a Stockman and in 1930 as Retired. Viola passed away June 6, 1932 in that town and John followed August 18, 1938. Both are interred in The Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston. [25L;92] Pritchett, George. George Pritchett was the man who in 1870, along with Jack Baronett, located the lost Truman Everts near Crescent Hill in the northern part of the park. While Baronett cared for Everts, Pritchett rode to Fort Ellis to seek a wagon and doctor. The Army was unable to help, so he continued on to Bozeman where a civilian wagon and driver were procured. [25L;85] Pryor, Anna. Anna Pryor, nee Anna Kathren Trischman, was born July 18, 1884 in Montana to George and Margaret Gleason Trischman. She moved with her family to Ft. Yellowstone in 1899. She married George A. Pryor, accounting clerk for YPA, in 1907. Daughter Georganna was born April 18, 1908 in Helena, Mt (died Nov. 8, 1961 in Glendale, Calif). That year the couple purchased the Specimen House at Mammoth and went into the curio and deli business. A few years later, ca1910 she had another daughter named Margaret. After selling out her Yellowstone business to Charles Hamilton in 1953, she returned to her winter home in Los Angeles. Anna lived to be 89, passing away on Oct. 27, 1973 in Los Angeles. See below - "Pryor & Trischman". [25h] Pryor & Trischman. Anna and Elizabeth Trischman were daughters of Army post carpenter George Trischman, who came to work in Yellowstone in 1899. In 1908 Anna and husband George Pryor, purchased the Specimen House at Mammoth from Ole Anderson. They enlarged the house and called their business the Park Curio & Coffee Shop. They sold ice cream, curios, souvenirs, newspapers, toiletries, coffee, tea, box lunches, and operated a bakery and soda fountain. In 1912 George Pryor signed over his interests to Elizabeth Trischman and the business became known as Pryor & Trischman. In 1922 they opened a deli at the new ‘free auto camp’ at Mammoth, and five years later added a cafeteria to the operation. They established a small stand in 1924 at the Devil’s Kitchen on the Mammoth Terraces called the Devil’s Kitchenette. In 1932 they bought out all of George Whittaker’s Yellowstone Park Store holdings at Mammoth and Canyon, which included an interest in the service station businesses. The company became Pryor Stores, Inc. in 1946. After 45 years of operation in Yellowstone, the women sold their business in 1953 to Charles Hamilton for $333,000. The Canyon store and gas station were torn down in the early 1960’s and the Pryor Coffee Shop at Mammoth was razed in 1984. The Hamilton Store at Mammoth is the only remaining building from the Pryor & Trischman operation. [25h] Click Here to view the article I wrote on Pryor & Trischman for the Spring 2002 issue of Annals of Wyoming. It is 15.5mb in size and the article starts on page 47. "A Tale of Two Sisters: Pryor & Trischman in Yellowstone in the Best and Worst of Times." Pryor, George. Born in Virginia in 1881, George Pryor was employed by Yellowstone Park Association as an accountant as early as 1904. He married Anna Trischman June 5, 1907 at the Episcopal Church in Gardiner. They went into business together in 1908 when they purchased the Specimen House from Ole Anderson. In 1912 he turned over his share of the business to Anna’s sister Elizabeth and submitted an application to Supt. Brett to operate a dairy herd at Mammoth to supply milk and butter to the post and local civilians. There is conflicting evidence whether he actually put the proposal into action. A letter written by Robert Reamer in Oct. 1912 noted that “George Pryor is now the proprietor of a dairy, furnishing milk for people around the Post.” A letter from the acting superintendent in Sept. 1913 recorded that Pryor was no longer in the park and was unable to fulfill his obligations with the dairy permit. In 1912 Pryor also sought permission to establish a steam laundry at Mammoth, but it seems nothing came of the proposition. There is little mention of him in park archives after that time. The 1920 Fed. Census for Yellowstone listed Anna as a Widow. [25h] [1910 Federal Census,YNP]

  • Yellowstone Bios H |

    Yellowstone Biographies H ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Hague, Arnold . Arnold Hague was born December 3, 1840 to Rev. Dr. William and Mary B. (Moriarty) Hague in Boston, Massachusetts. He served as a geologist with the US Geological Survey from 1879 until his death in 1917. Hague graduated from Yale and studied at several universities in Germany. He specialized in the geology of Yellowstone beginning in 1883 and continued his surveys of the park through two decades. He and his staff were responsible for naming many of the park features. He was a member of Clarence King's US Geological exploration of the 40th Parallel from 1867-77 and investigated mining and mining processes in Nevada, China, and Guatemala. Hague was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and other professional societies, and authored numerous scientific books and professional papers on the geology of the West. In 1899 he co-authored "Geology of the Yellowstone National Park" and wrote numerous other treatises on geology. [Who's Who in America, 1902; Webster's Biographical Dictionary, 1948; The 20th Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, 1904] [25L;46] Hall, William A. W.A. Hall, familiarly known as 'Billy', was born April 30, 1861 and came to Montana from Humansville, Missouri as a foster child of the C.D. Fisher family. He married Lulu F. Brown in 1886 and they had four sons: Arthur W., Earl H., Warren E., and James Raymond. Hall built the W.A. Hall store in Gardiner near the Arch and rail depot in 1903 and provided all of the basic necessities of life for the tourist, hunter, and resident. The large upstairs was home to many community dances in its heyday. The store was a Golden Rule store, the forerunner of the J.C. Penny franchise. Hall originally ran a store in Aldridge, but built a new and larger store in Gardiner with the opening of the railroad to that town. He left Aldridge completely after the coal strike of 1904-05. Hall also operated a Golden Rule store at Cinnabar in the 1890's. The W.A. Hall Company at Cinnabar housed a general store, a beer hall and a restaurant. Hall closed the store down in 1903 when the railroad continued on into Gardiner and the town of Cinnabar was abandoned. Hall later moved to Bozeman and his sons operated the Gardiner store until 1955. Lulu Hall passed away in 1931. The W.A. Hall building was sold in 1961 to Cecil Paris. Reportedly architect Robert Reamer designed the building for Hall. However, there is some doubt about whether the building that was erected actually used the plans drawn up by Reamer. Reamer's blueprints of the store show many design characteristics that were not included in actual construction, perhaps as a means to save both time and money. [25L;101] [71c] [56o;Hall, Warren] [1m;Hall, W.A.] Hamilton, Charles A. Charles Hamilton was founder of the Hamilton Stores business that operated general stores in the park from 1915 to 2002. He was born in 1884 in Winnepeg, Manitoba and went to work for the YPA in 1905. In 1915 he purchased the Klamer store at Old Faithful from Mary Klamer with financial backing by H.W. Child. The following year, with an increasing amount of autos in the park, he went into the service station business with Child. Hamilton opened up his second store and filling station in 1917 at Lake in the old E. C. Waters building in front of the Lake Hotel. Construction on a new store at Lake began in 1919 and was ready for opening in 1922. Hamilton married May Spence in 1920 at the Fort Yellowstone chapel. By the mid-1920’s he had campground stores and filling stations at West Thumb, Fishing Bridge, and Old Faithful. In 1926 he helped form the Yellowstone Park Service Stations (YPSS) with Child and Anna Pryor. The Upper Hamilton store was erected at Old Faithful in 1929-30 using a design by Robert Reamer. He bought out the Brothers Geyser Bath operation at Old Faithful in 1933. His daughter Eleanor May and husband Trevor Povah took over much of the day-to-day management of the business in 1940. In 1953 Hamilton purchased the Pryor & Trischman stores at Mammoth and Canyon, giving him a monopoly on the general store business. He died in 1957 and his family controlled the business through 2002. [25g] [25k] For addition information on the Hamilton Stores, please visit my web page. Hamilton, Eleanor . Eleanor Hamilton was the daughter of Charles Hamilton, she married Trevor Povah in 1940. After her father’s death in 1957, Eleanor (Ellie) and her husband took over the Hamilton Stores operation. [25L;47] Harriman, E.H. E.H. Harriman was president of Union Pacific RR and decided in ca1905 to build a branch line to the western entrance of Yellowstone. The line was opened in 1908 at what would eventually become the town of West Yellowstone. The family donated 14,750 acres of their ranch to the state of Idaho in 1977 for use as a state park. The park was named after the Harriman family. [25L;46] Harris, Capt. Moses . Capt. Harris was the 1st military superintendent of the park. He took charge on August 20, 1886 with the 1st Cavalry, Troop M. The troop consisted of two officers and 50 enlisted men. He hired Jack Baronett as a guide, and James McBride as scout. He served until May 31, 1889. [25L;47] Hartzog, George B. George Hartzog was appointed NPS Director in 1964. He canceled all of the Mission 66 objectives that year. The following year he notified YPCo that the government was going to terminate their contract. [25L;47] Harvat, John . John Harvet was a Livingston area businessman who received the beef contract for the park hotels for the 1890 season. D.B. May held the contract for the two previous seasons. Harvat contracted with Henry Klamer to manage the operation. Klamer himself received the contract the following year and maintained it for the rest of the decade. [25k] Hatch, Benton . Benton Hatch was in charge of the Firehole Hotel in 1890 and became manager of the new Fountain Hotel when it opened in 1891. However, he had differences of opinion on management of the hotel with the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA), and retired from the position in September. He was well-liked by his employees, and 20 of them left with him in a show of support. [LE;10/18/1890;9/12/1891] Hatch, Rufus . Rufus Hatch was one of the original investors and partners in the YP Improvement Co. in 1883, along with Carroll T. Hobart and Henry Douglas. Hatch was born in Wells, York County, Maine in 1832 and later became a grocery clerk in Rockford Illinois. He entered the grain commission business in Chicago in 1854 and amassed a fortune. In 1862 he went to New York to establish a stock brokerage on Wall Street. YPIC went bankrupt and into receivership in 1885. He died in 1893. [25g] [2] Hayden, Ferdinand V . Born in Westfield, Mass. on September 7, 1829, Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio in 1850. He studied medicine at the medical college in Albany, New York before heading west in 1863 to explore the Badlands of Dakota and other areas of the Upper Missouri. F.V. Hayden began the Hayden Survey in 1867 and conducted a geological survey of the new state of Nebraska. The government assumed control of his survey in 1869 and it became known as the U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories. He obtained $40,000 from Congress and became the leader of the 1st government-sponsored expedition to Yellowstone in 1871 that explored, named, mapped, and later published accounts of this historic trip. His efforts were of great assistance in the campaign to protect Yellowstone as a National Park. Artist Thomas Moran, photographer Henry Jackson, and other scientists accompanied him on the expedition. Hayden also conducted Yellowstone expeditions in 1872 and 1878. The author of numerous scientific papers and government publications, he retired from government service in 1886 due to health issues and died two years later in Philadelphia. [Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette, 1-7-1888] [25L;47] Haynes, Bessie. Bessie Haynes was Frank Haynes' oldest daughter, who married Lt. Frederick T. Arnold. She was born around 1880 in Minnesota and passed away 100 years later in Arizona. [25L;46] Haynes, Frank J. Frank J. Haynes (F.J. Haynes, F. Jay Haynes,) was known as the ‘Official Park Photographer’ and was originally employed by the Northern Pacific RR in 1875 to take pictures along their route from Minnesota to the West Coast for advertising and promotional purposes. Frank Haynes was born Oct. 28, 1853 in Saline Michigan and married Lily Verna Synder in 1878. Haynes established a photo studio in Moorhead, Minnesota in 1876 and moved it to Fargo, North Dakota in 1879. Ten years later he moved the studio to St. Paul, Minnesota where it was maintained for many years. In 1884 he obtained leases for 4 acres at both Old Faithful and Mammoth, where he opened his first photo shop in 1884. His son Jack was also born that year. Frank eventually operated Haynes Photo Shops at all major locations in the park. In December of 1885, he joined up with George Wakefield to form the Wakefield & Haynes Stage Co. The concern was short-lived and Haynes sold out in June 1886, but Wakefield continued the operation for several more years in the park as Wakefield Stage Lines. Haynes was a part of the Schwatka winter expedition in 1887 and took the 1st winter pictures of the interior of the park. He and two others finished the trek after Schwatka got sick and turned back. The Haynes Guidebook was first published in 1890 and continued almost yearly until 1966. In 1900 he produced his first set of ‘picture post cards’, and went on over the years producing tens of thousands of these cards and stereoviews, many of which are now collector’s items. Haynes and W.W. Humphrey formed the Monida-Yellowstone Stage Co. in 1898 that operated from the Union Pacific rail line at Monida into the park. It began operating out of Yellowstone (West Yellowstone) in 1908 and became known as the Yellowstone & Western Stage Co. in 1913. In 1909 Haynes made an attempt to break into the hotel business in Yellowstone, but Harry Child offered Haynes one-half of his interest in the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. to keep Haynes from building a hotel. By 1913 Haynes was a stockholder in the Madison Fork Ranch Corp. located near the Madison Basin west of the park. Haynes owned the Cody-Sylvan Pass Co. in 1913 and became president and largest shareholder of the first motorized bus fleet in the park in 1916. That venture was known as the Cody-Sylvan Pass Motor Co. and was co-owned by William Nichols, Wylie and Shaw & Powell. That business was taken over by the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) in 1917. He lost all of his transportation businesses in 1917 when YPTCo was awarded the contract for the transportation franchise in the park. Haynes was also forced to sell off his Wylie shares when the camping companies were reorganized. F.J. retired from the transportation and camping businesses after the 1916 season and turned over the photo shops to his son Jack in the beginning of 1916. Frank passed away on March 10, 1921 at age 68. Supt. Albright renamed Mt. Burley to Mt. Haynes in his honor. [43j] [25g] [18t] [YNP Archives, Box C17] [31] For additional information, please visit my Haynes Photo Shops page. Haynes, Isabel. Isabel Haynes, nee Isabel Nauerth, was manager of Roosevelt Lodge in 1927and married Jack Haynes in 1931. Their only child was a daughter born in November of that year named Lida Marie. She skied competitively in high school and learned to fly while attending college. She had been expected to take over the family business, but unfortunately died in a tragic traffic accident at age 20. Upon Jack’s death in 1962, Isabel operated the Haynes Photo Shops until 1967, when she sold out to Hamilton Stores. In 1970 she donated the company pictures, negatives, and papers to the Montana Historical Society in Helena. Personal and non-business papers were donated to Montana State University at Bozeman. She passed away in 1993 and the estate auction was held that year in Bozeman. [25L;49] Haynes, Jack Ellis . Jack Haynes was son of Frank J. Haynes and born Sept. 27, 1884 at Fargo, Dakota Territory. Jack received his college degree at the Univ. of Minnesota, graduating in 1908 and took over the Haynes photo business in 1916 when his father retired. Jack was commissioned in the US Army Reserve as a 2nd Lt. in 1918. He was an integral part of the Place Names Committee in 1927, and three years later he obtained exclusive rights to sell images of Yellowstone in the park. He was a member of the Masons, Elks, and Rotary clubs. Haynes married Isabel May Nauerth June 11, 1930 and they made their home in Bozeman. Their daughter Lida was born in 1931, but died in a tragic accident in 1952. He was known to many as ‘Mr. Yellowstone’ and successfully operated the Haynes Photos Shops until his death in 1962. Isabel ran the business until 1967 when it was sold to Hamilton Stores. There were 13 photo shops in the park at the time of sale. [25L;49] [56o; Haynes, Jack Ellis] Hays, Howard . Howard Hays was born on November 23, 1883 in Metropolis, Cook Co., Illinois. He attended the University of Illinois and the University of Chicago Law prior to coming out to Yellowstone in 1905 to begin work for the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. as a surrey driver. He served as the traveling passenger agent for the company from 1906-16. In 1915 he married Margaret Mauger of Salt Lake City. Early in 1917 he became employed by the Union Pacific RR, and later the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Tourist Bureau, and the National Parks Bureau of the US Railroad Administration. In 1919 he purchased the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. with Roe Emery, changing the name to Yellowstone Park Camps Co. After becoming ill with tuberculosis, he sold the company in 1924 to H.W. Child and Vernon Goodwin for $660,000. He later went on to become President of the Sequoia & Kings Canyon NP Co. In 1927 Hays purchased the Glacier Park Transportation Co. and ran the company until 1955. During this time hays purchased an interest in the Riverside Press newspaper, in California. He eventually moved up through the ranks to become president of the company, a position he held until his death in early January of 1969. [25L;49] Heap, David Porter . David P. Heap was part of the Barlow-Heap expedition of the Army Corps of Engineering in 1971. They had orders from General Sheridan to make an exploration of Yellowstone Park. They traveled with the Hayden Expedition for a portion of the journey. Beaver Dick Leigh served as a guide while photographer Thomas J. Hine took the first pictures of Old Faithful in eruption. Unfortunately the Great Chicago Fire of 1889 destroyed almost all of Hines' negatives from the expedition and only about 16 are known to have survived. Heap was born March 24, 1843 in Stephano, Turkey. He immigrated to the United States and attended Georgetown College in Washington DC. He graduated from the US military academy in 1864 and served out the remainder of the Civil War on the side of the North. He was promoted to Captain, later to major of engineers in 1882, and lieutenant colonel in 1895. In 1899 he became in charge of the 3rd lighthouse district and depot at Tompkinsville, NY. He authored several treatises on electric lighting and lighthouses. [The 20th Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable American; Chronology of Wonderland, Goss] Hedges, Cornelius. Cornelius Hedges first came to Montana in 1864 in search of gold and established a law office in Helena the following year. He was also an editorial writer for the Helena Herald and a member of the Washburn Expedition of 1870. Following the expedition he wrote a series of articles that were published in the Helena Herald describing the wonders of Yellowstone and proposed the appropriation of Yellowstone for public use. [25L;50] Henderson, Barbara Gazelle (Lillie) . Barbara Henderson was born in 1861, she was the daughter of G.L Henderson. She became the park Postmistress on July 5, 1882, shortly after the family’s move to Yellowstone. Together with her sister Jennie, who became Postmistress in 1884, they began the Post Office Store at Mammoth in one of James McCartney’s old buildings. The postal position remained mostly in the family for 35 years. She married Alexander Lyall in 1898, who was the construction contractor for the new general store at Mammoth in 1895-96. Barbara later moved to Southern California to live. [1900 Federal Census, YNP] [25j] Henderson, Abel Bartlett. Bart Henderson was born in Tennessee in 1832 to Gideon B. and Jane Ritchey Henderson. He is believed to have prospected for gold in California and the far west at least by the 1860s. He began prospecting around the Yellowstone Park in 1867, coming up from Jackson’s Hole over Two Ocean Pass, around the east shore of Yellowstone Lake, and downriver into Montana. He discovered gold in the Cooke City area in 1869-70 with Adam ‘Horn’ Miller, Ed Hibbard, and James Gourley. He named Soda Butte and Soda Butte Creek during that trip. With help from James Gourley and Adam ‘Horn’ Miller, he began building a road in 1871 from Bottler’s Ranch near Emigrant to Mammoth. The road later passed into the hands of ‘Yankee Jim' James George. Henderson became the 1st known user of skis in the park when he skied from Stephens Creek to Bozeman in 1871. Bart and his brother Stokely D. (and perhaps a brother named James??), owned a ranch near Stephens Creek, just north of the northern Park border, that came under attack by Nez Perce on August 31, 1877. The ranch was burned and after a short battle, Sterling Henderson (son of Stokely), Joe Brown, George Reese, John Werks, and one other man escaped across the Yellowstone River in a small boat. No relation to George Legg Henderson, Bart died August 4, 1889 at Nelson, BC. [LE;10/5/1889] [32] [25g] Henderson, David Bremmer . David Henderson was the younger brother of George Henderson, he became an Iowa Congressman and Speaker of the House of Representatives. It was his influence that no doubt gained George’s appointment as Asst Supt of Yellowstone in 1882. [25L;50] Henderson, George L . George Henderson, or G.L. Henderson, was born in Oct. 8, 1827 in Old Deer Scotland and immigrated to the US with his family in 1846. The family later settled in Fayette County, Iowa. George and his wife Jeanette Thomas divorced in 1879 after having 10 children. However, five of them died by 1875 due to various causes. He was hired as an assistant superintendent to Supt. Conger in June of 1882 and moved to Yellowstone with his children. He arrived with his son Walter J., aged 20, and daughters Helen L., aged 28, Jennie A., aged 18, Barbara G., age 21, and Mary R., age 12. They moved into the Norris Blockhouse and the following year lived in one of McCartney’s old hotel buildings. The family built the Cottage Hotel at Mammoth in 1885 and Walter and Barbara were listed as the owners on the lease paperwork. He produced a newspaper-style guide to the park called Henderson's Park Manual. Editions were published in 1885 and 1888. George was an avid supporter of the park, conducted tours, and named numerous features in the park. He became known as the 1st Park Interpreter. The Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) bought out the Cottage Hotel in 1889, but George continued to work for his former nemesis until the early 1900’s as a promoter of his beloved Yellowstone. He married Hannah Horton in 1889, but the marriage contract was dissolved twice, the final time in 1898. George died in November 14, 1905 in Chula Vista, CA. [111] [Family Records of James Dean Henderson] Henderson, Helen Lucretia (Nellie) . Born April 25, 1854 in Henderson Prairie, Iowa, Helen Henderson was the daughter of G.L Henderson and became the 1st female stagecoach driver in the park in the mid-1880’s. In her duties she also acted as tour guide and interpreter. She married Charles Stuart Nov. 15, 1887. Helen, also known as ‘Nellie’, worked for the family business at the Cottage Hotel and probably at the general store. The lease for the Henderson business was in her and Walter’s name. [25L;52] [LE;11/19/1887] Henderson, James. James Henderson, brother of Bart Henderson, established a small ranch on Stephens Creek, near the northern border of the park, with his brothers in 1871. In 1877 the Nez Perce Indians burned some of the ranch buildings during their raids through the park. His son Sterling, John Werks, Joseph Brown, George Reese, and Wm. Davis were under attack from the Indians at the ranch for two hours, but managed to finally escape across the Yellowstone River in a small boat. Shortly afterwards Lt. Doane and a detachment from Ft. Ellis arrived and chased the Nez Perce back into the park. The ranch lands became the site of the town of Cinnabar in 1882. The ranch was purchased by Clarence Stephens in the early 1880’s, and was eventually owned by George Huston, C.T. Hobart, and finally the Hoppe family. The lands were transferred to the government in the mid-1920’s. [113] [28g] Henderson, Jennie . Daughter of G.L. Henderson, Jennie Henderson was born March 13, 1864 and took over the Postmistress job at Mammoth from 1884 to 1886. She operated a post office store with her sister Barbara beginning in 1882, in one of James McCartney’s old buildings and became the founder of the first permanent general store in Yellowstone. They sold curios, crystals, agates, petrified wood and ‘coated specimens’. The business later began selling general tourist supplies, clothing, boots, camping gear and supplies, and other tourist necessities. In 1886 Jennie married John Dewing and had two children, George L. and Jessie M., but the marriage later ended in divorce. Marion Baronett took over the Postmistress job and store from 1886 to 1888. In October of that year Jennie was again appointed Postmistress and served until Oct. 1893, when George Ash became Postmaster. George and Jennie were married in June of 1893. In 1895-96 the couple built a new store and post office at Mammoth and lived in the upstairs apartment. Brother-in-law Alex Lyall was in charge of construction of the building. She again became Postmistress early in 1900 after her husband became ill. Several months later George died in a Salt Lake hospital. Jennie received a new 10-year lease for the business in 1905. She retired in 1908 and transferred the lease to Walter Henderson and Alex Lyall. They operated the business until 1913 when George Whittaker purchased it. The business operated under a variety of names: Post Office Store , ca 1883-89; YNP Post Office, ca1889-93; Ash & Henderson, ca1896; Yellowstone Park Tourist Supplies, ca1902; J.H. Ash & Company, ca1907, Yellowstone Park Tourist Supply Co., ca1908; Lyall & Henderson, 1908-1912. Jennie died in 1947 at the age of 83. The store is currently operated by Delaware North Parks Co. [25j] [1900 Federal Census, YNP] Click Here to read the article I wrote on Jennie Henderson Ash and her General Store for the Spring 2005 issue of Yellowstone Science. Henderson, Mary Rosetta . Mary Henderson, born July 15, 1870 in Iowa, was the youngest daughter of G.L. Henderson and was known to have been teaching music in Iowa for part of the year in 1887. She helped her sisters with the Post Office Store at Mammoth and married Henry Klamer in June of 1892. They built and operated the Klamer general store at Old Faithful in 1897. Henry died in 1914 and Mary Klamer sold the store to Charles Hamilton in 1916 and returned to Southern California to live. She died around 1951 at age 81. The Henderson family records note her birth in 1867. (See ‘Klamer, Henry E.’) [LE; 4/2/1892] [25j] [25k] [1900 Federal Census Records, YNP] For additional information on the Klamer family and store please visit my Klamer Store web page. Henderson, Sterling D . Sterling Henderson was son of James Henderson (see above). In 1875 he served as a Stock Herder at Mammoth. He advertised in the Bozeman newspaper that he would be prepared to ". . . take charge of, and herd, the stock of visitors at the Springs. Stock will be called for and delivered at the Springs whenever desired." He was at the Henderson ranch in 1877 when the Nez Perce attacked and burned some of the buildings. [Bozeman Avant-Courier 6/11/1875] Henderson, Walter James . Walter Henderson, born Oct. 5, 1862, was the only surviving son of George Henderson. Walter and his sister Helen were the official leaseholders of the Cottage Hotel that opened in 1885. Early in 1889 he married Eva S. Fitzgerald, daughter of S.M. Fitzgerald. After the hotel was sold in 1889, YPA hired him for the summer to manage the Firehole Hotel. He used his proceeds from the hotel sale to buy an orchard grove and house in Southern California, California. He lived there on a seasonal basis it seems, for a time, and also had a home in Seattle. In 1908 he and his brother-in-law Alexander Lyall purchased the Mammoth store from his sister Jennie. The two men operated the business until 1913 when they sold out to former scout George Whittaker. After Henry Klamer died in 1914, Walter returned to Yellowstone to help Mary manage the Old Faithful general store. [25j] [25k] Herschfield, Aaron & L.H . Aaron Hershfield and L.H. Hershfield were partners with Harry W. Child and Edmund Bach. Together they formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co. that was incorporated May 20, 1892 with capital stock of $250,000. The YNPTC actually started operations in March 1891 when George Wakefield lost his Yellowstone Park Association contract. YPA then leased all of their transportation equipment and facilities to YNPTC, who appointed Wakefield as President. They bought out the Yellowstone Transportation Co. (YTC) and Wakefield & Hoffman operations for $70,000 in 1892 and were granted exclusive transport of NPRR passengers. The following February they received leases for six parcels of land to erect barns and other facilities. The company was taken over by the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. in 1898, under Child, Huntley, and Bach. [25g] [LE; 5/28/1892] Hibbard, Alfred T. Alfred Hibbard became one of the first non-family members (with Hugh Galusha) to become a member of the Board of Directors of YPCo in 1956. [25L;52] Hine, Thomas J. Thomas Hine was a Chicago photographer who accompanied the Barlow-Heap Expedition of 1871. He took about 200 photos on glass plates during the trip, including the 1st picture of Old Faithful in eruption. He returned to Chicago after the trip, but the disastrous Chicago fire on October 8-9, 1871 destroyed all but 16 of his prints. They were lost until 1998 when author James Brust accidentally discovered seven of them in a collection at the New York Historical Society. Hine was apparently in business with Thomas Copelin and his stereographs had been produced under the name Copelin & Sons. The same fire also destroyed many of the reports and specimens collected by Capt. Barlow. [14m] [119b] [79u] Hobart, Carroll T . C.T. Hobart was one of the organizers of the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. in 1883 with Henry Douglas and Rufus Hatch. The company originally received government approval for leases of 4400 acres, a monopoly on the park concessions, and almost unlimited use of park resources for their operation. Hobart was the general manager and his group built the National Hotel at Mammoth on credit. Financial problems caused the company to go bankrupt in 1885, whereupon Hobart opened up crude hotels at the Lower and Upper Geyser Basins with former Park Superintendent Robert Carpenter. [25L;53] Hobart Charles F . Charles Hobart was the contractor brother of Carroll Hobart, he built the ‘Shack Hotel’ at Old Faithful in 1885 with former Supt. Robert Carpenter, who managed the operation. Feuding over financial matters between the Hobart brothers caused Carpenter to leave the scene after 1885. [25L;53] Hofer, Thomas Elwood. T.E.Hofer (Thomas Hofer) came out West in 1872 to Colorado where he mined and carried mail on skis during the winter of 1875-76. He left Colorado in the spring of 1877 and mined a bit in the Black Hills. Finding little promise he headed for Montana where he visited the Custer Battlefield and ran into P.W. Norris on the Yellowstone River. After reading Nathaniel Langford's Yellowstone account and talking to Norris, he was determined to visit Wonderland, but with the Nez Perce on the prowl, he stayed in Bozeman until things calmed down. While there he became friends with N.P. Langford and did odd jobs until 1878 when he finally got to Mammoth Hot Springs in the company of a freight outfit. He made the rounds of park, meeting a variety of trappers, hunters, scouts, and military men. Having some experience with sailboats on Long Island Sound, he decided to build a boat and during the winter of 1879-80 gathered up tools and materials. During the summer of 1880 he stayed in E.S. Topping's old cabin and began construction of his “Sharpie," whip-sawing his lumber in the same pit that Topping had used. He ended up with a 20’ sailboat called the Explorer which he used for a few years to transport tourists around the lake. After leaving the boat unattended for awhile one summer, some campers 'borrowed' it and left it unmoored. The poor craft floated into the Yellowstone River where it eventually went over the falls. Hofer then began guiding and outfitting tourist and hunting parties and was still listed as a registered guide as late as 1889. A newspaper article from 1882 proclaimed "Complete packing out-fit, will make trips to Clark's Fork and Yellowstone Park. Freights transported at reasonable rates. Will be located for the season at Mammoth Hot Springs." Also known as “Uncle Billy”, Hofer was a scout for the army in the early days and assisted with the attempts to increase the size of the buffalo herd. During the winter of 1887 he conducted the first wildlife survey in the park. He traveled 225 miles through most of the major areas of the park, chronicling all the wildlife he encountered along the way. He included large and small game, fish, birds and predators, and his reports were published in Forest and Stream magazine that year. He began trapping a wide variety of park wildlife in 1891 for shipment to the National Zoological Park in Washington DC. He also learned the art of photography while in the park. Hofer eventually applied for a lease to maintain a stable and corral at Mammoth in order to conduct his guiding business. He guided Theodore Roosevelt on several occasions, along other many other notable parties. In 1907 Hofer received a 10-year lease to operate up to 10 power launches and 50 rowboats and dories on Yellowstone Lake. He formed the T.E. Hofer Boat Co. the following year, buying out the E.C. Waters operation. Articles of incorporation were filed in March of 1908, and included three directors: Hofer, W.A. Hall, and C.N. Sargent. His company operated the ferry service with the ‘Zillah’ from West Thumb to Lake Hotel, provided fishing boats to hire for visitors, and operated a small store that sold or rented fishing tackle and appliances, grain, hay, and other basic tourist supplies. Financing for the buyout of the E.C. Waters' business and operation of the company was obtained from H.W. Child and the railroad companies. Hofer apparently was not a great businessman, and by 1910 the company was failing. Child used his financial interests to squeeze Hofer out of the business, and Child created the YP Boat Co. the following year. That was probably a benefit to Hofer as in a short autobiography he admitted that he did not particularly relish dealing with the public and much preferred small and close-knit guiding parties. A newspaper ad in the Gardiner Wonderland newspaper of April 30, 1903 lists an ad by Hofer offering to sell his Gardiner properties. They consisted of two houses on 100’ x150’ lots, containing corrals and sheds. They were listed as “cheapest property in Gardiner.” Hofer later moved to Clinton, Washington where he settled on Sunlight Beach. [15b] [25g] [73h] [1889 YNP Supt’s Report] [84c] [YNP History Files; H2 Hofer Biography] Hoffman, Charles. Charles Hoffman and Charles Wakefield of Bozeman established the Wakefield & Hoffman stage line in 1883 and provided service from Cinnabar to Mammoth and into the park under an exclusive agreement with YPA. They operated from Livingston to Cinnabar until the Northern Pacific RR’s line was open to Cinnabar. They also received the mail contract for the Livingston to Cooke City route and provided daily mail service (during the summer season) to Mammoth beginning in July 1883. The company built a mail station near Soda Butte as the trip from Cinnabar to Cooke City took more than one day. Wakefield bought out Charles Hoffman in Dec. of 1885 and teamed up with Frank Haynes to form the Wakefield & Haynes stagecoach company. [25g] [LE;6/8/1889;6/1/1895] [Daily Enterprise, Liv. Mt;7/6/1883;7/19/1883] [39-49] [43j] Holem, Frank. A prominent and popular businessman in Gardiner, Frank Holem rose up from the depths of the streets of Chicago. Going to work at an early age to help support his family, Frank hawked newspapers, shined shoes, and eventually acquired some blacksmith skills. At the age of 20 left the rough and tumble city streets and landed in Deadwood, SD around 1886 and found work horseshoeing. He moved to Montana in 1892 and Gardiner the following year to become an itinerant blacksmith. Around 1915 he established an automotive repair business and later added a gas station. By 1925 Holem and Henry J. Pilger were operating the Gardiner Garage on the corner of Second and Main streets in Gardiner. Frank's first wife, Margaret A. Williams died in 1918 and Frank married widow Minnie (Ball) Francis. Mr. Holem died January 2, 1940 and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston.​ ​ Holm, Aron "Tex" . Aron Holm, Tex Holm - See "Camps History." Holmes, Elias Burton. Burton Holmes was a traveler and lecturer who published the classic 15-volume series “Burton Holmes Travelogues," first published in 1912. The books describe interesting and varied lands from around the world. Volume 12 is devoted to Yellowstone Park, along with the Grand Canyon and Moki Lands of Arizona. His Yellowstone travelogue describes life in Yellowstone in the early part of the twentieth century and contains pictures found in few, if any other published books on the park. He was born January 8, 1870 in Chicago to Ira and Virginia (Burton) Holmes and was educated at the Harvard School in Chicago. He traveled to Japan, Algeria, Morocco, Greece, Thessaly, Europe, Hawaii, the Philippines, China, and other countries. [Who's Who in America, 1902] Holmes, William Henry . W.H. Holmes was an anthropologist who was appointed artist for the 1872 Hayden Expedition and studied and illustrated various geologic phenomena in Yellowstone. He also assisted F.V. Hayden with geologic surveys in Colorado from 1872-74. From 1875-79 he continued his studies in Colorado and the southwest, including many of the cliff ruins of ancient Native Americans. He became curator for the aboriginal pottery department in the National Museum from 1882-93, while exploring artifacts of the southwest. He was later curator at the Columbian Museum of Chicago and was head curator of anthropology at the National Museum in 1897. [The 20th Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, 1902] Hoppe, Hugo J. Hugo Hoppe served as a scout for the Cavalry, became the first sheriff at Miles City, and established some of the first breweries in Montana. He ranched in Gallatin Valley and eventually moved to Cinnabar. He was permitted to operate a dairy herd near the mouth of the Gardiner River in 1883 to supply the government and the hotels. He received title to a plot of 160 acres in the Cinnabar area in 1886, and again in 1889. By 1886 he was hauling freight for the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) and engaged in freighting from Cinnabar to Cooke City. The government purchased his ranch in 1925 (some say forcibly) that was located on the south side of the Yellowstone River. It became part of the Game Ranch addition to Yellowstone in 1932. Hoppe Creek, near Electric Peak, was named after him. By 1891 he was a Park County Commissioner. His wife Mary died in November of 1894 and Hugo died in 1895. Both are buried in the Soldier's Plot in Livingston. [YNP Archives, Box A9] [25g] [LE;7/24/1886] [71c] Hoppe, Walter M . Walter Hoppe was born Aug. 6, 1864 in Virginia City to Hugo J. and Mary Gee Hoppe. He is known as the first white male born in Montana. He came to the Upper Yellowstone area in 1883. Walter and Ella E. Fitzgerald were married on May 4, 1896 and had four children; Paul, Pearl, Mildred and Harold. Walter purchased the Fitzgerald Hotel in Gardiner in 1902 and re-fitted and refurnished it for opening in June, operating it for fours years. Around 1989-99, he built the Bear Gulch Hotel in Jardine and operated it for 6 years. He sold the hotel to John Jervis about 1906 and the building burned down in 1942. Walter was engaged in the freighting business at least by 1891, when he received a government contract to haul freight between the rail depot at Cinnabar and Camp Sheridan at Mammoth. He served the mining and business interests in Jardine and his freighting outfit was one of the largest in Montana. The Hoppe family owned a large part of what was the Cinnabar township. The ranch was eventually appropriated by the government and became part of the Game Ranch addition to Yellowstone in 1932. Walter passed away in 1940 and Ella lived until 1968. [LE;3/14/1891; 4/9/1892; 6/14/1902] [71c] [106;41] Horr, Harry Riddle. Harry Horr, also known as Henry Horr, he was born Sept. 20, 1842 in New York. By 1870 he was employed at Fort Ellis as a civilian employee of the post trader’s store. When Truman Everts was lost in the fall of 1870, Horr and two soldiers accompanied George Pritchett back to Yellowstone to help transport Everts to Bozeman. The next year Horr became co-owner of McCartney’s hotel at Mammoth when he and James McCartney filed claims on July 5 at the Gallatin County Courthouse. They also filed claims a month later in Evanston, Uinta County, Wyoming Territory. The claims were later ruled invalid as the territory had never been officially opened to homesteading. He sold or gave up the business to McCartney in 1873. He claimed “I gave the Springs [MHS] the name they now bear.” He married Aurilla Davis in 1880 in Bozeman. Horr later went on to start the Horr Coal Co. with his brother Joseph and uncle, Dr. Asa Horr, in 1883 at an area north of Gardiner. They were unable to actually develop the mines and Harry sold out his interest in 1889. The town of Horr, which later became known as Electric, was named after him. He died in Feb. 1912 in Seattle, WA. [32] [25g] [106d] Howard, Oliver Otis . Gen. O. O. Howard (Nov 8, 1830 – Oct 26, 1909) was the Army general who helped to pursue the Nez Perce during the 1877 wars. His troops blazed a trail over Mary Mountain during the pursuit. That route was used for tourist travel until 1892 when the road over Craig Pass from Old Faithful to West Thumb was completed. The general's son committed suicide in late August of 1885 while visiting the park with his father. Reportedly he was despondent over a breakup with his betrothed. [25L;55] [13r - 9/1/1885] Howell, Bill. Bill Howell began the 1st snowmobile rental business in West Yellowstone in 1968-69 called Yellowstone Tour & Travel. [25L;55] Howell, Ed. Ed Howell was a poacher and resident of Cooke City who was caught in the act of poaching buffalo on Feb. 13, 1894 on Pelican Creek by Scout Felix Burgess and Sgt. Troike. F.J. Haynes and Emerson Hough of Field & Stream magazine documented his capture. The publicity surrounding this event spurred passage of the Lacey Act, which finally provided legal protection to the park’s resources. However, due to the lack of adequate laws at his time of capture, he was released from his confinement at Ft. Yellowstone on April 24 by order of the Secretary of Interior. Supt. S.B.M. Young temporarily hired Howell in 1897 to track down the perpetrators of the robbery of fifteen stagecoaches on the road 4 miles west of Canyon. Howell eventually tracked down George “Morphine Charley” Reeb, who was convicted of the crime, along with Gus Smitzer. Howell moved to Manila, Philippine Islands to start a restaurant business and was mailed $150 as his reward money. [25g] [LE;5/5/1894] Humphrey, Wm. W. W.W. Humphrey helped to found the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. in 1898 with F.J. Haynes. They were also known under the name Humphrey & Haynes. Haynes bought out his partner in 1913. Humphrey had been manager of Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) prior to his association with Haynes. George Breck took over his job at YPTCo. [25L;55] Huntley, Silas S. Silas Huntley was born in 1831 in New York and served in the Civil War for three years in the 37th New York Volunteers. He came up the Missouri R. in 1867 to the Montana Territory and went into the stage line business, organizing the 1st stage line between Helena & Ft. Benton. With his cousin Bradley Barlow they controlled almost all the stage lines in Montana. He also operated stage lines in Utah, Idaho, Oregon and California. He retired from the business in 1878 and began raising standard-bred horses. He married Annie Dean, sister of Adelaide Dean (HW Child’s wife). Silas received the transportation contract in Yellowstone in 1891, and the next year he, along with his brother-in-laws Edmund Bach and Harry W. Child, and Aaron and L.H. Hershfield, formed the Yellowstone National Park Transportation Co., taking over the operation of the Yellowstone Transportation Co. They were granted exclusive transport of Northern Pacific RR passengers in the park. In 1898 he founded the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. with Harry Child, and Edmund Bach. Three years later he purchased the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) with Harry Child and Edward Bach. The NW Improvement Co. (NWIC), subsidiary of NPRY, loaned money for the venture. Huntley died in at his home in Mammoth on Sept. 1, 1901 and his shares in YPA reverted to NWIC. His wife later married former park supt. Gen. S.B.M. Young. [25g] [YNP Archives, Box YPC153] [98 - Ogden Standard Examiner, 9/12/1901] Huston, George . George Huston was a gold prospector who is known to have prospected in park areas as early as 1864 when he led a party of 30-40 miners up the Yellowstone River into the Lamar and Clark’s Fork drainages. Later in the year he led another party up the Madison and Firehole rivers. Two years later he led another small group of miners up the Madison River to the geyser basins and prospected around Yellowstone Lake, Hayden Valley, Mirror Plateau, Lamar Valley, and returned to Emigrant via the Yellowstone River. He built a cabin in the fall of 1867 near Turkey Pen Creek along the present Rescue Creek Trail, before the trail rises up into the hills, becoming the first permanent white resident in the park. When Truman Everts was lost on the Washburn Expedition of 1870, it was Huston who carried Everts on his horse to the north side of Yankee Jim Canyon where a wagon could then transport Everts to Bozeman. It was probably his cabin that Jack Baronett and George Pritchett brought Everts to so he could recuperate. In Nov. 1871 Huston assisted Matthew McGuirk in the construction of a house and barns at McGuirk’s Springs on Boiling River. In 1873 Huston assisted John Werks in the rental operation of a string of pack and saddle horses in Mammoth. They later hooked up with Zack Root’s Express from Bozeman to Mammoth, and provided horse and guide service to the geyser basins. Huston operated in the park at least through 1877 and guided the Radersburg party through the geyser basins. He assisted in the search for George Cowen, who was wounded by the Nez Perce and joined Gen. Howard at the Clark’s Fork Mines as a scout for the remainder of the expedition. He was probably with the command at the surrender of Chief Joseph in the Bear Paw Mountains in early October. Huston and Joe Keeney purchased part of the Henderson Ranch at Stephens Creek Nov. 19, 1883, which totaled 116.45 acres. They resold the land later that year to the NPRR and the site became the town of Cinnabar. He was also involved in the Cooke City mining business and in 1884 was one of the incorporators of the proposed rail line from Cinnabar to the mines of Cooke City. His property was known as the ‘Cache of Ore Millsite’, on part of which the Cooke City General Store was built after his death. He died July 4, 1886 in Livingston of typhoid pneumonia and other complications. He was 42 years old and unmarried. An 1877 article in Harper’s Weekly described Huston as “…a man of sterling integrity and indomitable pluck . . . the hero of many a thrilling bear or Indian fight, but told so modestly that you do not suspect him of being the principle actor."

  • Chicago & North Western RR |

    Yellowstone's Supporting Railroads ​ Chicago & NorthWestern RR Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Chicago & North Western Railroad Yellowstone's Southern Rail Access - Lander, WY “Where Rails End and Trails Begin.” The Chicago & North Western Railroad The Chicago & Northwestern Railroad (C&NW) has complicated origins in the Midwest, but essentially formed from the ruins of the bankrupt Chicago, St. Paul, & Fond du Lac railroad. The Chicago & Northwestern Railroad (C&NW) began its dominating railroad business when it was chartered by the states of Wisconsin and Illinois in 1859. After acquiring multiple other railroads, completing connections mostly north and west from Chicago, C&NW gained controlling interest of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha Railway, also known as the Omaha Road. Real-Photo postcard of the Lander Depot, ca1910 The railroad reaches Lander, Wyoming The Chicago & Northwestern extended their rail lines to Lander, Wyoming in 1906, which would be the farthest west the railroad would venture, despite earlier plans. Construction on the extension of the C&NW Railroad from Casper to Lander, commenced Monday, May 2, 1905. and was completed October 17, 1906. Regular passenger train service was soon established, covering a distance of 148.1 miles. The C&NW RR served many small communities between Chicago and Lander with branch lines off of the Union Pacific main line to Ogden, Utah. After suffering through or approaching a couple of bankruptcies, the Union Pacific RR ultimately acquired control of C&NW on April 24, 1995 in a $1.2 billion stock takeover. From the Wind River Mountaineer, Friday, Oct. 12, 1906 ​ The railroad has at last reached Lander. After waiting for thirty-five years some of our citizens have at last seen the steel rails laid into our beautiful city and valley, and not only have their hopes been realized but something has come to pass that many believed would not be. The steel was laid to the depot site, or within one half block of Main street on Wednesday evening . . . Wednesday, October 17th, has been fixed by the mayor and committee; on arrangements as the day on which to celebrate the completion of the Wyoming & Northwestern railroad into Lander, and ail arrangements are now being made to entertain the large crowd who are expected here at that time. ft is now expected that a special train will arrive here from Denver at noon on that day with the excursionists, and will leave at 6 o’clock on the following morning . . . A grand free ball will be held at the Opera House in the evening, during which time refreshments will be served, and the following evening the Eagles will give a free dance and refreshments. “Lander is the western terminus of the Chicago & North Western Ry.—“Where Rails End and Trails Begin.” It is midway on the new Rocky Mountain Highway, running by the most direct route from Denver, via Ft. Collins, Laramie, Rawlins, and Lander, across the historic Shoshone Indian Reservation, through the famous big game country of Upper Wind River, past Brooks Lake, over Togwotee Pass in the Absarokas, around Jackson Lake at the foot of the Tetons, and into Yellowstone Park through the too-little known Southern Entrance. Whichever way you choose to enter or leave the Park, one way you must explore this new and greatest route. Through no other route can you prepare yourself so fully, so truly get into the spirit of the West, as via Lander.” [1923 Lander Transportation Co. brochure] Rocky Mountain Highway Highway to Be Officially Opened Sunday---Many Will Take Part "An Auto Caravan left early yesterday morning [17th] en route for Yellowstone Park over the Rocky Mountain Highway. The summit of Two-gwo-tee Pass will be the stopping place on Sunday and appropriate opening ceremonies will be held. Three kinds of bear meat, all varieties of mountain trout, and many other delicious morsels will be served free at the banquet. All tourists are invited to join the caravan." [Jackson Hole Courier, 18Aug1921] "Two-Gwo-Tee Pass was dedicated as the southern entrance to Yellowstone National park at 1 o’clock Sunday afternoon. A thousand people from Wyoming. Colorado, Idaho, Montana and the mountain west, from far away Florida, from California and from states to the east, the west, the north and the south witnessed the ceremony on the green carpeted slope of the continental divide 115 miles northwest of Lander, where in the spring the melting snows feed streams that flow to the two oceans, where the Teton and Washakie national forests adjoin, and the Fremont and Lincoln county lines meet. The hundreds who gathered there were more than witnesses they were active participants in the dedication, for in a seemingly endless chain of automobiles they had journeyed especially for this occasion distances ranging from a score to hundreds of miles." [23Aug1921, Casper Star-Tribune] Top Left: Shoshone chief invited to the 1921 Two-Gow-Tee Pass highway opening celebration. The author believes this to be Dick Washakie, son of the great Chief Washakie (ca1804/1810 – 1900 [Photo courtesy YNP Archives #57783] ​ Bottom Left: Lander-yellowstone Transportation Co. decal featuring Chief Dick Washakie. [Author Collection] ​ Top Right: Jack Haynes photo showing the 1921 highway celebration [Photo from 1923 C&NW RR brochure, author collection] The new Rocky Mountain Highway over Two-Gow-Tee Pass to Yellowstone ​ In 1921 rail passengers at Lander could visit Yellowstone by automobile on the newly built Rocky Mountain Highway. The travelers commenced at Lander, journeyed past Fort Washakie, to Dubois, and stopped for lunch. Afterwards, they proceeded over the mountains through Togwotee Pass to Brooks Lake Lodge for the night, where they could relax, fish or boat. The next morning they proceeded to Moran Junction for lunch at Amoretti Inn. From Moran tourists could travel south to Jackson Hole or north through the south entrance of Yellowstone. The Lander-Yellowstone Park Transportation Company provided auto stage service from Lander to Moran, where visitors were transferred to Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. buses for the trip into Yellowstone, arriving at Lake Hotel for dinner. Top Left: Two-Gwo-Tee Inn on the Pass, also known as Brooks Lake Lodge. It was the overnight stop on the trip from Lander to Yellowstone. [Wyoming State Archives , RAN430] ​ Top Right: Amoretti Inn at Moran, in sight of Jackson Lake. A lunch stop enroute to the tetons or to Yellowstone. [Wyoming State Archives, Stimson Collection #4541] ​ Bottom: Amoretti Inn and other businesses at Moran, 1920s. The are later became the Jackson Lake Lodge. [ Rockefeller Archives] Amoretti Inn - Jackson Lake Lodge The hotels along the route from Lander to Yellowstone were built and maintained by the Amoretti Hotel and Camp Company, incorporated in April 1922, "for the object of operating hotels, providing and conducting stores, commissaries, camps and other facilities and equipment, for the conveyance, entertainment and convenience of the tourists." The hotel company was the idea of Eugene Amoretti, long-time area resident and prominent Lander businessman. The Amoretti Inn was built in 1922 and included a large, central building that primarily held a dining room and groups of cabins for travelers stopping on their way to Yellowstone National Park. Located 25 miles from the south entrance of Yellowstone National Park, The Amoretti Inn was situated on a bench overlooking Jackson Lake, and from its spacious porch and lobby, one could view the lake and the Teton Mountains. The area was a favorite haunt of John D. Rockefeller beginning as early as 1924. By that time, the Inn began being called the Jackson Lake Lodge. The Jackson Hole Courier noted on July 26, 1930 that, “A deal was consummated last week whereby the Jackson Lake Lodge [former Amoretti Inn] at Moran passes from the hands of local and Casper men into the hands of the Teton Investment Company, a Salt Lake concern, which has also bought Sheffields [Teton Lodge] and other resorts In that section. The deal was for virtually $75,000. The new owners expect to spend a lot of money on the lodge and make it an attraction for the new Teton Park . . . they virtually have a monopoly of all hotels and recreation places there.” In later days the Lodge was rebuilt beginning in 1953 to become the new Jackson Lake Lodge. According to the Jackson Hole Courier, May 14, 1953, “Ground will be broken this month on the Jackson Lake Lodge, about 25 miles south of the Yellowstone National Park boundary and 35 miles north of Jackson. The Jackson Lake lodge will have a two-story stone faced central lodge with a capacity of 200 guests that will be surrounded by cabins accommodating 800 more vacationers. The main lodge will he constructed on a bluff overlooking Jackson lake with picture windows offering a commanding view of the 13,000-foot Tetons to the west.” Brooks Lake Hotel the massive hotel complex was built in 1922 as part of a program to provide accommodations for tourists arriving via the Lander-Yellowstone Transportation Company and was operated by the Amoretti Hotel and Camp Company. Eugene Amoretti was a businessman in Lander who was alleged to be the first European born in South Pass City in 1871. The Brooks Lake hotel was one of two operated by Amoretti on the road to Yellowstone; the other was at Moran. The hotel was built quickly, started in April 1922 and completed by July 1. The hotel charged $6 per person daily or $35 weekly, and it flourished for a couple of years, but by 1926 it was bypassed by buses. That year it was reorganized by investor Jim Gratiot as the Diamond G Ranch, which offered a dude ranch experience. [Wikipedia] ​ The success of Brooks Lake Hotel was short-lived, however. Apparently the bus trip from Lander to the Lake Hotel took too much time, and the overnight stop at the Inn was discontinued. In an effort to keep the complex solvent, Jim Gratiot, one of the original five corporate directors of the Amoretti Hotel and Camp Company, took over the complex and renamed it the Diamond G Ranch, operating it as a dude ranch. Strictly speaking, the Diamond G was not a true dude ranch because it had never been a working ranch, but it catered to the same clientele as the working dude ranches: well-to-do Easterners [U.S. Depart. of the Interior, NPS, National Register of Historic Places—Nomination Form Brooks Lake Lodge, 1982] Amusing Anecdote about the 1st train to roll into the Lander Depot THE STORY OF LANDER By Harold Rogers Here is an amusing story told of the arrival of the first passenger train in Lander in 1906. The railroad officials had advertised this momentous event throughout the county as the grand opening of the C & N W Railroad and its advent into the Lander Valley and Fremont County. Citizens of South Pass, Pinedale, Jackson "Hole, Dubois and the Shoshone Reservation gathered at the new Lander depot. The engineer of this first passenger train was an Irishman who loved to pull his jokes or shenanigans on the unsuspecting crowds. He had a good head of steam up. When a large crowd of spectators had gathered around to gaze at the iron horse he let off a big head of steam to watch the crowd scatter and yell. He poked his head out the cabin window when it was time to pull up the train, swung his arm in a sweeping circle and yelled, “Look out, you hill billies. I’m going to turn her around.” Most of the spectators ran for the side streets, thinking the train was going to turn around right there. The engineer and his train crew had a good laugh at the expense of the pioneers. [Annals of Wyoming , April 1968, Vol. 40, No. 1]

  • Bassett Brothers |

    Coaching in Yellowstone - The Bassett Brothers 1881-1898 ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. In The Beginning . . . In the first decade of Yellowstone National Park’s young existence, there were few methods of commercial transportation services available. Roads were crude at best, and lodging facilities were few and rustic. Travel was on horseback and by pack train. In 1879 mail service was established from Virginia City, Montana to the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone Park. George W. Marshall was the first mail carrier and on September 13, 1880, a mail station was established in conjunction with his primitive hotel near the junction of the Firehole River and Nez Perce Creek (approximate location of today’s Nez Perce Picnic area). It was known as the Firehole Post Office and George’s wife Sarah was postmistress for the first two years. Sometime that fall or winter of 1880, brothers William Henry and Ernest Bassett began working as mail carriers on the Virginia City to Firehole route. Both brothers experienced severe travails that winter while trying to traverse the route during the heavy snows and extreme winter temperatures. In late January of 1881 William attempted to travel the route from Firehole to Henry’s Lake through deep and drifting snows and became frostbitten on his hands and toes after falling through the ice on Henry’s Lake. He narrowly escaped death when the stock tender at the mail station spotted him on the lake and rescued William. An article in the Bucks County Gazette of Bristol, Pennsylvania described his adventures thusly: ​ “On the 22nd of January a stock tender on the shore of Henry’s Lake, near Fire Hole, Mon., saw an arm reaching out of a huge snow drift on the other shore of the lake and waving a handkerchief. The stock man went to the rescue and found W.H. Bassett, a young mail carrier, fast in the snow and utterly exhausted. Bassett had started from Fire Hole three days before. The snow was in no place less than three feet deep, and often there were drifts ten feet high. He was obliged to abandon his horse on the first day. Then for two days and nights he fought his way through the snow. Part of the time it was storming and always intensely cold. He lost his way. He hadn’t a mouthful of food. He says “I ate snow so long that I was unable to eat food when rescued, because my throat was too raw to permit swallowing. I knew my feet were frozen, but I was afraid to take off my boots, lest I couldn’t get them on again. I shall only lose two toes and a few fingers.” Articles about the episode appeared in other newspapers across the country, including the Boston Globe and the New York Times. These articles were apparently the result of a letter William sent to his father in Salt Lake about his adventures. William Henry Bassett (W.H. Bassett) and Charles Julius Bassett (C.J. Bassett) seem to have been the prime movers of the operation. There were six Bassett brothers - William Henry, Charles Julius, Charles Henry Bassett II, Fred C. Bassett, Frank A. Bassett, and Ernest Bassett. The Bassett family was headed by father Charles Henry Bassett of New York. By 1845 Mr. Bassett was living in the Mormon community in Navoo, Illinois, where he married Permilia Mindwell Dayton. Driven out of Navoo by angry anti-Mormon mobs, they settled in Iowa before moving to Salt Lake City in 1852. The following year Charles Henry Bassett married Mary Elizabeth Knight. Ernest and William Henry were sons of that marriage, while Charles Henry II, Charles Julius, Frank, and Fred were sons of Permilia. It has been reported that Charles Henry Bassett sired 22-34 children from five wives. By the late 1870s most of the Bassett Brothers had moved to southeastern Idaho, where the Utah & Northern Railroad was slowly making its way north through Idaho to Butte, Montana from Brigham City, Utah. The railroad reached Beaver Canon, Idaho (changed from Beaver Canon to Beaver Canyon in 1884) on September 1, 1879. The town had been established around 1872 along the main stage and freight road from Utah to the mining communities of Montana. Photo from: Our Generations Ancestors Family Association In 1881 the brothers, with William and Chas. Julius (C.J.) in charge, began providing outfitting and transportation services to Yellowstone National Park that included furnishing wagons, horses, tents, tools, food, supplies, and guides. They picked up their passengers from the Utah & Northern Railroad (U&NRR) line at Beaver Canyon, Idaho, near the current town of Spencer, a few miles south of the Montana border. It was about 110 miles from Beaver Canyon to the Lower Geyser Basin, requiring three nights camping to get there, but they advertised the route as being 150 miles shorter than the Virginia City route. An 1881 newspaper ad touting the Bassett Brother’s service proclaimed that Yellowstone was the "The Eden of America!" and that "Light Spring Wagons, Good Teams, Experienced Drivers” were utilized with “Good Hunting and Fishing anywhere along the road." The round-trip cost was $25 to Marshall's Hotel on the Firehole River. Another newspaper touted that, “Travelers can take the comfortable cars of the Utah & Northern in Ogden for Beaver Canyon, where connection can be made with Bassett Bros. through line to the Yellowstone. This line is composed of covered light spring wagons with the best of teams, and passes over one of the best roads in the country. Ad for Bassett Bros., from July 30, 1882, Salt Lake Daily Tribune . This is one of earliest Bassett ads for Yellowstone. Click to enlarge. The Bassett Bros. operation apparently was a success and in August of 1882 the Ogden Standard Examiner exclaimed that, “The vast increase of travel between Beaver and the National Park has necessitated increased facilities, and Bassett Bros. have just put on the stage line four splendid new coaches for the accommodation of the traveling public.” Beaver Canyon, partly described as containing, "scores of blighted hopes." From Crofutt's Overland Guide , by George A. Crofutt, 1890. Click to enlarge. View of Beaver Canyon in 1885 Beaver Canyon: On June 3rd, 1882 the Ogden Standard newspaper briefly described life in Beaver Canyon: ​ “Up to the past spring we could boast of but one saloon, that of Messrs. Bassett Bros, and the boys that are chopping logs used to put in an occasional spree at this saloon, much to the annoyance of the more peacefully inclined citizens; but the Justice of the Peace, Mr. Julius Bassett [CJ], used to get after them and impose a fine with good effects. Another saloon has been erected by Mr. Raymond & Sabin, but not proving a success the building has been sold to Mr. L. Harris who permitted a few dances to be held in it which we think has not been financially profitable, and the owner is now fitting it up as a hotel and restaurant. The Bassett Bros. are now making extensive preparations to carry passengers from this point to the National Park, this summer, and we have no doubt but their line will be extensively patronized by pleasure-seekers who wish to take the shortest route and best road to see the sights of the Yellowstone.” Mary Bradshaw Richards and her husband Jesse Richards traveled from their home in New York City to Yellowstone Park in 1882, and took advantage of the services of the Bassetts. Travel in the park was still primitive at that time and only the Marshall Hotel on the Firehole River and the crude McCartney Hotel at Mammoth Hot Springs were available. The couple traveled by train to Beaver Canon aboard the U&NRR. They arrived in the community of Beaver Canon that they described as consisting of "a dozen log houses, two saloons and a big water tank." The hotel was not much more than a small log house. The couple contracted with the Bassett Brothers to take them into the park. The following excerpt offers a glimpse of the Bassett operation: "Our outfit (two persons) consisted of a wall tent, blankets, buffalo skins, axe, hatchet, nails, ropes, hammer and wheel grease; flour, sugar, lard, ham, eggs packed in oats, canned meats, fruits and jellies; a long-tailed frying pan, bake kettle, coffee pot, tin plates, cups and spoons, knives and forks; a capital driver, an accomplished cook, two large balky horses and lastly the all important spring wagons, canvas-covered, large, strong, rather stiff in the joints, but possessing a fitness for its purpose which we soon learned to appreciate. This outfit cost us eighteen dollars per day." "The distance from Beaver Canyon to Lower Geyser basin is about one hundred and ten miles. We are to camp three nights on the route . . . Inside our new home [tent] is our furniture, viz.: a bed of blankets folded on a rubber sheet, our hamper for a table, a wagon seat for a sofa, a candle set in a bottle for an electric light, a tin wash basin, soap and towels on a pile of grass for a toilet room - only these and nothing more . . . A campfire, now having finished its blazing, is at work baking bread and boiling coffee and broiling pine-hen and ham. How hungry we are!" ​ [From Camping Out in the Yellowstone - 1882, by Mary Bradshaw Richards, Univ. of Utah Press, 1994] Undated photo of a Bassett coach crossing stream in route. Many of the wagons/coaches used by the Bassett Brothers seem to have been Studebaker Excursion Wagons, designed for the tourist trade. Although the following ad calls them Concord wagons, they were not Concords. Concord coaches were made by the Abbot-Downing Co. in Concord, New Hampshire, and had specially designed through braces underneath to soften the ride. Serviceable Wagons. The Studebakers have manufactured for the Bassett Bros., Beaver Canyon, Idaho, two elegant Concord wagons. The vehicles, which are four-seated and made to order for special service, were set up yesterday and started for Beaver Canyon, where they will be first on the road into Yellowstone national park. [Salt Lake Herald-Republican , June 9, 1883-06-09] Life on the Beaver Canyon Route . . . What they didn't tell you about in the brochures! ​ "Here our mosquito-netting came into use. The pestiferous things rose in clouds from every ford or marshy place we crossed. They made life almost a burden. We fought them with our hands and bathed our necks and wrists in menthol to keep them away, but to no purpose. They were after us and were going to stay with us. In the dining-room at the dinner-station on the Camas Meadows the window panes were black with them and we were compelled to eat with our veils on, but that did not prevent them from getting into our mouths. For two long hours we were at their mercy--hard, unrelenting, unmerciful mercy. They bit us until our necks, faces and hands had the appearance of being stung by a swarm of bees. Outside of the cabin they were even worse, and appeared in clouds whenever the grass was stirred. We had to keep moving, for the instant we stopped they would light upon our clothes so thick that we could not tell the color of the cloth. After one blow upon the shoulder of our Yankee friend, thirty-four dead mosquitoes were found sticking to his coat. We were all thankful when the driver told us to take our places in the stage for our departure." ​ Beaver Canyon Route excerpt from Parkinson's Wonderland; or, Twelve Weeks In and Out of the United States. Top : Yellowstone National Park Stage Line letterhead, 1885. [ YNP Archives] Right: Yellowstone park Stage Line pass, 1892, signed by CJ Bassett. [author] In 1884, the Ogden Standard reported that business for the Bassett Brothers had doubled and that overnight accommodations had been established along the route for travelers. By 1885 the company was using the name Yellowstone National Park Stage Line. In a letter to a prospective client, the Bassetts quoted a rate of $25 per person to take a nine-day trip via the Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Lake, past Sulfur Mountain to the Grand Canyon, over Mary’s Lake, north to Mammoth Hot Springs, and return through the West entrance. Clients saved five dollars if the two-day Mammoth leg was skipped. Around 1886 it appears as though they got out of the camping business and concentrated their efforts on stage transportation to the various hotels, in and out of the park. The route from Beaver Canyon, although lengthy, passed through beautiful country. The road from Beaver followed Miners Creek up Porcupine Pass and ran down West Camas Creek to the broad, wide Camas Valley. Indian Springs, near the small town of Kilgore, was the first overnight stop. The next day travelers journeyed on across the valley, skirting the southern reaches of the Centennial Mountains. The second night was spent at either George Rea’s ranch or the Arangee cabins and Bellevue Hotel of the Arangee Land Co., both located in Shotgun Valley, along the current north shore of Island Park Reservoir. On the third day the stage ventured to the south of Henry’s Lake, over Targhee Pass, stopping for lunch at Dwelle’s (in some accounts this was an overnight stop, and later became known as the Grayling Inn). The route finally passed through the west entrance of the park to the Firehole Hotel in the Lower Geyser Basin. The Firehole Hotel was abandoned in 1891 when the Fountain Hotel opened for business. Modern map showing stage routes from the Utah & Northern Rail line through the west entrance of Yellowstone, and on to the Firehole in the Lower Geyser Basin. The Red shows the route from Beaver Canyon, and the Green the route from Monida, on the border of Idaho & Montana. In 1885, a new road was cut across from the West Entrance, cross-country to Lower Geyser Basin, saving considerable miles to travel. Click to expand. Improvements to the route from Beaver Canyon to the Firehole Hotel, was described in an article in the Salt Lake Tribune , November 14, 1885: ​ “The route to the Yellowstone National Park is to be very much shortened and improved by the time the season opens. The Government is making a direct road from upper Firehole Basin to the west boundary line of the Park at the foot of the mountain. This shortens the distance thirty miles and will give a much easier road in grades. Bassett Brothers are making a new road between Camas Meadow and Riverside Station, on Henry's Fork of Snake River, so as to shorten the distance between Beaver Canon and Riverside ten miles, thus scaling down the distances between Upper Firehole and Beaver Canon forty miles, and bringing it down to seventy miles. Most of the work has been done and the rest will be finished in the early spring. Bassett Brothers are getting a large number of four-horse excursion wagons, made especially for them by Studebaker, to run between Beaver Canon.” Arangee Ranch [From Parkinson's, Wonderland; or, Twelve Weeks In and Out of the United States.] The route from Beaver Canyon, although lengthy, passed through beautiful country. The road from Beaver followed Miners Creek up Porcupine Pass and ran down West Camas Creek to the broad, wide Camas Valley. Indian Springs, near the small town of Kilgore, was the first overnight stop. The next day travelers journeyed on across the valley, skirting the southern reaches of the Centennial Mountains. The second night was spent at either George Rea’s ranch or the Arangee cabins and Bellevue Hotel of the Arangee Land Co., both located in Shotgun Valley, along the current north shore of Island Park Reservoir. On the third day the stage ventured to the south of Henry’s Lake, over Targhee Pass, stopping for lunch at Dwelle’s (in some accounts this was an overnight stop, and later became known as the Grayling Inn). The route finally passed through the west entrance of the park to the Firehole Hotel in the Lower Geyser Basin. The Firehole Hotel was abandoned in 1891 when the Fountain Hotel opened for business. Excerpt from, Parkinson's "Wonderland; or, Twelve Weeks In and Out of the United States ." ​ A variety of stopping points were used along the Beaver Canyon route. A couple of other travel accounts mention Manley's Cabin. It was located somewhere along the Madison River, about half a days' travel between the crossing of Henry's Fork of the Snake River and the Firehole in Yellowstone. Little is known about Manley at this point, but in Edwards Roberts book "Shoshone and Other Western Wonders" published in 1888, he gives an account of Beaver Canyon route and relates the following about Manley's Ranch: "Toward sunset we reached Manley's Cabin. It stands on the left bank of the river and is built of rough-hewn logs, the spaces between which are plastered. On one side the house is flanked by an open corral, where Manley keeps his cattle. On the other extend the open fields across which we had driven, and all around which grow the forests. Tired with our long drive, the simple house seemed a palace of comforts. In the evening we sat around the fire, and Manley told us of his life. It was very uneventful, he said, and in winter was most dreary. The storms were frequent and severe, and he was absolutely cut off from the outside world. In summer the visitors were numerous. Many made the cabin their head-quarters while on hunting trips about the country, and others stopped, as we had, for a night. For a living, Manley supplies the Park hotels with meat, eggs, and milk. In the future he hopes a railroad will reach his land and render it worth a tidy fortune. At present, he told us, life was a struggle, and the income was discouragingly small." Bassett Bros. coach crossing the Snake River enroute to Yellowstone. [From Parkinson's, Wonderland; or, Twelve Weeks In and Out of the United States.] Manley's Cabin, located along the banks of the Snake River in Madison Valley. It has been described as, "Built of logs, rudely plastered together, it is far from an ideal hotel, but seems a very palace of comfort after a long day’s stage-ride." [Photo from Shoshone and Other Western Wonders, by Edwards Roberts. Quote from Harper's Weekly, Vol.32, 1888.] Dwelle's or Grayling Inn ​ Harry F. Dwelle moved from Ohio and settled in an area on the south fork of the Madison River about 5 miles from the West entrance in the early 1880’s. In 1884 he established Dwelle’s Stage Stop to service the Bassett Bros. stages that were running to the park from Beaver, Idaho. In 1898 Dwelle’s Inn (also known as Dwelle’s Madison Fork Ranch and the Grayling Inn) became an overnight stop for the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. that transported tourists to the park from Monida. Monida & Yellowstone ceased using Dwelle’s Inn after the 1907 season when the UPRR reached the West entrance of the park. By that time Dwelle was also running a general store and saloon. Acting park superintendent S.B.M. Young complained in 1907 that Dwelle’s “…place has been a resort of park poachers…the principle merchandise he deals in is intoxicants.” Parkinson, in his "Wonderland; or, Twelve Weeks In and Out of the United States," describes his visit at Dwelle's: ​ "It was about three o'clock when the stage pulled up at a very pretentious two story log house, and the driver informed us that this was where we would stop over night. No one coming to the door, we walked in and took possession. The reception room was large and airy; in fact, it took up one half of the house and reached from the first floor to the roof. In one end of it were quite a number of bear skins, and hanging on the walls were skins of the otter, mink and various other animals. The bed-rooms were six in number and opened out upon the reception-room. Three were on the first floor and three above them, arranged like cells in a prison. Those on the second tier were reached by a flight of steps and along a balcony. The rooms were all newly furnished and neatly kept. " "The proprietor, Mr. Dwelle, was a bachelor, and was the only person around the place. When he saw us coming he started off to catch a mess of trout for supper. Our Yankee friend and myself, after procuring some fishing-lines, followed him. In crossing a brook the writer made a misstep and fell into the water, which necessitated his returning to the house to dry his clothes. While sitting in front of the stove he was startled by a crash, and looking out of the window saw the back porch in ruins. The ladies, who had retired to their sleeping apartments for a rest, appeared almost immediately in the wildest state of excitement, anxiously inquiring if a cyclone had struck the house. Their fears being quieted they returned to finish their naps. Upon going into the yard we ascertained that a number of horses in prancing around had run against a rope stretched from one of the out-buildings to one of the supports of the porch, and, pulling the latter from its place, the whole structure came down with a crash. It was not long before our Yankee friend was seen returning. He had met with a similar mishap as the writer, only that he had fallen in much deeper water, and did not have a dry thread on him. He went to a hunter's camp, and having built a large fire, dried his clothing. Supper being announced, we all responded to the call, and partook of one of the best meals we had eaten since leaving Portland. After doing full justice to it we returned to the reception-room, when several trappers came in and a very pleasant evening was spent listening to their stories." In 1886 the Union Pacific RR advertised special Yellowstone trips at a cost of $30 from Ogden to the Firehole and return. An extra $12.50 paid the Bassett Brothers to take the visitor on a complete tour around the park, with overnight stays at the various hotels and tent hotels. The trip could be made in 9 days, but the visitor had up to 30 days to complete the tour if desired. It was a busy year for the Bassetts, as they also worked on establishing a new road from Camas Meadows to the Riverside station just inside the park. The road was a more direct route and shortened the journey to about 70 miles. The Bassett operation continued, apparently successfully through the next decade and by the mid-1890s was known as the Union Pacific Stage Line. Reportedly up to 25 coaches were used in the operation. In 1897 the town of Beaver Canyon was moved a few miles south to what became known as Spencer, named after Hyrum H. Spencer, a businessman in Beaver. The harsh weather and winters at Beaver Canyon made life untenable and the residents and businessmen felt Spencer would be a more optimal location. The area was somewhat lower in elevation with less snow and was wide enough to allow more land for expansion of the railroad facilities and other businesses. Many of the buildings were moved south on flat cars, including the depot after the railroad eliminated Beaver Canyon as a stop. The Beaver post office closed in 1898. Early view of the town of Monida. The 2-story, white Summit Hotel (center) burned in 1905. The depot would have been behind the rail cars shown on the right. The town of Monida in 2008, author's photo. According to newspaper articles and other sources, the Bassett operation seems to have remained at Beaver Canyon, despite some sources that claim he moved north to Monida and began using the road through the Centennial Valley. That route skirted the northern shoulder of the rugged Centennial Mountains, continued on past Lakeview and Red Rocks Lakes, climbed over Red Rock Pass, and wound around the north side of Henry’s Lake where it met up with the other route before ascending Targhee Pass. The Bassett Bros. never received a formal lease for their operation in Yellowstone, but operated on yearly permits. They were the primary transportation company to operate through the west entrance from 1881 until 1898 when the Interior Dept. awarded the privilege to the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Company, essentially putting the Basset's out of the Yellowstone transportation business. According to a letter CJ Bassett wrote to the authorities in Yellowstone in June of 1898, he desired “to conduct a Transportation business, from Beaver Canyon, to and through the Yellowstone Park.” An answer to his inquiry has yet to be located, but it appears the Bassett transportation operation to Yellowstone National Park ended that year, despite their intentions to continue the business. Figures from the annual YNP Superintendent’s Reports indicate that Bassett carried only 59 passengers in 1896 and 22 in 1897. ​ The superintendent noted in his report for 1898 that “The Monida and Yellowstone Stage Company have seemingly absorbed the business previously conducted by Mr. C.J. Bassett, from Beaver Canyon into the park via the western entrance, as I have no reports of any passengers by his line during the past season, nor has he applied for license to conduct this class of business.” Previous to 1898 the majority of Yellowstone visitors came into the park either with the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. coaches or in private conveyances. The Wylie Camping Co. and other personally conducted camping parties accounted for most of the rest of the business. ​ C.J. Bassett was a conspicuous figure in Idaho politics for some 20 years and died in his home at Boise on November 26, 1918, at about 67 years of age. W.H. Bassett, former postmaster in Lago, Idaho, died in a car accident December 29, 1929 at age 71. He was buried in his hometown cemetery in Lago, Idaho. For more information on the Bassett family and the stage operation, visit these wonderful Bassett family history websites! Bassett Bros Stage Line Bassett Family Genealogies Bassett Bros. Stage Line -2 Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. William W. Humphrey and Frank Jay Haynes formed the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Line (M-Y) in early 1898. Humphrey boasted of fifteen years stagecoach experience, the last five years of which were served with Yellowstone Park Transportation Co, while Haynes, an astute businessman, had operated photo shops at all the major locations in the park, beginning in 1884. Together, with additional financial backing, they obtained a 10-year lease from the government to operate the stage business from Monida to and through the park. Their guests stayed at the park hotels operated by Yellowstone Park Association. The company also obtained a 10-year contract from the Union Pacific RR to handle all of their Yellowstone Park business. ​ Click on M-Y decal to go to my Monida & Yellowstone Stage page. A Ride Through Wonderland By Georgina M. Synge Sampson Low, Marston & Company , 1892 Enjoy excerpts from this fascinating account by Georgina Synge, who wrote of her journey to Wonderland in early September of 1889. She traveled from Salt Lake City to Beaver Canyon, utilized the transportation services of the Bassett Brothers, and journeyed on to the Firehole Hotel in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone Park. “We got all our outfit together at last, Messrs. Bassett Bros., who run the stages through the Park Reservation, supplying us at about seventeen dollars per day. This included the hire and forage of the horses, a guide, a lad to drive the wagons, a tent, and cooking utensils, etc. A. was for taking no mattress - "roll yourself up in a rug, and there you are," was his idea. But as I ventured to differ as to the delights of this method, we ended by procuring huge bags filled with fresh hay, which were most comfortable. We also took about eight blankets and a mackintosh cover. A small leather portmanteau contained our changes of raiment and toilet necessities, also such useful things as tools, fishing gear, and a few simple ointments and medicines. We each wore a leather belt with pockets, containing collapsible drinking cups, compasses, knives and string, etc., which we found a great comfort. As for our food, we took a good load of tinned beef and tongue, sardines, flour, biscuits, bacon, coffee, cracked wheat, tinned milk and fruit, and a bottle of Worcester sauce (without which no American table is complete); also two bottles of whiskey and a box of Mormon beer, "in case," as A. remarked, "the water might be injurious." . . . We set forth early in the morning, as we had about thirty miles to ride before reaching a good camping ground . . . How delicious that first meal was, free from all the humdrum conventionalities of life, surrounded by wild stretches of country, with not a human habitation or sign of human life visible. Our bread was baked in a small cast-iron Dutch-oven, something like a gipsy's kettle, the edges of the cover being turned up to hold the hot embers; I never tasted bread more excellent. In this oven, too, we could cook our meat or fish. The men [Bassett's drivers] always ate with us, quite at home and at their ease, as we sat together on the wagon seats round our little camp table. For when you come Far West every man is as good as another, and everybody you meet is a "gentleman," whether it is the boy who blacks your boots, or the rich man who owns millions. I must say we found them well-mannered and agreeable (with the exception of Beesley, whom we afterwards changed), and most eager that we should see everything we could. . . . We reached our first camping ground, in the Camas Meadows - brown grass-covered levels surrounded by mountains - by about five o'clock in the afternoon . . . What fun it was pitching our tent for the first time, and gathering wood for a huge camp fire, and picketing the horses, and exploring our surroundings . . . We started soon after breakfast on the second day, leaving the men to pack up and follow with the wagon . . . Every now and then we crossed a little creek, a tributary of the Great Snake River, the magnificent falls of which we had seen a few days before at Shoshone . . . We passed a log cabin near the latter [Shot Gun Creek] where lives a trapper of renown [probably George Rea]. Elk antlers were suspended over the doorway and ornamented the four corners of the roof, while skins of bear and other beasts were stretched on every available piece of wall. It was late in the evening when we caught a glimpse of the Snake River itself [Henry's Fork of the Snake] . . . We splashed through its shallow bed which here was easily forded, and drew up on the other side, near some log cabins built for the accommodation of passing travelers [Arangee Ranch] . . . [the next day] We had crossed the levels by about twelve o'clock and reached Manley's Cabin, as it is called. This is quite a large abode, with an open corral around it for the cattle, and is built of rough-hewn logs, the interstices being filled in with plaster. After many efforts, we at last attracted the attention of a very dignified-looking old lady in a black silk dress, who, we found afterwards, was the mother of the owner, lately settled there. . . . On leaving Manley's Cabin we crossed the Madison [River] and were once more among the forests . . . Some half-way across the valley we came to the military camp, which is established at the western entrance to the Park Riverside Soldier Station]. Here we were accosted by two soldiers in uniform, who asked us if we had any guns to declare, as, if we had, they must be sealed up, to prevent our using them while passing through . . . [continuing on to Firehole] we descended the other side, the forest received us again and closed in on us; a forest so dark and impenetrable, few rays of sunlight could ever find their way within. We were about four hours riding through this, and it was evening when we at last emerged upon the Fire Hole basin. Here stands quite a little settlement, consisting of the "Hotel," [Firehole Hotel, formerly Marshall's Hotel], the stage agent's house, and a few primitive abodes belonging to men employed there during the summer months. We were too tired to do anything but eat a hearty supper, though the peculiar sulphurous smell in the air, showing how near we were to "Wonderland" at last, made us long for morning to come.” ​ “Toward sunset we reached Manley’s Cabin. It stands on the left bank of the river and is built of rough-hewn logs, the spaces between which are plastered. On one side the house is flanked by an open corral, where Manley keeps his cattle. On the other extend the open fields across which we had driven, and all around which grow the forests. Tired with our long drive, the simple house seemed a palace of comforts. In the evening we sat around the fire, and Manley told us of his life. It was very uneventful, he said, and in winter was most dreary.The storms were frequent and severe, and he was absolutely cut off from the outside world. In summer the visitors were numerous. Many made the cabin their head-quarters while on hunting trips about the country, and others stopped, as we had, for a night. For a living, Manley supplies the Park hotels with meat, eggs, and milk. In the future he hopes a railroad will reach his land and render it worth a tidy fortune. At present, he told us, life was a struggle, and the income was discouragingly small.” ​

  • R.C. Bryant |

    Camping in the Yellowstone R.C. Bryant Camping Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Bryant Camping Company was formed by Rev. Robert Collins Bryant in 1903 and first operated as the Bryant-Spence Tours, with offices in the Monadnock Building, Chicago Illinois. By 1903 there were a number of other companies operating camping tours in Yellowstone National Park that successfully competed with the more expensive hotel tours. These including the Wylie Camping Co ., Shaw & Powell , Tex Holm , the Lycan Company, Blankenship Co., Marshall Bros, and others. Most of these others used the North entrance at Gardiner due to the easy railroad access by the Northern Pacific RR. The Sylvan Pass road from Cody, WY to Yellowstone Lake opened in 1903 allowing easier access from that direction and rail service by the Chicago, Burlington, Quincy & RR . His summer headquarters were moved to the town of Yellowstone at the West Entrance in 1908, later renamed West Yellowstone . He conducted the camping tours with moveable nightly camps and continued yearly through 1912. Downtown Chicago in 1898. The Monadnock Bldg is in the upper right. Robert C. Bryant was born in Brooklyn, NY Feb. 13, 1870. He attended Lafayette College in Easton PA in 1891 and in 1891-95 attended Union Theological Seminary and Auburn Seminary in NYC, a Presbyterian school. He was ordained as a Pastor at the Binghamton Presbyterian church June 4, 1895. Apparently having made himself a career and perhaps feeling more financially responsible, he married Margaret “Maggie” Tims on July 3 of that year. She was a native of Binghamton NY born ca1869. About two years later their son Robert Alfred was born. In 1901 the family moved to Rockford Illinois where Rev. Robert C. Bryant, began his duties as Pastor of the Church of the Christian Union, a Unitarian Universalist church built in 1888. In 1908 the family moved to Chicago, where by at least 1918 he was the pastor of the Green Olive Grove Baptist Church. No doubt many of his early customers on his camping ventures came from within the congregations of the churches at which he served. He passed away 1959 in Southern California, and was buried at Forest Lawn Cemetery. The West entrance area of Yellowstone prior to 1908 was called Riverside and was accessed by stagecoach from Monida or Beaver Canyon on the Union Pacific RR’s main line from Brigham City, UT to Butte, MT. It required about a day and a half stage ride from Monida, located on the Idaho-Montana border, to get to the west entrance. It would not be until 1908 that the UP extended a branch line to the fledgling town that was christened Yellowstone, eliminating the long coach ride from Monida. At that time business seemed to pick up considerably for Bryant and advertisements for his services in national newspapers and periodicals become more prominent. Union Pacific Depot at Yellowstone in 1908. [J. Clum Glass Slide] In 1908 Bryant produced a brochure that advertised “The Bryant Way,” an obvious takeoff on his successful competitor the “Wylie Way.” Even though he was widely advertising his services by this time, he apparently neglected to obtain camping permits from the Interior Department during several previous seasons. When he tried to apply in July 1908 he was turned down, probably for this very reason. During those years a number of complaints were filed against his operation and it is said that he sometimes sold tour tickets and then pawned the unsuspecting tourist off on other operators. Nonetheless, Bryant was somehow able to obtain a permit for the 1909 season to resume his business. By this time he now operated a hotel on Park Street in [West] Yellowstone along with a stagecoach line. The hotel was located on Park St., about a block east of the UPRR depot, directly along the route of travelers going into or from Yellowstone Park. Left: "The Inn at the Gate"in 1914. [1914 traveler's account, Univ of Wyo] Right: Main street of Yellowstone ca1916. The Inn at the Gate, behind the horses, became the Shaw & Powell Hotel after 1912. [Real-Photo Postcard] Campbell Guide "The Bryant-Spence Yellowstone Camping Company has an established reputation, gained through six years' service, for the completeness and excellence of camp equipment, the good quality of the table and service, the thoroughness of the sightseeing. The Bryant-Spence Company has its offices in the Monadnock Building, Chicago, with camp headquarters at Yellowstone, Montana, where all tours start. Special arrangements may be made to start from Gardiner, North Gate. The camps are movable, not permanent; each day, as the party travels, camp is broken in the morning and made at another point in the afternoon. Comfortable coaches and saddle horses are provided for the members of the parties. Special wagons carry provisions, baggage, tents, cots, blankets, tables, chairs, stoves, everything to make camp life comfortable. A professional cook accompanies each party, and abundant help to do all the camp work." [Campbell's New Revised Complete Guide and Descriptive Book of the Yellowstone Park, 1909 by Reau Campbell] From the 1909 Bryant "Delightful Camping Trip" brochure: PERSONALLY CONDUCTED TOURS Two circuit tours from Chicago and the East, via Yellowstone, the new western entrance to the Park, and Lander, and through the Yellowstone National Park, are being arranged under the auspices of the Bryant Yellowstone Camping Company. Each of these tours provides for twenty days' camp life in one of the most beautiful regions of high plateaus and ranges of splendid mountain peaks in America. In this region the Wind River, the Gros Ventre and the beautiful Teton Mountains form, day after day, a background for extensive plains, brilliant hued buttes, and a dry air that carries with it tonic properties of untold worth. . . One of these personally conducted parties will leave Chicago via the Chicago, Union Pacific & North Western Line, Monday, July 5th, via the electric-lighted Los Angeles Limited to Salt Lake City, and the Yellowstone Special to Yellowstone, the new western entrance to the Park. Arriving at Yellowstone, the party will make a camping tour of the Park, stopping each day at Bryant camps, and returning leave the Park via the Thumb, thence down the Snake River. ITINERARY OF PERSONALLY CONDUCTED TOURS [1909] The first personally conducted party will arrive at Yellowstone, the new western entrance to the Park, via the Yellowstone Special at 7.00 A. M., July 8th, and at 9.00 A. M. the twenty days' camping trip will begin: First Day . Drive through Christmas Tree Park and along the Madison River to the Lower Geyser Basin. Visit Mammoth Paint Pots, Fountain Geyser, Excelsior Geyser, Firehole Lake, Prismatic Lake, etc. Second Day. Drive to Upper Geyser Basin and spend the day there, visit Old Faithful, Giant Castle, Riverside, Grotto and many others. Return to Lower Basin Camp. Third Day. Drive through Gibbon Canyon to Norris Basin, then north to Apollinaris Spring, passing the Devil's Frying Pan, Beaver Lake, Obsidian Cliff, etc. Fourth Day. Drive through Golden Gate and Silver Gate to Mammoth Hot Springs Fifth Day. Drive twenty miles east to Tower Falls, visiting Yancey's, the Petrified Trees the Lower Canyon, etc. Sixth Day. Drive to the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone. The entire party with carriages and horses will climb to the top of Mount Washburn, 10,300 feet above the sea. Seventh and Eighth Days. Spend visiting the Grand Canyon, the most wonderful, gorgeous natural spectacle in the world. Artist's Point Lookout, Inspiration Point, Falls of the Yellowstone, etc. Ninth Day. Drive to the Lake Hotel, passing Sulphur Mountain, Mud Volcano, etc. Tenth Day. Drive along the shore of the lake [Yellowstone] to the West Thumb, visit the Fishing Cone and the Paint Pots. The road here leaves the stage route, turning south. Camp on Lewis Lake. . . [From that point the tour went into the Jackson Hole country for 10 days before arriving at Lander WY for the rail trip home.] The Bryant Permanent Camp on Jackson Lake A permanent camp has been established on the east shore of Jackson's Lake under the management of Mr. Robert C. Bryant, of the Bryant Yellowstone Camping Company. This camp is ideally located. Directly across the lake are the Teton Mountains. There is a medicinal hot spring on the shore of the lake not far from the camp. The fishing on Jackson’s Lake is unsurpassed and mountain trout are often taken that weigh from five to ten pounds each. Good boats may be had at the camp and a naptha launch will be available. Carriages and saddle horses may be had at reasonable prices and guides for mountain trips or other excursions. The camp will provide a good table and comfortable rooms with every possible convenience. Rates $2.50 per day. Jackson’s Lake is twenty miles south of the Yellowstone National Park. It is reached either from Yellowstone Station at the western boundary of the Park or from Lander, the terminus of the North Western Line. Arrangements may be made for carriages from either of these points by addressing Bryant Tours, 457 Monadnock Block, Chicago, previous to July 1st, and after this date either the above address or Mr. Robert C. Bryant, Yellowstone, Mont., via Ashton, Idaho. [Delightful Camping Trip, 1909 Brochure] Incorporation The business was incorporated as the R.C. Bryant Company on March 2, 1911 in Salt Lake City, Utah with $50,000 capital and they maintained an office in Salt Lake City. The transaction was reported in the March 3, 1911 edition of the Salt Lake Tribune. Officers listed were: R.C. Bryant, president & director; Rodney T Badger, vice-president and director, along with Bryant’s wife M.T. (Margaret Tims) Bryant as a director. According to the 1911 National Park Conference Proceedings held in Sept in Yellowstone, Bryant claimed he had taken 800-900 tourists on his tours through the park that season. ​ The Final Days Sometime in 1912, Robert Bryant sold out his “Bryant Way” camp and hotel operations to the Shaw & Powell Co. Perhaps he was no longer able to effectively compete with Shaw & Powell or Wylie, who by this time had established permanent camps throughout the park. The hotel became the Shaw & Powell hotel, which now gave them lodging facilities at both West Yellowstone and the north entrance at Gardiner. This enabled them to better provide for tours that came in one entrance and departed through another. According to US Federal Census figures, Robert and his wife and son were still living in Chicago in 1920. By 1930 Robert was boarding in San Diego, CA, and although he was listed as “Married,” Margaret was not living with him at the time of the census. Whether by death, divorce, or some other reason is unknown at this time. But in 1934 Robert Bryant, age 64, married Martha Wood Blake, age 49, in Los Angeles. The 1940 census shows the pair living together in Los Angeles. On Oct 26, 1959, Robert Collins Bryant passed away in the Los Angeles area at about age 89. He is buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California.

  • Mammoth Hotel & Lodge |

    Hotels in the Yellowstone Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel The National Hotel was built Mammoth Hot Springs by the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. It partially opened for business in August 1883 with 141 rooms and was designed by architect L.F. Buffington. This was the first high-class hotel built in the park and was the first stop for visitors coming to the park via the Northern Pacific RR. Six-horse stages brought guests from the Northern Pacific RR rail depot in Cinnabar (Gardiner in 1903 and after) to the hotel. Top Right: Coaches Coming into Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel from Gardiner. From 1903 Wonderland, NPRR. Left: Construction of interior of hotel 1883. FJ Haynes stereoview. Bottom: Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel , 1883. T.W. Ingersoll stereoview #1119 Button Top Left: National Hotel at Mammoth under construction, Spring 1883. F.J. Haynes Stereoview Top Right: Final construction of exterior of National Hotel, Spring 1883. C.E. Watkins Cabinet Photo #D221. A carpenter’s strike in 1884 delayed the completion of the hotel until 1886.The hotel company suffered financial problems in 1884 and went into receivership and was taken over by the new Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) in 1886. The building was 414' long and 54' wide, with four stories, and painted green with a red roof. Electric lights were installed at the end of the 1887 season, but by the end of 1888, they had not been actually hooked up. Top Left: Hotel National Park, LJ Buffington, Archt, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Minn. 1888, Architect's drawing, FJ Haynes card. Top Right: Mammoth Hotel Lobby, 1923. Haynes postcard #23310. Left: Haynes photo stand inside of the National Hotel (Mammoth Hotel). Haynes photo, undated. The old National Hotel underwent major reconstruction in 1913 when most of the 4th floor was removed and the roof flattened. The four-story North Wing was added with 124 rooms (right of building) with 28 private baths, and 8 public baths. By this time the Mammoth Hotel could entertain 600 guests. ​ According to the Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel Historic Structures Report, put together by A&E Architects, “The hotel company built the new wing for the Mammoth hotel with day labor and without the benefit of construction drawings. According to W. M. Nichols, President of the YPHC, “Reamer does much better to build as he goes along rather than to draw up a set of specifications and be tied down to them.” No construction drawings for the remodel of the old Mammoth Hotel have been found, indicating that Reamer may have followed the same procedure for that part of the 1913 work." Top Left: Newspaper article about the proposed renovations of the Mammoth Hotel. The room & bathroom count was slightly exaggerated . [Yellowstone Monitor , 3Apr1913] ​ Right: View of the "Boy's Dorm," 1917. Later known as Juniper Dorm, it remains in use. Many sources date it 1936, but that would be incorrect. It looks much the same as it did over 100 years ago. YNP Archive records date its construction in 1914. [Haynes Photo, 1917 NPS Bldg Survey] Bottom Left: View of the newly-remodel Mammoth Hotel and the new North Wing at right. [YNP #50780] Bottom Right: Postcard view of the remodeled Mammoth Hotel, 1923. [Haynes postcard #23298] The New Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel & Cottages Good-Bye to the old National Hotel . . . ​ The old hotel was torn down in 1936 and a new complex of buildings was constructed under the direction of Robert Reamer, architect for the Old Faithful Inn. Lumber and other materials from the old hotel were saved and reused as much as possible to save on construction costs. The North Wing (left of structure) was retained and is currently the only existing remnant of the original hotel. A two-story building was built in front of the old wing that would house the lobby, lounge, hotel offices, telegraph and telephone divisions, news and cigar stands, and other public services. Right: News article regarding the razing og the old Mammoth Hotel. [Indianapolis Star, Ind., Aug. 30, 1936] Bottom Left: Demolition of the old Mammoth Hotel, Sept. 1936. [YNP #185333-361] Bottom Right: Demolition of the old Mammoth Hotel, Oct. 1936. [YNP #20772] Bottom Left: View of the Mammoth Hotel complex prior to razing in 1936. The North Wing (1913) at upper left, was retained, while the rest of the hotel was demolished. Juniper Dorm (1914) was retained (center left), while the dorm on lower right also remained. Both are currently in service. [YNP #185333-358] Bottom Right: View of the hotel commissary , located directly behind the North Wing. It was also demo'ed in 1936. [YNP #30500] A separate two-story building was erected across the road from the hotel wing and utilized some of the original hotel foundations. A restaurant and coffee shop occupied the 1st floor, while the 2nd floor was made into small apartments for office staff housing. Numerous service buildings behind the original hotel, including warehouses, print shop, laundry, tailor shop, and garages were either completely razed or remodeled to fit into the overall design Right: The new restaurant and coffee shop at Mammoth, located upon the foundations of the old hotel in 1939. The top floor rooms housed hotel office staff. [YNP #1546] Top Left: 1939 postcard view of the newly-remodel Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel (right), restaurant (left center), Rec Hall complex (center behind hotel portico), and the cabin area (rear at base of hills). [Haynes #39036] Top Right: Late 1950s postcard view of the Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel. The North Wing can be seen abovethe lobby building. [West Yellowstone Postcard Co. #73143] In 1937 Robert Reamer designed and assembled a giant map of the United States, made with 15 different types of wood, with 2500 individual pieces. It was fabricated from January 2 to June 1 in Seattle and assembled on site on the south wall of the hotel lounge. It is just over 10' tall and over 17' long. In 1963, the hotel lounge was converted to a meeting room and lobby and became known as the Map Room. A new entry was cut between the lobby and lounge. The map was moved to the west wall. Top Left: 1953 postcard view of the lounge area of the hotel, now called the Map Room. The wood map designed by Robert Reamer was later moved to the right wall when a new doorway was installed on the left side of the map. [Haynes #53K353] Right: Article about the Reamer map from the Billings Gazette, 3Jul1937. ( Click to enlarge) Bottom Left : the famous wooden map designed by Robert Reamer. It was removed in 1917 for conservation work and returned to service. (Click to enlarge) In 1936-38, a complex of 97 cabins was erected along the edge of the hill for the ever-growing number of auto tourists, consisting of single and double units with a capacity of 200 guests.The individual cabins are simple wood-framed, gable-roofed structures with front porches; they have a less rustic design than their counterparts in other park locations in order to integrate with the appearance of the hotel. Top Left: New cabin area directly behind the recreation hall and fountain bldg, Aug. 1939. [YNP #185327-425] Bottom Left: View of the back cluster of guest cabins, Aug. 1939. [YNP #185327-426] Top Right: Fountain, Cocktail Lounge, Gift Shop, Beauty & Barber Shop, and Rec Hall, fall 1939. [YNP #185327-402] Also constructed behind the hotel was a recreation hall that had café with fountain services available at the opposite end of the building. Recreational features included an octagonal sunken dance floor — on wood joists, cocktail lounge/soda fountain, and a stage with dressing room. Additional facilities included a Gift Shop, Beauty Shop, Barber Shop, restrooms, print shop, laundry, linen room, dispensary, and nursing room. Despite the number and variety of public spaces, a single door provided entry to the recreation hall, thus preventing draughts that would be "a source of annoyance to those seated at tables." In later years the café and fountain were converted into office space for the accounting department and another doorway was installed that led from the lobby to the cabin area. The new Mammoth recreation hall was officially dedicated on June 25, 1937. The recreation room in connection with the Mammoth Hotel was completed during July of 1937 and opened to the public, while some: of the cabins in the new Mammoth group were ready for occupancy when the Mammoth Hotel opened about the middle of June. Around 1950 the hotel became known as the Mammoth Motor Inn and the Terrace Grill was renamed the Terrace Coffee Shop. Mammoth Motor Inn opened for the winter season in 1966, but it lasted only through the 1969 season. In the winter of 1981-82, the hotel again opened for the winter season to serve snowmobilers, snowcoach tours, and cross-country skiers. Snowmobiles were rented at Mammoth and the snowcoaches provided transit to the Grand Canyon and Old Faithful. Guests were housed in the Aspen Lodge that was used as an employee dorm during the summer season. Around that time the old telegraph room in the corner of the Hotel lobby was converted to a gift shop. A new lounge/bar is built in the former kitchen storeroom, to the right of the entry of the restaurant. The hotel and cabins are currently operated by Xanterra Parks & Resorts Mammoth Lodge - 1917-1940 Mammoth Lodge was built on the flats south of Capitol Hill in 1917 by the Yellowstone Park Camping Co. It replaced the camps previously located at Swan Lake Flats and Willow Flats that were closed after the 1916 season. It was often referred to as Mammoth Camp in the early years. A swimming pool was built in 1920 and the main lodge building was built in 1922-23, along with a laundry, kitchen, dining room, dance hall, recreation hall, and offices. A dedication service for the new $100,000 lodge was held in July, 1923. Additional cabins were added in 1927. Undated Real-Photo postcard of Mammoth Camp, located across from the Mammoth Terraces. (Click photo to see enlarged version) Upper Left: The new Mammoth Lodge, undated photo. [YNP #185327-424] Upper Right: Real-Photo of entrance to Mammoth Lodge, undated. ​ Lower Left: The Great Hall dining room at the Lodge in 1923. It was a popular venue for conventions. [Haynes PC #23307] Lower Right: The 'Plunge.' It was always a popular feature at the Lodge. [YNP #9550] Mrs. J.B. parks of Nebraska toured Yellowstone in 1927 and comment about Mammoth Lodge . . . ​ “we stayed [at the lodge] our first night in the park. There they have hundreds of little cabins equipped with stove, bed and bedding; neat and sanitary as a home, for tourists, who don’t care to stay at the Mammoth Hotel, a more elaborate place. Mammoth Lodge is a real rustic building, built of the natural pine logs, and has a bureau of information, office, curio shop, and checking room, a large reception and rest room with easy chairs, and writing tables, and large fireplace, where pine logs were burning. They have large dining rooms and kitchens; the meals are all served American style, and the work is done by student girls and boys.” [1Sep1927 Ashland Gazette, Neb] Upper Left: Tourist Cabin Office, undated. [YNP #47117] Upper Right: Interior view of one of the wooden cabins, 1923. [Haynes PC #23405] ​ Lower Left: The early cabins were 'tent cabins', with wood floors and half-walls. [Real-Photo PC] Lower Right: One of wooden cabins at the Lodge in 1923. [Haynes PC #23404] The original cabins featured wood floors and partial wood walls. The rest was covered with tent canvas. Later on they were converted to hard-top wood cabins. A large complex of cabins was erected between the main lodge and the swimming pool. Seventy of the cabins were moved to Roosevelt Lodge in 1937-1938. Mammoth Lodge and other facilities in the park closed in 1940 due to WWII. Many reopened after 1945, but Mammoth Lodge did not. Close to 100 cabins had been built at Mammoth Hotel 1937-1939, and apparently the lodge facilities were not needed. The main lodge and other buildings were razed in 1949-50. The 1950 Annual Superintendent’s report noted the following: ​ MAMMOTH LODGE RAZED On November 17, 1949, a crew for the Yellowstone Park Company started tearing down the Mammoth Lodge, which was constructed in 1922. The dismantling of the interior of the lodge had been in progress for several weeks prior to that date. The laundry in this building will be allowed to remain until the new laundry in connection with the Mammoth Hotel is constructed.

  • Frost & Richard |

    Camping in the Yellowstone Frost & Richard Camping Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. "Now all is hustle among local transportation companies in anticipation of the opening of the Turk season July 1st. The equipment is being put in readiness and parties being booked daily. The companies in the field this year are the Yellowstone Park Camping & Transportation Co., Shoshone Camping Co., Frost & Richard and Dahlem Bros. All are reliable and anyone hooking with them is assured of the finest treatment possible and the finest trip through the country. The Cody road to the Park is completed and leads through the noted Shoshone Canyon, just past the Shoshone dam and lake and up through the grand North Fork country. It's a trip worth traveling over continents to enjoy. BOOK NOW! Address any of the Companies mentioned at Cody, Wyoming." Park County Enterprise (WY), Jun 1, 1910 The town of Cody, Wyoming is located 50 miles east of Yellowstone and was founded in 1896 by Buffalo Bill Cody, and other investors having railroad and agricultural interests. Like most small western towns, growth of the town was predicated upon having access to railroad service. Col. Cody began negotiations with the railroads and eventually the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy RR was convinced to build a branch rail line from their main line at Billings, MT. The line extended south to Toluca and from there ran southwest for 129 miles to Cody. The line reached town in 1901 and the depot was built on the north side of the Shoshone River, on the opposite side of the river from the town proper. That same year construction began on a new road over Sylvan Pass into Yellowstone. It opened in late June/early July 1903 after the heavy snows had melted, making Cody the East Gateway to Yellowstone Park. Tex Holm began conducting camping tours over Sylvan Pass in 1903 and other small operators, including Ned Frost and Fred Richard, followed suit in later years . Top Left: The town of Cody Wyo, ca1904, less than a decade after its founding. Bottom Left: Ned Frost leading a pack train over Sylvan Pass, probably late spring. [Undated Real Photo postcard] Ned Frost became a partner with Fred Richard in the early 1900’s with each of them homesteading land around Green Creek west of Cody. Ned hunted and trapped, while Fred skinned, stretched and prepared the pelts. Coyote pelts were going for $60 at the time and business was good. Individually or collectively they also guided hunters through the nearby wilderness country in search of big game. Through these enterprises they saved up enough to build a large ranch house as a base camp for their enterprises in Wapiti Valley. The ranch featured 17 rooms, including seven bedrooms upstairs and a large living room with fireplace to entertain their paying guests. Richard, Fred J. (Alfred John) Fred J. Richard was born around 1880-81 in Vermont. He married Margaret Hughes (born ca1881) of Illinois in Chicago on January 1, 1909. Her sister Mary would marry New Frost the following year. By 1910 Fred and Margaret were listed in the US Federal Census for Park County. The couple had two children; Alfred J. “Jack”, born in 1909 in Wyoming; and Robert H., born ca1915 in Wyoming. Son Jack became quite a renowned local photographer and his massive collection of photographs was donated to the Buffalo Bill Historic Center in Cody Wyoming. Frost, Ned Ward Ned W. Frost was born April 11, 1881 in Minnesota and came into the Cody country in a covered wagon in 1884 with his family and settled on Sage Creek near Cody. He killed his first grizzly bear around the age of seven or eight and began a life of hunting and guiding. By age 14 he was shooting antelope to supply meat houses in Coulson (Billings), Montana. He appears in the 1900 Federal Census for Wyoming. He helped to build the Corkscrew Bridge on Sylvan Pass in the early 1900’s and in 1903 he discovered Frost Cave in Cedar Mountain just west of Cody. His future wife Mary Hughes was born February 1881 in Chicago, Illinois and was the sister of Margaret Hughes, who married Fred Richard in 1909. Ned and Mary were married January 20, 1910 at the home of Fred Richard. The couple’s first son Nedward Mahlon was born around 1911. He was followed by Richard J. about 1918 and Jessie W. circa 1921. Ned passed away Nov. 19, 1957 after several months of ill health. He was considered by many to be the foremost big-game hunter of his time. Frost & Richard Camping Co. Ned Frost and Fred Richard formed the "Frost & Richard Camping Co." around 1909 and began conducting formal advertised camping trips into Yellowstone using moveable camps. They had, however, operated earlier than 1909 as “Frost & Richard.” The Wyoming Stockgrower and Farmer newspaper of Cody noted on July 11, 1907 that, “Frost & Richard started with the first park party of the season Monday. The party consisted of Chas. P. Whitney, wife and little daughter, Mr. Lesch, a railroad attorney, three young Lady teachers and three young gentlemen, all of Chicago, and Mrs. Frank Thompson of Cody.” Several articles in the Wyoming Stockgrower & Farmer newspaper for July 1905 also noted several small tours led into the park by Frost and Elmo Webster. These informal tours no doubt extended back several years and probably utilized the Sunlight Basin route through Cooke City and the northwest entrance prior to the opening of the Sylvan Pass road in 1903. The size of the parties gradually increased and in June 1910, the Park County Enterprise (WY) reported that the Frost & Richard Camping Co. was guiding a party of around 30 tourists through Yellowstone. Wyoming Stockgrower and Farmer, 19Jul1905. In 1910 the men had a 20-page promotional booklet printed up by South Publishing Press to advertise their services. It was entitled, “Over the Cody Trail to Yellowstone: Seeing nature’s Wonderland by Camp in Parties of Two or More. [Not shown] The following year the McGuire Printing Co. published a 16-page booklet more simply titled, “Cody Road Through Yellowstone Park.” [Left - 1915 Edition} This small tome is not to be confused with a Burlington, Chicago & Quincy RR publication titled “The Cody Road to Yellowstone” that was in publication by 1907, and continued through 1916. [Right] The Frost & Richard Camping Co. is first mentioned in that brochure in 1909. Camping Tours Over the Cody Road (1909) The most popular way of making the trip over the Cody Road and through Yellowstone Park is in a camping party from Cody back to Cody, occupying 16 or 18 days. The Yellowstone Park Camping and Transportation Co. (Aron Holm, Proprietor) and Frost & Richard have for many years made a specialty of outfitting and conducting such parties, and the many people who have made the tour under their auspices have been uniformly well pleased with the arrangements. The names of such people we will be glad to furnish to anyone contemplating the trip. The Company and Frost & Richard both have first-class outfits and handle their own parties and in an entirely satisfactory manner. Transportation is provided in covered surreys or waggonettes built with extra good springs specially for this mountain service and very comfortable; a good saddle horse is provided for those who wish to make the trip on horseback, for $1 per day extra—should any such become tired, they may of course have a seat in the surrey. The tents are tepees, each accommodating two persons, and the best that money can buy; they are furnished with canvas floors, ostermoor mattresses, woolen blankets and warm, heavy comforters; a private toilet tent for ladies is set up at each camp. The meals are the best that the market affords in canned goods, smoked meats, fresh vegetables and trout, all prepare by women cooks in a covered cook-wagon. Many ladies make the camping tour and enjoy it thoroughly; children as young as seven or eight years have made the trip, some even going horseback as there is always a man in the party to teach the inexperienced to ride and who accompanies the children and inexperienced riders of the party at all times. [The Cody Road to Yellowstone Park – 1909 (Burlington, Chicago & Quincy RR, shown above right] By 1910, the company advertised 12, 16, and 28-day camping trips, and used tepee-style sleeping tents nine feet square with canvas bottoms. The tents had beds that were provided with mattresses and blankets and accommodated two persons, but private tents could be had for an extra charge. Trips were conducted in 3-seated mountain surreys seating five passengers and the driver. Mess and baggage wagons accompanied the party carrying supplies, cooking and dining tents. The dining tent was furnished with a stove, folding tables, and chairs and the dinnerware was of white granite. Toilet tents were set up at each camp and water heated for the guests’ use. The trips cost $4.00 per day with an extra $1.00 per day charge for those wishing to ride on horseback. The company also offered horseback pack trips in the park that traveled on various trails during the daytime, but spent the nights at the camps of the coaching parties. Cody Pictorial, ca1911. Click to enlarge. "The Loop Sylvan Pass Cody Road" Frost & Richard camp wagon crossing the pass, ca1912. [Lucier Photograph] "Corkscrew Road Sylvan Pass" Undated photo of Fros & Richard camp wagons. [YNP #1935] From the Park County Enterprise (WY), Jun 1, 1910: "Now all is hustle among local transportation companies in anticipation of the opening of the Turk season July 1st. The equipment is being put in readiness and parties being booked daily. The companies in the field this year are the Yellowstone Park Camping & Transportation Co., Shoshone Camping Co., Frost & Richard and Dahlem Bros. All are reliable and anyone hooking with them is assured of the finest treatment possible and the finest trip through the country. The Cody road to the Park is completed and leads through the noted Shoshone Canyon, just past the Shoshone dam and lake and up through the grand North Fork country. It's a trip worth traveling over continents to enjoy. BOOK NOW! Address any of the Companies mentioned at Cody, Wyoming." Top Left : Frost & Richard wagons atop of Mt Washburn, undated. [Courtesy Wyoming PBS] Top Right: Frost & Richard party having lunch on the road on Aug. 19, 1912, probably Sylvan Pass or Mt. Washburn. [Courtesy Wyoming PBS. " "YELLOWSTONE AND OTHER WESTERN LOCALES THROUGH A YOUNG WOMAN’S EYES" Photo album from Muriel Mann of Chicago of a western tip in 1913 Left: Frost & Richard wagons atop of Mt Washburn. Right: Frost & Richard wagons crossing the Shoshone River, somewhere between Cody and the East entrance of Yellowstone Finale for the Frost & Richard Co. After 1916 and the government-mandated consolidation of the camping companies in Yellowstone, Frost and Richard mostly parted ways and returned to their own guiding and hunting operations. Frost guided many famous hunters during his lifetime, including Saxton Pope and Art Young (Pope & Young Club) in 1920. Frost Lake, two miles NE of Pyramid Peak was named after him ca1893-95, as was Frost Cave in the mountain west of Cody. The Skytel Ranch is currently located on the site of the Frost Ranch. "Through a deal which was closed this week the Frost & Richard Co. dissolved partnership and Fred Richard takes over the ranch on Northfork and will devote his entire time to developing it along agricultural and stock raising lines. Ned Frost, the retiring member of the company plans to continue his "dude" wrangling activities, making the ranch his headquarters for the present. Poor health is the principle reason for his retirement from business and in the fall he will probably go to California to spend the winter." Northern Wyoming Herald, May 21, 1919 Map of Frost and Richards tour route through Yellowstone with campsite numbered. [1915 F&R brochure] Click to enlarge Famous Guide and Big Game Hunter Dies at Cody, Wyo. Greeley Daily Tribune, Thursday, Nov. 21, 1957 Ned Ward Frost, 77, one of the West's most famed big game hunters and guides, died Tuesday [19th]. He had been in ill health for several months. Frost, who came to the Cody area in 1903, led many big game hunting expeditions into the rugged country surrounding Yellowstone National Park and was the discoverer of Spirit Mountain Cavern, five miles west of Cody. Frost was reputedly one of the most accurate big game marksmen in the first quarter of the 20th Century and made several hunting expeditions throughout the world. Sept. 26, 1952, was set aside in Wyoming as "Ned Frost Day", to honor big game guides and hunters. Frost was found dead at mid morning when Dr. Joseph A. Gautsch went to investigate when Frost failed to keep an appointment with the physician. Funeral arrangements have not been completed. Within the past month, Frost sold his 1,885-acre ranch on the North Fork of the Shoshone River to Rep. Keith Thomson (R Wyo). Fred J. Richards Dies in Powell CODY, Wyo.—Fred J. Richards, a long time Park County resident, died in a Powell rest home early Monday at the age of 82. Mr. Richards was born in Eden, Vt., July 19, 1880 and had lived in Park County for 61 years. Two sons, Jack of Cody and Robert of Denver, survive. Billings Gazette, 28Aug1962 GRIZZLY FIGHTS GUIDES TOURISTS RESCUE THE PAIR Washington Post, Aug. 27, 1916 Ned Frost, Yellowstone park guide and noted hunter, and Edward Jones, a cook were badly injured near Lake Hotel, in Yellowstone park, in a one-sided battle with an immense grizzly bear. Frost was conducting a tourist pack train through the park, Jones being the cook. Because of park regulations the party traveled without arms. Monday night Jones discovered a male bear raiding the camp grub outfit. ​ BEAR RESENTS INTERFERENCE Bears protected in the park roam unmolested and ordinarily are not vicious. So Jones did not hesitate to attempt to drive the animal away. Resenting his interference, the bear charged, hurled him 80 feet with a blow from its paw and was mauling his back when his yells brought Frost to the scene. Unarmed, but undismayed, Frost unhesitatingly went into battle attacking the enraged beast with the first weapon he could seize, a frying pan. The bear turned upon Frost and an unequal battle with the advantage all on the side of the grizzly ensued. A sweep of the bear's claws tore Frost's leg open from the hip to the knee, but he fought on floundering away from the grizzly's lunges and belaboring her with whatever he could lay his hands on. NOISE OF BATTLE BRINGS AID Jones, almost disabled, rejoined the fray and the two men between them succeeded in confusing the bear so it wasted its efforts in attempting to maul both at the same time. The noise of the battle brought tourists running to the camp and the bear fled. Frost and Jones were taken to the hotel where an army surgeon dressed their wounds. Later they were brought to town [Cody] in a serious condition, but are expected to recover. Frost is one of the best known of the park guides.

  • Cooke City |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Cooke City Mont. - Northeast Entrance Brief History of the Early Days ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. "Cooke City, on the Red Lodge Highway to Yellowstone National Park. Insert shows Pilot and Index Peaks" [E.C. Kropp Co. postcard, #20291N] The Founding of Cooke City . . . . ​ Cooke City is located at the northeast entrance of the park in the rugged environs of the Beartooth Mountains. Due to its remote location and being surrounded by high mountain peaks and passes, the only year-round road access is from Gardiner, Montana and through the northern tier of Yellowstone Park and the beautiful Lamar Valley. Road access from Red Lodge over Beartooth Pass and Cody over Dead Indian Pass are seasonal, opening late in the spring and closing very early in the winter Mines in the West were generally located in remote and unpopulated locations. It was mining that fueled the engines of settlement and "civilization" in the West. But even by those standards, Cooke City was remote - it was over 130 miles from Cooke to the closest settlement - Bozeman, Montana. It was not until 1883 that the Northern Pacific Railroad came through Montana and drove a spur line south to the boundary of Yellowstone Park, where the small burgs of Gardiner and Cinnabar sprang up. Even then, it was still 60 miles of rough trails from Gardiner to Cooke City. The area never experienced the huge population booms that other mining town experienced. The area was relatively unknown to white men until the late 1860's when gold miners prowled through the area prospecting for the elusive bane of Midas. Bart Henderson , Adam Miller, Ed Hibbard, and James Gourley were the first known miners to discover gold in the area in 1869-70. In 1871 the first mining claims were filed on Miller and Henderson mountains. The same year, prospector and explorer John H. “Jack” Baronett (or Baronette) built the first bridge over the Yellowstone River near the junction of the Yellowstone and Lamar River (then known as the East Fork of the Yellowstone. He charged a toll for men and animals and saved many a man from a wet and potentially dangerous river crossing. Baronett's Bridge in 1871, photo by Wm. Henry Jackson One factor that negatively influenced growth and expanded mining opportunities was the fact that the area was a part of the Crow Indian Reservation. The Crow spent little time in the area and the miners were somewhat free to conduct their mining and prospecting operations. But, they could not file any legal claims to their land or prospects. This of course, led to a certain amount of claim-jumping and the miners had to be on their watch to make sure they, or a worthy representative was physically in the area to protect their claims. Map of SW Montana showing the Crow Reservation Boundaries. The dotted lines are from the 1868 treaty, The cross-hatch lines were ceded to the whites in 1882. In 1880 Jay Cooke Jr. came to the area with the idea of investing in the rich potential of some of the mines. He and his cohorts examined the prospects carefully and believed the mines would be a grand investment. However, due to the legal ambiguity of the mining and land claims, he eventually ended up backing out of the deal. However, in the meantime, the local miners were ecstatic with the prospect of having someone with deep pockets buying their claims and filling their pockets with cold cash. In anticipation of what they thought would be their financial salvation, they decided to name their town Cooke City, in honor of who they thought would be their benefactor. Even though Jay Cooke bailed out, they kept the name, hoping perhaps when the lands came into the public trust he would return. Finally in 1882 a treaty was made with the Crow and the land on which they squatted became public land, upon which they could finally file legal claims. This they did, along with making formal surveys and creating a legal townsite with lots that could be bought and sold in a normal fashion. Jay Cooke Jr., undated. 1845-1912 [Photo courtesy Find-a-Grave] “Meanwhile, in June 1880, the miners held a meeting and Trustees were elected to be in charge of having their new town surveyed and platted. The town site was to be a 1/4 mile wide, lying along Soda Butte Creek in the narrow defile between Miller and Henderson mountains on the north and Republic Mountain on the south. Corner lots initially sold for $20 with inside lots going for $10. A letter from a resident of Cooke City to the Bozeman Avant-Courier reported that there were “about 35 men and one woman in the new town of Cooke City. Every man has staked one or two lots in town . . . Two substantial log houses have been built on Main Street and work is progressing on more houses.” Miners that intended to purchase property included George Huston , Jack Baronett , P.W. Norris , Adam Miller , X. Beidler, J.W. Ponsford, James Gourley , and Bart Henderson . When the 1882 treaty was signed, the new town lots and mining claims became legal, after properly filing claims. The stage was set - businesses were established and homes built to form a permanent Montana town.” [From "Pack Trains and Pay Dirt in Yellowstone", p148-150, by Robert V. Goss, 2007] Pack Trains and Pay Dirt in Yellowstone , book written by the author. George Huston was an important founding father of Cooke City. He maintained mining operations in the nearby mountains until his death in 1886. Copies of this booklet are still available from the author. Email for details. Early Street Views of Cooke City Top Left: Street view of Cooke in 1883 looking East. The Cosmopolitan Hotel at left w/half-round false front. [YNP #1714] Top Right : View in 1887 looking West. [YNP #8217] Bottom Left : Aerial view of Cooke City ca1887. Difficult to identify buildings, but Cooke City Store may be center left. [YNP #8221] Bottom Right : Street view ca1930s. On right: Cole Drug, Mary's Cafe, and Shell gas station. Cooke City store at left. [Sanborn postcard #Y1319] Top Left: "Main Street" Gas station on right, with White House Hotel center right. [Richardson Curios postcard] ​ Top Right : Main Street view in 1939. [YNP #24176] ​ Bottom Left : Main Street view in 1939. [YNP #24176c] Early Cooke City Businesses Cooke City Store The ground on which the Cooke City Store was built was originally part of the "Cache of Ore Millsite," owned by George A. Huston , the earliest known prospector in the region. By the spring of 1886, John Savage and John Elder had purchased the site and were hauling milled lumber from the lower elevations around Cooke City to begin construction of their store. By the late 1880's Savage and Elder's was providing supplies for the community and area miners, but also had competition from Bause and French's mercantile store. By the summer of 1889, Savage and Elder had sold their store to Wm. Nichols and Hiram Chittenden for $800. On Nov. 14, 1895, the court authorized the sale of the store to Sophia Wetzstein for $600. She and her husband owned other property in Cooke City and were involved in the wholesale liquor business in Livingston. George Allison, leased the Wetzstein's Cooke City Store in 1906 for $300 a year for use as a general store and began an extensive remodeling of the building. In the spring and summer of 1907, the store was enlarged to about twice its length and a basement built under that section, and sided with decorative pressed metal. Allison operated the store for two years, but encountering financial problems sold the store In July 1908, to Nels and Elizabeth Soderholm for $3,000 with $500 as a down payment, and $500 per year for five years at 6% interest. Nels was Postmaster in Cooke for many years and with his death in 1939, his wife Elizabeth was appointed to take his place. She passed away Nov. 17, 1959. ​ Ralph and Sue Glidden purchased the store in 1979 and ran it until 2003 when they sold it to employees Troy and Beth Wilson. The Cooke City Store remains in operation and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Early views of Cooke City Store. Above : Late 1800s. Below : 1920-30s Real Photo postcard Cosmopolitan Hotel The Cosmopolitan Hotel and saloon in Cooke City was built in 1883 and opened the following year by John “Jack” P. Allen. It has been said that during the boom times, up to 150 people a night stayed at the hotel. Sometimes called the Allen Hotel, he operated the hotel until around 1937-1938. Mrs. Allen fell and broke her hip in 1937, requiring an extended hospital visit and nursing home in Livingston, cared for by Jack. It forced him to lock up the hotel. He passed away Dec. 10, 1944 at age 92, and was interred in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston, Mont. Right Top : Advertisement for the Cosmopolitan Hotel, from the Livingston Enterprise , 3Oct1885 Right Bottom: Cosmopolitan Hotel in 1923. The following is an excerpt from an interview with him from the Big Timber Pioneer, 17Jun1937. Thanks to the Cooke City Museum for posting this interview: “I am the last of the real pioneers of Cooke City,” says J.P. Allen, now in his 85th year. “I went to Cooke in 1882, soon after the country had been taken out of the Crow Indian reservation, and I have outlasted all others . . . When the Cooke stampede started in 1882 after the Indian reservation was moved, I went there and took up some claims. There was no road from Mammoth Hot Springs; only horseback trails up the Yellowstone, the Lamar and Soda Butte creek. We did have Baronette’s bridge across the Yellowstone, saving a wet crossing. At Cooke we were completely isolated, except for horseback transportation for mail and supplies. I worked out my claims that summer, and in the fall I went to Livingston and ran a restaurant. Then in 1883 I went back and built my hotel in Cooke, starting its operation in 1884. I have run the hotel ever since, except that I had it leased two years ago while Mrs. Allen and I spent a year on the Pacific coast . . . I was postmaster at Cooke during two different periods. Sometimes the mail came through from Gardiner on time, but often it was badly delayed by heavy snows. Once, for a time, the mail was carried from Columbus up the Stillwater and over the mountains to Cooke. But with plenty of groceries and lots of wood we were comfortable and happy—the little group of us who made our home in Cooke the year round." Above Left : Photos of the Cosmopolitan Hotel with inserts of Mr. & Mrs. J.P. Allen. [Livingston Enterprise , 1Jan1900] Above Right : "Allen Hotel, Cooke City, Montana." Undated real-photo postcard, perhaps ca1940s - the building to the left has been torn down. Curl House John F. Curl was born in 1853 in Pennsylvania and moved to Cooke City in 1883 to prospect for gold. He often partnered with pioneers Adam “Horn” Miller and George Huston in his various mine holdings. John married Zona Frazea, also of Cooke City, in June 1890. Together they built the Curl House that served as a combination hotel, restaurant and boardinghouse. Curl and his wife Zona sold their properties in Cooke City and moved to Gardiner around 1915 and ran the Cottage Hotel on East Main Street. The family moved after 2-3 years to Bozeman so that his children Mary Margaret (born 1898) and Thomas (born 1902) could attend college. The couple moved to Bozeman around 1918, perhaps due to health issues. John died October 1, 1924 at 71 years of age and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston. His pallbearers included W.A. Hall and Herb French. Zona Curl moved to New Haven Conn. after John’s death and passed away in Feb. 1929. Her body was shipped back to Livingston for burial. Above Right : CurL House at right. [Courtesy Cooke City Chamber of Commerce ] Left : Curl House on left, with A.O. Saloon to its right. Real Photo postcard ca1930s Right : Isabel Haynes across from the Curl House ca 1920s. [FJ Haynes photo, Mont. St. Univ. #1507-002064] Shaw's Camp & Lodge In 1919, Walter Shaw , formerly a partner of the Shaw & Powell Camping Co. in Yellowstone, established the rustic Shaw’s Camp in Cooke City in 1919. He later setup Shaw’s Goose Lake Tent Camp by Goose Lake along the trail to the famed Grasshopper Glacier near Cooke City. The trail to the glacier was twelve miles one-way and required a 10 to 12-hour round-trip on horseback. The savvy traveler could spend the night at Shaw’s Camp and be able to spend more time in the area and not be so rushed. Shaw also maintained a guide service in Cooke City with saddle and packhorses and experienced guides. The trail to the glacier was opened up in 1921 and the camps were in use at least through 1928. In 1928 the camp was honored to welcome Ernest Hemingway and his wife for a brief respite during their travels through Montana and Wyoming. They stayed in a warm cabin and were surprised at the quality of the food in so remote of an outpost. According to the Circular of General Information Regarding Yellowstone (NPS): “At Cooke City are local hotels, but the organized Glacier Service is from the Shaw Camp which maintains a good string of saddle horses, operated by competent and experienced guides. The round trip can be made in one day by hardy travelers, and occupies ten or twelve hours, the ride over good mountain trails requires between three and four hours, the distance one way being around twelve miles. It is better to use more time and to spend the night at Shaw’s Goose Lake Tent Camp. This camp brings one within a mile of the saddle summit beyond which the great glacier lies. The climb to this saddle covers about 1000 feet of elevation and for a part over rough rocks, but for the greater distance over a very fair path.” Walter died in June 1925 while crossing the Gardiner River near Gardiner. His wife Lillian continued to operate the Shaw Camp & Cabins in Cooke city until at least 1935 and perhaps later. In 1946 the Shaw Camp was taken over by Sam & Euphie Fouse, who operated the business until 1959. Around 1965, Don & Ada Ellis purchased the lodge and advertised it as the Anvil Inn. In 1974 they removed to Livingston. It is now known as the Antler’s Lodge. ​ One traveler noted that, “I spent a day or so at the Walter C. Shaw tourist camp at Cooke City. It was opened to the public July 16 and it is certainly a credit to the country. The camp is right in Cooke City and Mr. Shaw has tents and cabins to accommodate 150 people each day. There is a large dining hall and tourists can secure pack horses and saddle horses at the camp, Mr. Shaw takes his guests to the Grasshopper glacier, making the trip up one day and returning the next.” [Billings Gazette, 21Jul1921] Above Right : Ad for Shaw's Camp, with Mrs. Walter Shaw, Prop. [Billings Gazette , 16Jun1935] Above Right : Ad for Shaw's Camp, with Sam & Euphi Fouse, Prop. [Billings Gazette , 9Jul1946] Below Left : Postcard view of the log Shaw's Camp lodge. [Sanborn Souvenir Co. #Y-1040] Below Right : Shaw's Camp late 1930s-40s, with Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. buses. It was probably a mid-day stop between Red Lodge Mt. and Mammoth Hot Springs. The route traversed the recently completed Beartooth Highway. Selected Historic P ersonages of Cooke City John F. Curl was among the earliest businessmen in the mining camp of Cooke City in 1883 where he operated the Curl House hotel. He was involved in mining and in partnership with George Huston and Adam "Horn" Miller. Curl and his wife Zona sold their properties in Cooke City and moved to Gardiner around 1915 and ran the Cottage Hotel on Main Street. John died October 1, 1924 at 71 years of age and was buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Livingston. ​ Adam “Horn” Miller discovered gold in the Cooke City area with Bart Henderson and others in 1869-70, naming their mine the Shoo Fly Mine. The next few years he helped Henderson build the road from Bottler’s Ranch to Mammoth. Miller was one of the scouts under Gen. Howard during the Nez Perce War of 1877. Later on he settled down in a cabin across the Yellowstone River from Yankee Jim. He died in 1913 and an obit described him as a "man of sterling character, a man without enemies of any kind, it is said, and a citizen who always had a kind word for everyone." ​ George A Huston In 1864 George Huston conducted a party of 30-40 miners up the Yellowstone River into the Lamar and Clark’s Fork drainages. Later in the year he led another party up the Madison and Firehole rivers. In 1866 he guided a small group of miners through the west entrance of Yellowstone up the Madison River to the geyser basins and prospected around Yellowstone Lake, Hayden Valley, Mirror Plateau, and Lamar Valley. Huston was also heavily involved in the Cooke City gold mines and was one of the original Cooke City founders and townsite residents. One of his properties was known as the ‘Cache of Ore Millsite,’ part of which the Cooke City General Store was built after his death in 1886. ​ Colonel George O. Eaton Was a native of the State of Maine. During the rebellion he enlisted in the army and served in the volunteer service, and after the war was appointed a cadet at West Point at the age of twenty. He later entered the cavalry service of the regular army, and in that capacity was over the whole western country, serving as member of Gen Sheridan's staff. Having become interested in mining and in stock raising, he resigned his commission in the army and gave his attention to those interests. In 1881 he came to Montana, having made large investments at Cooke the year previous. He owns personally some of the most valuable mining property at that place; he is president of the Republic Mining Co., which includes the “Great Republic,” the “Greeley,” the “Houston” and the "New World” mines; is also president of a large placer company located in Bear gulch, a tributary of the upper Yellowstone. He has disposed of his interest in stock-raising and devotes his attention to mineral interests. Col. Eaton was elected a delegate to the first constitutional convention of Montana and served as a member of that body. [Excerpts from "History of Montana 1739-1885", Michael L. Leeson, 1885] ​ Nels E. Soderholm Nels Nels and Elizabeth Soderholm purchased the Cooke City Store in July 1908 for $3,000 with $500 as a down payment, and $500 per year for five years. Nels became Postmaster in Cooke in January 1909, and held that position for many years. With his death in 1939, his wife Elizabeth was appointed to take his place. She passed away Nov. 17, 1959. His obit read, “Death came yesterday morning to Nels E. Soderholm, for the past 39 years a resident of Cooke City, in a Butte hospital He was born in Parke. Sweden, but had lived in the United States for the past 70 years. He resided in Kansas before moving to Cooke City, where he owned a mercantile store. Surviving are his widow, Mrs. Elizabeth Soderholm; a son-to-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. William Bross, and two grandchildren. The body will be forwarded today from the Richards funeral home to Livingston for services and burial.” [The Montana Standard , Butte, 13Jan1939, p5] Beartooth Highway Until the mid-1930’s, Cooke City was mostly at the end of the road, blockaded by the vast Beartooth Mountains. A crude road existed from Cooke City to Cody via Sunlight Basin and over Dead Indian Pass. The road was narrow, steep and winding and hazardous in inclement weather. That situation changed when plans were made in 1933 to construct a 70-mile highway from Red Lodge, over the almost 11,000’ high Beartooth Pass and into Cooke City. With a railroad spur running from Billings to Red Lodge, visitors could enter or leave the Park via Cooke City allowing the area to become another Gateway to Yellowstone. Journalist Charles Kuralt once called it, “the most scenic drive in America.” Cooke city ceased to be the terminus of a dead-end road anymore (except in winter), and people could comfortably enjoy a drive over one of the most breath-taking roads in the country. The highway officially opened to the public June 14, 1936. The Yellowstone Park Co . ran White Motor Co. buses from Red Lodge over the pass to Yellowstone for many years. The road usually closes for the winter sometime in October and reopens in May, depending on weather conditions. It may close periodically, as snowstorms in that high elevation can occur during any month of the year. Above Left : Real-Photo postcard of a portion of the Beartooth Highway that went Red Lodge, over Beartooth Pas at an elevation of almost 11,000 feet, down to Cooke City. Above Right : "On the Red Lodge Highroad to Yellowstone National Park in June. Epilog In the 1880s, the miners and Montana businessmen fought Congress and Yellowstone Park advocates over the creation of a railroad line that would extend from Cinnabar through park lands and into Cooke City. This would be the only way the miners could really profitably exploit the riches of the area. Hauling ores from Cooke to Cinnabar by wagon or mule train was slow and costly, eating up most of any potential profits. Mining and ore processing continued in the hopes that the railroad would save their town and mines. Park proponents eventually beat down the railroad plan in the early 1890's, squashing the miner's hopes for riches. Mining continued on and off for the next century, with various new generations of investors hoping to make a buck off the mineral wealth. Attempts in the 1980-90's to begin a new round of metals mining generated intense opposition due to environmental factors and the New World Mining district plans were thwarted in 1996 by President Clinton. ​ Realizing that mining was no longer their ticket to fame, local businessmen promoted other avenues of prosperity to enhance their economy. These included, snowmobiling, hunting, hiking, 4-wheeling and tourism, and have helped to keep the local economy alive. The introduction of wolves to the northern tier of Yellowstone, although opposed by many, has added another dimension to the economic community as thousands of wolf-watchers annually trek to the Lamar Valley to scan the valleys and hills for the elusive canine, bringing extra dollars into the Cooke community. ​ As the old saying goes, “Gold is where you find it.” These days finding gold is perhaps more easily mined from the pockets and billfolds of the Greater Yellowstone area visitors, than it is from the earth below them. I will not attempt to explore the vast and complicated history of the Cooke mining district, as it is beyond the scope of this article. However, a link to the Montana Dept. Environmental Quality website will provide much of the basic information. For additional detailed material on the history of the Cooke City area, please viisit the Cooke City Museum website.

  • Hotels Introduction |

    Yellowstone Hotels Introduction ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the author. The earliest hotels in the park were rather crude facilities with only the most basic amenities and services. James McCartney built the first hotel (loosely speaking) at Mammoth, located at the mouth of Clematis Creek. It consisted of two log cabins in 1871, and by 1873 another cabin, stables, and outbuildings were constructed. Visitors used their own bedding and generally slept on the floor. Most of the people visiting at this time were hunters, poachers, miners, curiosity-seekers, or invalids coming to reap the supposed health benefits of the hot springs around Mammoth. Travel to this part of the country was difficult at best, and dangerous at worst, as evidenced by the Nez Perce forays through the Park in 1877. That summer Indians killed Richard Dietrich , one of a party of Helena tourists, while he was standing in the doorway of McCartney`s cabin. Other visitors included "official" exploration parties carried out by various governmental and military agencies for exploration purposes and surveys for potential roads. The railroads also conducted surveys in the park in hopes of laying track to various features, and to the mines in Cooke City. Fortunately these plans never materialized, despite tremendous pressures brought upon the government by the miners, railroad and local citizens hoping to make a profit. The second hotel to be built was by George Marshall near the mouth of Nez Perce Creek in 1880. A crude road had been built from Virginia City through the west entrance to the Lower Geyser Basin in 1873, and a road was cut south from Mammoth by Supt. Norris in 1878. With these primitive accesses, Marshall was able to serve the early tourists to the Upper and Lower Geyser basins. He sold out to G.G. Henderson and Henry Klamer in 1885 and the hotel was renamed the 'Firehole Hotel.` A pair of utilitarian cottages were built next to the hotel to increase capacity. The Yellowstone Park Association assumed control in 1886 and operated it until 1891 when the Fountain Hotel opened up nearby and the old hotel was no longer needed. The year 1883 was a momentous one. The Northern Pacific Railroad had recently completed its transcontinental railway and needed to create a demand for its services. With Yellowstone only 50 miles from their tracks at Livingston, Montana, and the hope for big profits in the tourist trade, the Northern Pacific extended their tracks to Cinnabar , three miles north of Gardiner . The "Park Branch Line" would for this first time, enable wealthy tourists to 'ride the rails` and visit Wonderland. This type of tourist was accustomed to the fancy resorts in the east and Europe and expected the best in accommodations. The existing park hotels were totally inadequate to provide the needs of this newer and more demanding class of tourist. In order to attract these new, affluent visitors, the Yellowstone Park Improvement Co. (YPIC) was formed to provide for a new system of hotels. Carroll T. Hobart , a division superintendent for NPRR, Henry Douglas, and investor Rufus Hatch were the creators of this new company. Their first order of business was construction of a hotel at Mammoth, eight miles from the railroad terminus. Actual construction of the National Hotel started in the fall of 1882, with a partial opening of 141 rooms on August 1, 1883. Visitors were brought from the new railhead at Cinnabar to Mammoth in Wakefield & Hoffman stagecoaches. Completion of the building did not occur until 1886, due in part to a 5-month carpenter`s strike in 1884. Beginning in 1883, YPIC also established tent hotels at Canyon , Old Faithful and Norris to serve the tourist until grander facilities could be built. Financial problems caused YPIC to go bankrupt in 1885, and the Yellowstone Park Association (YPA) was established the following year. Charles Gibson, Nelson Thrall, and John Bullitt formed this new company with financial backing from the Northern Pacific RR. They bought out the National Hotel, and assumed control over the Firehole Hotel and other YPIC properties. Join with me and continue to explore the history of the old hotels and lodges in Yellowstone National Park in these richly illustrated web pages . . . . .

  • Northern Pacific RR |

    Yellowstone's Supporting Railroads ​ Northern Pacific RR Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. The Northern Pacific Railroad - Yellowstone's First Rail Access A Pictorial History of the Early Days Jay Cooke ​ Jay Cooke, born in 1821, was an American financier, whose firm raised more than $1 billion in loans for the federal government during the American Civil War. After the war Cooke undertook to raise $100 million for the projected route of the Northern Pacific Railroad from Duluth, Minnesota, to Tacoma, Washington. Cooke became head of the Northern Pacific RR in 1868 and served until 1873. However, the financial burden was too great, and the firm went bankrupt, thus precipitating the panic of 1873, which brought rail building to a standstill until 1879. Cooke's firm never reopened, but Cooke, through mining investments, repaid his creditors and accumulated another fortune within seven years. Frederick Billings took control of NPRR in 1879 and rail building began again at a rapid rate. He was suceeded in 1881 by Henry Villard who oversaw the completion of the rail line in August of 1883. A Last Spike Ceremony was held at Gold Creek, Montana, 59 west of Helena, on September 8. Prior to the 1870 Washburn Expedition, Cooke hired Nathaniel Langford as a sort of publicity agent to help spread the word of the wonders of the western lands that the railroad would be passing through. Cooke City was named after Jay Cooke by the miners in that area in an attempt to attract a rail line to the gold mines there. The Northern Pacific Railroad . . . The NPRR was formed in 1864 when the company was awarded the rights to build a rail line from Lake Superior to Puget Sound. As incentive, Congress granted them about 10 million acres of land along the proposed route. Construction began in 1870 but progress was halted for six years when the Panic of 1873 caused most all rail construction in the US to come to a standstill. The line finally reached Livingston Montana in the fall of 1882 and was completed across Montana to the West Coast in early fall of 1883. That year the Park Branch Line was built from Livingston to Cinnabar and became the first rail access to the park on September 1. Cinnabar was about 3 miles north of Gardiner. A land dispute between the railroad and 'Buckskin Jim' Cutler prevented the rail line from coming all the way into Gardiner. The railroad was the owner or part owner of the hotels in the park until 1907 when H.W. Child acquired all the remaining shares. Beginning in 1883 the railroad attempted to build a line along the northern end of the park to the gold mines of Cooke City. The controversy over the proposal raged on for over 10 years before the railroad finally backed off on the plan. Cinnabar, Mont. Station. Both photos courtesy Burton Holmes Travelogues, 1905 The company was reorganized in 1896 and became known as the Northern Pacific Railway (NPRy). They continued to provide loans and financial backing for the construction and operation of the hotels and transportation fleet in Yellowstone into the mid-1900’s. In June 1902, the company extended their Yellowstone Park Line to Gardiner, with the first passenger train arriving in early July to a temporary depot and loading platform. A rustic log depot was erected in Gardiner at the end of Northern Pacific’s ‘Yellowstone Park Line' in 1903. Robert Reamer, architect of the Old Faithful Inn, designed the building and the firm of Deeks & Deeks was awarded the $20,000 construction contract on April 27, 1903. The rail line was extended into Gardiner and opened June 20, 1902. A temporary depot was used until the new edifice was completed. Visitors exiting the building looked upon a pond and the new stone Arch built at the entrance to the park that same year. ​ The Gardiner Wonderland newspaper commented on July 3rd that, “For the first time the regular passenger train on the Park branch ran into Gardiner and unloaded its passengers at the temporary depot and platform erected in the western part of town. Many of our citizens went down to greet the train and witness the fruition of their long deferred hopes, It may be said now that Gardiner is the terminus.” The Roosevelt Arch Located at the north entrance to Yellowstone. It was built near the Gardiner Depot in 1903. The Arch was constructed out of native stone from a design by architect Robert Reamer. Theodore Roosevelt dedicated it on April 24, 1903 and by September visitors were able to drive through the Arch via stagecoach to enter the park. A stone gatehouse was built near the Arch in 1921 and used as a check-in station until it was razed in 1966. The Arch is also known as the North Entrance Arch. ​ Top Left: Construction of Roosevelt Arch 1902. YNP #16174 Top Right: Roosevelt Arch, 1904. YNP #29448 Gardiner Depot A temporary depot was used until the new edifice was completed in 1903. The rustic log depot building erected at the terminus of Northern Pacific’s ‘Yellowstone Park Line' was designed by Robert Reamer, architect of the Old Faithful Inn. The firm of Deeks & Deeks was awarded the $20,000 construction contract. Upon completion, visitors exiting the new depot could gaze upon a pond and the new stone Arch built at the entrance of Yellowstone Park. Left Top: Construction of the depot in 1902. YNP #16174 Left Bottom: Depot & Arch, Haynes Sepia Post Card, ca1905 Right Bottom: Stages in front of depot. Real-Photo post card, undated. Goss Collecction An excerpt from a 1904 edition of the Railroad Gazette boasting about the new NPRR Depot: ​ "The station at Gardiner was designed to harmonize with the other structures [Arch, etc]. It is essentially rustic and is built of native materials. The foundations and lower parts of the walls are rough boulders. The walls above, including the platform shelters are made of unbarked logs. The roof trusses, gables and ceilings are finished with similar material. The interior contains a large waiting room with fireplace, ticket office, express office, baggage room and toilet rooms. The rustic effect is also carried out in the interior, the doors, windows, settees, chandeliers, hardware, etc., all being in keeping with the general design. The projecting ends of logs are smoothed and polished, and where lumber is used for finishing it is of high grade and finely polished. Wrought nails, bearing on their heads the trade-mark of the company, are used wherever they will show. The fireplace at the end of the waiting room is broad and forms a pleasing feature of the interior." The Northern Pacific RR adopted the Monad Logo 1893. It was patterned after the Chinese Yin-Yang symbol. The two comma shaped halves represent the dual powers of the universe – two principles called Yang and Yin. Their primitive meanings were: Yang, light; Yin, darkness. Philosophically, they stood for the positive and the negative. The bottom of the logo reads "Yellowstone Park Line". The company's headquarters were in St. Paul, Minnesota. The Wonderland of the World ​ The Northern Pacific Railroad began publishing "The Wonderland of the World" guidebook of Yellowstone in 1884 in order to advertise their services. It featured imaginative colored images on the covers. The brochures were supplemented with photos by F.Jay Haynes, Official Photographer of the Northern Pacific RR. It published yearly until 1906 with articles on Yellowstone and other points of interest along the NPRR’s route through the Northwest. ​ Covers from the 1885 and 1897 issues of Wonderland. The Northwest Improvement Company ​ The Northern Pacific Railway sold their interest in the hotels in Yellowstone to their subsidiary, the Northwest Improvement Co. in 1898, making that company the sole owner of the Yellowstone Park Association stock. NWIC continued to be the front company for the NPRy’s financing of H.W. Child’s enterprises in the park for many years. In 1917 financial backing was done jointly with the NPRy, Union Pacific, and Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroads NWIC was also responsible for the opening of the travertine quarries near Gardiner in the 1930’s. The last railroad loan was obtained in 1937 and was paid off by 1955. Yellowstone Comet ​ A Depression-era train between Chicago and Seattle, the Yellowstone Comet was a joint operation of the Northern Pacific and Burlington railroads. Splitting at Billings, Montana, the train offered access to the park via either Gardiner or Cody, Top Left: Yellowstone Park ad from the Wonderland brochure in 1900. ​ Top Right: Poster art from the Northern Pacific's "Yellowstone Park Line." ​ Bottom Left: Brass fob for the Yellowstone Park Line. ​ Bottom Right: Conductor's Badge worn on the Yellowstone Park Line.

  • Monida & Beaver Canyon |

    Gateways to Wonderland ​ Monida & Beaver Canyon ​ ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. Geyser Bob Presents: Beaver Canyon and Monida: Early Stage Access Through the Western Entrance of Yellowstone Beaver Canyon, Idaho The discovery of gold on Grasshopper Creek in the mountains of western Montana in 1862 created the need for a transportation avenue to the mines. The Salt Lake Valley presented the best opportunity as a supply center, and a Montana road north to the mines through Beaver Canyon soon developed. Provisions first reached the mines by pack train, but that method eventually proved inadequate and as the region grew a freighting industry evolved. Toll roads and bridges were built to accommodate the heavy wagons. The Utah and Northern Railway reached the area on September 1, 1879. Until the railway reached the Montana border on March 9, 1880, Beaver Canyon acted as the terminus and business flourished. Stages, freighters, and a large crew of railway workers turned the area into a temporary boomtown. Sawmills sprang up in the area to provide lumber for buildings and ties for the rail tracks. An article in the Blackfoot Register in the summer of 1880 described the route: "Leaving Red Rock at 1 p.m., on our return, a ride of two hours brought us to the foot of Beaver Canyon, and to the station of the same name. The scenery down this canyon, a distance of about ten miles, is grand. The tall pine trees, the huge rocks rising on either side, with first on one side and then on the other, a sparkling stream of water, wending its way down over the rocks and falls, make it picturesque and beautiful." The town was originally named Beaver Canon, but was changed to Beaver Canyon in 1884. Click on maps to enlarge Top Map: 1885 map showing the Union Pacific and Utah-Northern routes in Utah, Idaho and Montana Above Map: Modern map showing routes to the west entrance of Yellowstone in the 1880s-90s. the green is the Monida route and red the Beaver Canyon route. Excerpt From Camping Out in the Yellowstone - 1882 By Mary Bradshaw Richards "At noon of the 31st [July 1882] we reached Beaver Canyon, where our camp life commenced. The village consists of a dozen log houses, two saloons and a big water tank. Its citizens are bound to other parts of the world by railroad and a telegraph office. Here are located some half a dozen of the Bassett brothers, fine enterprising fellows of the true pioneer stamp, who undertake to prepare and carry you in and through the National park in good form . . . Our hotel at Beaver Canyon was a little log house, who door opened almost into the village well . . . We slept under the logs one night, leaving at noon August first for the park, whose western boundary is one hundred miles distant from Beaver Canyon." Bassett Brothers ​ The Bassett Brothers operated a saloon and made preparations to start a line of spring wagons to Yellowstone National Park. They began this operation in the spring of 1881 and charged $25.00 for the round trip. Tourist travel to Yellowstone and the good railway connections greatly bolstered the local economy. A Bassett Brothers’ newspaper ad in the Salt Lake Tribune of July 30, 1882 proclaimed the Beaver Canyon route as “The Shortest and Best Route from the Railroad to the Eden of America.” A newspaper article from the Salt Lake Tribune in August of 1881 noted that, “Travelers can take the comfortable cars of the Utah & Northern in Ogden for Beaver Canyon, where connection can be made with Bassett Bros. through line to the Yellowstone. This line is composed of covered light spring wagons with the best of teams, and passes over one of the best roads in the country. This route is 150 miles shorter than by way of Virginia [Virginia City, Mt.] and the fare is $28 less than by that place. Experienced drivers are furnished and passengers are put through in quick time.” Ad for Basset Bros. Beaver Canyon to Yellowstone camping tour. Salt Lake Daily Tribune, July 30, 1882 "Beaver Was Once A Lively Center" By William Stibal Pettite Excerpts from The Post-Register , Idaho Falls, March 18, 1970 "Beaver was once dominated in a business sense by the Bassett family. The Bassett Brothers operated a noted stage line, being headquarters for trips to Yellowstone and Fire Hole Basin, plus a branch line to Camas. They had a large hotel and saloon as well. . . . Frank Bassett, agent for the Utah and Northern Railroad, had the post office. Jules Bassett [C.J. Bassett], a polital associate of Senator Dubois, later formed the Idaho Sheep and Land Co. with Martin Patrie at Market Lake [now Roberts]. In the 1880's he served in the legislature from what was then Oneida County and later replaced partner Patrie as Idaho's Secretery of State. Brother C.H. Bassett noted that in 1880 a special - offer could be had from Bassett Brothers Stage. This special was a round trip ticket to Yellowstone for only $25.00 in gold. C.H. later lived in Pocatello and served as the first Bannock County Assessor Due to competition in Yellowstone with the new hotel company, the Bassett Bros. decided to get out of the camping business in 1886 and seeing the hotel crowd as more lucrative, concentrated their efforts on stage transportation of tourists to the various park hotels. In the early 1890’s the company moved the head of their operations from Beaver to Monida and in 1895 began operating as the Union Pacific Stage Lines with C.J. Bassett as proprietor. They were the only transportation company to operate through the west entrance from 1881 until 1898, when they were refused a permit to operate in the park. A new company, the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Company, was granted the sole concession to transport visitors through the west entrance into Yellowstone. Excerpt From: A Ride Through Wonderland By Georgina M. Synge ​ "Beaver Canyon is the funniest little place. As we had to wait there three days to collect our outfit (and scour the country for a side-saddle, an article which we foolishly omitted to bring), we had plenty of time for observations. It stands between two low ridges of hills which form the entrance to the canyon, and consists of several rows of little wooden houses and a few rather larger ones "dumped" here and there on its brown treeless level. Enormous signboards announced that a large percentage of these mansions were "restaurants" and "beer saloons." The hotel is decidedly primitive, [probably Bassett's] and as the air does not seem to suit either cows or hens, the luxuries produced by these useful species come from a distance, and are rather scarce. The railway runs through the middle of town, and, as there is no road (and only one or two trains in the day), forms the fashionable resort of the inhabitants on Sundays and fine evenings. One great drawback to enjoying this, however, is that one's eyes have to be more or less glued to one's footsteps, as the sleepers are raised rather high above the ground, and a glance upwards may land one upon one's nose. . . We got all our outfit together at last, Messrs. Bassett Bros., who run the stages through the Park Reservation, supplying us at about seventeen dollars per day. This included the hire and forage of the horses, a guide, a lad to drive the wagons, a tent, and cooking utensils, etc." [Sampson Low, Marston & Company , 1892] Top: 1891 letterhead for the Beaver Canyon Saloon & Restaurant. Above: Utah & Northern train crossing the High Bridge enroute to Beaver Canyon. Below: Sign at site of Beaver Canyon, 2008 by author. (Click to expand) Clark County town, Once rail and timber center, recalls memories By William Stibal Pettite Excerpts from The Post Register newspaper, Idaho Falls, Feb. 11, 1976 "Only foundation rubble and an old graveyard mark the location of the boomtown of Beaver, once a large lumber and railroad center of 90 years ago. The many lumber firms in that region supplied a vast majority of the wood used for construction in Idaho Falls . . . When the Utah and Northern Railroad came through in the fall of 1879, the small center began to grow. Five large lumber firms were in operation, employing several hundred men. The railroad also used the center as a train center, as Beaver Canyon was a treacherous pass . . . Some of the pioneer Beaver Canyon families included David Stoddard, Peter Lawson, Joe Davidson, Abraham Redford, Sam Lee, Peter Barney, Charles and Jules Bassett, and ranchers Sam Hancock, W.H. Murray, and P.J. Owen . . . At one time the many Davidson graves at the large Beaver cemetery were the only ones cared for. Now even they are forgotten and the grounds are in sagebrush, with the many old fences in decay." Beaver Canyon closes its doors . . . ​ After 1887 the town began to decline. The harsh weather and winters at Beaver Canyon made life untenable and the residents and businessmen felt Spencer would be a more optimal location. The area was somewhat lower in elevation with less snow and was wide enough to allow more land for expansion of the railroad facilities and other businesses. The town was moved in 1897, six miles south to a new town of Spencer, named after Hyrum H. Spencer, a businessman in Beaver. Many of the buildings were moved south on flat cars, including the depot after the railroad eliminated Beaver Canyon as a stop. The Beaver post office closed in 1898. Monida, Montana ​ Monida was the first point in Montana that the Utah and Northern RR, a branch of the Union Pacific RR, reached around 1880. The line, originating at Brigham City, Utah was planned to extend north to Butte and the mines in Montana. Construction began in 1871 and by 1874 had only reached Franklin, Idaho. The "Panic of 1873" caused all rail construction in the United States to halt and progress on the line was not resumed until 1878. The narrow gauge line reached Monida in 1880 and was completed to Butte in December of 1881. The narrow gauge track was converted to standard gauge between 1887 - 1890. A series of mergers resulted in the railroad becoming known as the Oregon Short Line in 1897. Top Right: Logo of "The Monida Line" advertising travel to Yellowstone from Monida. 1902 Oregon Short Line brochure, author collection. Bottom Right: Lantern slide of the Monida Depot, undated. Bottom Left: Monida townsite ca1898. the Summit Hotel is prominent in the center. [F.J. Haynes photo, Montana Historical Society] Monida was reportedly known as Spring Hill in its early stagecoach days, but the name Monida was in use at least by 1881. Mr. B.H. Paul purchased a small general store in the town and in early 1898 opened the Summit Hotel to serve rail and stage travelers. the Butte Miner noted April 1902, that Paul owned the whole town, which consisted of a rail station, section house, general store, saloon and a hotel. In May 1903, it was announced that Paul was constructing a large addition to the hotel and refurbishing the old section. Tragically, a fire in October of 1905 destroyed the Summit hotel and other nearby buildings. The hotel was later rebuilt of logs, opening by January of 1906. Another file destroyed the railroad depot in May of 1906. Right: View of the RR depot, showing the main street of Monida. The hotel is to the right. Undated photo, ca1903 Hotel Opening ---------- The Summit Hotel at Monida Opened Friday Night - A Fine Time The opening of the Summit Hotel at Monida Friday night was a complete success, and the proprietors, Messrs. Burnside & Paul, certainly should feel gratified by the numerous expressions by their guests of the pleasure and satisfaction they experienced. The Summit Hotel is built on n rise of ground east of the railroad track, at Monida station, and is intended principally for the entertainment of tourists, who take the Monida and Yellowstone stage line from that point to the National Park. The hotel is a large two-story frame building containing 22 rooms. It has large and airy office, parlor, dining room and kitchen and store rooms on the first floor, and sleeping rooms on the second floor. All the appointments are first-class and an excellent table is set. Mrs. Burnside looks after the comfort of the guests with close attention, and no one is allowed to leave the place dissatisfied. Over 130 guests assembled at the opening of the new hotel. There were people from Lima, Redrock, Dillon, Beaver Canyon and the surrounding country. By far the larger number were from Lima, 51 tickets being sold at that station. Soon after the arrival of the train the ball opened and dancing was kept up almost continuously until 6 o’clock next morning. Soon after midnight a fine supper was served, all the delicacies of the season being found on the table. After breakfast the hosts took all who cared to go out for a drive in the fine new 12-passenger canopy-top Concord coaches. This was a feature of the occasion that was greatly appreciated by those accepting the invitation. [Dillon Tribune, 29Jan1898] Right Top: The Summit Hotel, probably ca1898. Right Bottom: The Summit Hotel between 1903-1905. Note the addition on the right and to the rear. Disastrous Fire at Monida - Oct 1905 ​ A most disastrous fire occurred last Thursday at Monida when the Summit hotel, the hotel annex and a cottage, all the property of B. H. Paul, were burned to the ground and practically a total loss sustained. The tire must have been burning some time before it was discovered and the upper part of the inside of the hotel proper was all in flames before it was noticed . . . All three of the buildings were razed to the ground and the only things saved were a few of the household goods from the cottage. [4Oct1905 Dillon Examiner] A New Hotel in 1912 “One of the largest business buildings constructed In the county thls year is the mammoth hotel at Monida, built by the genial J. J. Smith, the pioneer hotel man of that city. The hotel is constructed of red brick and, situated on the very summit of the continental divide, it commands a wonderful outlook. The name, "The Summit,’* is most appropriate. Although Monlda cannot boast of electric lights, city water or a central heating plant, this hotel has all of them, and they are superior in many ways to similar systems In most large cities.” [15Dec1912, Anaconda Standard] Monida is located on the crest of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of around 7,000 feet. The town became a large railhead for the shipment of sheep and livestock raised in the vast Centennial Valley. As many as 48,000 head of cattle and 100,000 head of sheep were shipped out annually. The town reached a population of 75-100 people at its prime. The departure of the M-Y stage line traffic in 1908 and the increased use of large truck and trailers for livestock shipping caused the rail traffic to decline, along with the population. A few buildings still exist in the town, including at least one of the original Monida-Yellowstone stage barns. Monida & Yellowstone Stage Company ​ Monida became significant in Yellowstone's history in 1898 when the Monida and Yellowstone Stage Co. was organized by F.J. Haynes and W. W. Humphrey and began stage service through the west entrance of Yellowstone. The route to the park skirted along the edge of the beautiful Centennial Valley, past Red Rock lakes, through Alaska Basin, over the divide to Henrys Lake and over Targhee Pass to the west entrance. Stagecoach travelers would stay at the Grayling Inn, as known as Dwelles, for the first night, prior to entering the park. (See map at top of page) The company conducted tours of the park from Monida until the summer of 1908, when the Oregon Short Line completed a branch line from Idaho Falls to the west entrance of the park. The company moved its operation to Riverside, a location a few miles inside of the west entrance f Yellowstone. A small town soon sprung up at the end of the rail line and west entrance of the park. The town was originally known as Riverside, but changed to Yellowstone in 1909. It did not become West Yellowstone until 1920. ​ For additional information, check out my Monida & Yellowstone web page. Top Left: One of the barns used by the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co., 1957. YNP #33409 ​ Top Right: Same barn about 50 years later. Photo by author 2008 ​ Left: Logo of the Monida & Yellowstone Stage Co. The name later changed in 1913 to Yellowstone & Western Stage Co.

  • Wylie Camping Company |

    Camping in the Yellowstone Wylie Permanent Camping Co. ​ Copyright 2020 by Robert V. Goss. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or utilized in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by an information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from th e author. William Wallace Wylie The Wylie Camping Company, with its humble beginnings in 1883, arose to become the premier camping experience in Yellowstone National Park until 1917. Originated by William Wallace Wylie, the operation, with its goal of providing for a safe, comfortable, and enjoyable camping experience, became the standard to emulate by other camps companies in Yellowstone and other western national parks. Sold by Wylie to AW Miles and HW Child in 1905 the company continued to expand and improve the Wylie Way operations through 1916. After that time a mandated consolidation of the camping, hotel, and transportation companies by the National Park Service forced the merger of the Wylie and Shaw & Powell companies into a new organization that became known as the Yellowstone Park Camping Company. Through a succession of ownership and management changes the new company was eventually absorbed into the Yellowstone Park Company in 1936. (See my Yellowstone Park Camps Co . page) Mary Ann (Wilson) & Wm. W. Wylie [Photos courtesy Museum of the Rockies Online Archive, Bozeman, MT] William Wylie, a native of Ohio and later a school principal and superintendent in Iowa, moved to Bozeman Montana in 1878 to accept a position as school superintendent. His wife Mary and their children joined him the following year. In 1880 he conducted his first commercial camping tour of Yellowstone with paid visitors. He undertook two tours that summer and continued to explore and tour the park the next several summers. Beginnings of the Camping Tours In 1883 Wylie embarked on 10-day park tours using moveable camps, spending the night in various locations as he and his guests explored the multitude of scenic wonders. He named his business the Wylie Camping Company in 1893 and received permission from the Interior Dept. to establish semi-permanent camps at various locations along the grand loop. However, he was only allowed annual permits, with no guarantees of permissions for the following seasons. Although his business generally increased in size every year, it was difficult to obtain investment funds for improvements without any security of future operating ability. Finally after several years of political maneuverings, Wylie managed to secure a longer-term lease for his operation and permission to establish permanent camps in 1896. Left: In 1881 WW Wylie and Henry Bird Calfee began lecture tours promoting the wonders of Yellowstone with Oxy-Hydrogen lighted photographic slides. [St. Paul Daily Globe, 22Dec1881] Right: Wylie published his guidebook entitled, "The Yellowstone National Park, or the Great American Wonderland" in 1882. [Bozeman Avant-Courier, 31Aug1883] : Click to enlarge The Permanent Camps Take Shape By 1898 Wylie had set up permanent camps at Apollinaris Springs (Willow Park), which was moved to Swan Lake Flats in 1906, Upper Geyser Basin (near Daisy Geyser), Yellowstone Lake Outlet (current Lake Lodge site), and Canyon (on Cascade Creek). Lunch stations were established at Gibbon Falls and West Thumb. In 1908 a camp was established at Riverside, just inside of the west entrance, and in 1912 a camp was erected at the east entrance of Yellowstone. Wylie’s camping system became popular with the traveling public as it was a less expensive way for tourists to be able to tour the park, and without the necessity of having to 'dress up,’ as was considered proper in the hotels. A 7-day Wylie tour cost only $35.00 while the hotels charged $50 for a 6-day tour at the hotels. The camps featured a nightly campfire with songs and entertainment that helped provide a sense of camaraderie among the guests. Of course Wylie was not alone in the camping business – there was competition aplenty: David A. Curry (of later Yosemite fame) conducted camp tours out of covered wagons from 1892-98; Shaw & Powell began a moveable camps operation in 1898; Frost & Richard operated from Cody WY in the early 1900s; Tex Holm ran out of Cody in 1906; Marshall Brothers camps from Livingston MT; Lycan Camping Co . from Gardiner, along with many other small operators. But Wylie and Shaw & Powell became the main competition in the camping world of Yellowstone. In 1901 Wylie accommodated 1371 guests during the season. McMaster Camping Car According to the Livingston Enterprise in early July 1892, ​ “A camping car was among freight destined for the Park Tuesday, it having arrived in this city from the factory at Lockport, Illinois, Monday, consigned to Prof. W. W. Wiley [Wylie] of Bozeman. It is intended for the comfort of tourists who will be taken through the Park under direction of the Wiley excursion agency. As its name implies it is fitted up with sleeping apartments and will prove much more comfortable in disagreeable weather than the tents heretofore used by the company for tourists.” It was said to be fitted out with all the necessary implements for dining and sleeping. A ruckus later that summer over road safety concerns caused Wylie to be escorted out f the park for a time, and the temporary pause in the continuation of the vehicles through the park. It was an expensive experiment that ultimately failed. The roads were narrow, and the large wagon interfered with other stage traffic. Ahead of it time, at least in Yellowstone, this horse-drawn RV seemed to be used only for one season. Left: "Above photo represents a McMaster Camping Car in use. A line of these Cars will be placed in Yellowstone National Park, beginning with season of 1892, for Tourists desiring to spend more time than is given regular coupon tickets, with all the charms of a camping trip without its usual hardships. The cars are handsomely finished and furnished, and afford eating and sleeping accomodations for four passengers inside." [YNP #127596] Right: Drawing of a McMaster Camping car from a patent application, May 28, 1889. ​ Wylie Hotel - Gardiner In 1897 WW Wylie leased the Park Hotel in Gardiner MT for his tour headquarters. The Northern Pacific RR had been serving Cinnabar MT (about 5 miles north of Gardiner) since 1883 and the hotel allowed his guests coming to the park by train accommodations before or after their park tour. The rail lines were extended to Gardiner in 1903 and the Wylies prepared for this event by constructing a new hotel for his guests on Main St. opposite the WA Hall Store. The Gardiner Wonderland announced in April 1903 that the Wylie’s had purchased lots on Main St., north of the new W.A. Hall store. By the end of May lumber was on the ground and construction had started. By August the hotel was essentially complete. After A.W. Miles took over the company in 1906, he had a large addition built to the hotel. The Wylie Hotel was a permanent fixture in Gardiner until early in 1935 when it was destroyed by fire. Little is known about the management of the hotel during the years between 1917 and 1935. The Lark Lunch as in operation there for a number of years. Top Left: Wylie Hotel, on the west end of Main St., behind the W.A. Hall store, undated. The store to the far left was Moore's Souvenir store. [YNP #9555] Top Right: Wylie Hotel in 1915. By this time the hotel has been remodeled or enlarged. [Photo Album of Latisha Vanderpool, internet auction] ​ Bottom Left: William Wylie's office on East Park St. The sign on the building at left reads, "Wylie Camping Company." The building at far left is the Gardiner Hotel, with C.B. Scott's saloon next to it. The Shaw & Powell Hotel replaced some of these buildings around 1908. In later years The Town Club & Motel occupied much of that block. [Author Digital Collection] Bottom Right: Wylie barn and stables, probably also on East Park. St. [YNP #964] William W. Wylie Leaves Yellowstone ​ The Wylie Permanent Camps Company continued to prosper yet Wylie seemed to lack the financial backing to expand and improve his operation and compete with the profusion of rival camping companies. By 1905 he had been struggling in the business for 25 years and opposition from the hotel company and Northern Pacific RR had been badgering him since the early days. In addition, many of the Acting Park Superintendents (under jurisdiction of the US Army) viewed the camping companies as a necessary evil at best. It was probably a constant effort for Wylie to persevere in face of the opposing forces. Now about 57 years old, he no doubt wearied physically from his annual efforts. So, later in the fall of 1905, Wylie announced that he was selling his beloved operation. A.W. Miles, a prominent Livingston businessman, purchased 1/3 of the company shares, while A.L. Smith purchased the other 2/3 for silent partner H.W. Child, who was owner of the Yellowstone Park Association hotels and the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. It has been said the Miles may have called in Wylie’s loans that had accrued from Mile’s hardware business. The Montana newspaper Fergus County Argus interviewed W.W. Wylie while on a visit and reported, ​ “that last season was the banner year for the transportation companies doing business in Wonderland. Mr. Wylie recently sold out his business, and will devote his time to his extensive ranch interests near Bozeman He said today at the Finlen hotel, where he is stopping, that he did not expect to again enter the transportation business. "No." he said. “I am through with it. I was offered a large salary to take charge of the business I recently sold out, but had I desired to remain in it to that extent, I would not have disposed of the company." Left: Envelope from WW Wylie's Camps Company, depicting one of their stages in front of the old Wylie office on Park St. in Gardiner. It was postmarked 1905. [Author Digital Collection] Right: Card of introduction from W.W. Wylie, signed by Livingston Agent John A. McKee, possible relative of Wylie's daughter Elizabeth Wylie McKee. [Author Digital Collection] Wylie Permanent Camping Co. ​ The new company was called the Wylie Permanent Camping Company and now, seemingly blessed by Interior, received a 10-year lease for operations – the very thing Wylie had unsuccessfully lobbied for these many years. Within the next two years camps were added at Tower Junction, near the Yellowstone River, and Riverside, just east of West Yellowstone which would serve incoming visitors from the soon-to-be established Union Pacific railhead in town. The Apollinaris camp was moved to the south end of Swan Lake Flats. During this next decade the operation would be popularized as the “Wylie Way” of touring Yellowstone. Now with solid financial backing the new company proceeded to upgrade and improve operations at all the camps. They also commenced an active and aggressive advertising program under the auspices of Howard Hays, who in later years presided over the Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Park Co. and gained ownership of the Glacier National Park Transportation Co. The Camps Camp brochures were published every year expounding on the wonders of camp life in Yellowstone. A brochure from 1908 describes five and six-day tours costing $35.00 and $40.00 respectively. Four-room tents, along with tents having two beds and tents with single beds were available with board floors and rugs. Every tent had a wood stove, beds with fine mattresses, and "good clean sheets, blankets, quilts, etc." The tent canvas was candy-striped and meals were served in large dining tents with white table cloths and dishes. Each camp also featured milk houses, cold storage, warehouses, photographer's dark rooms, swings, and hammocks. Transportation was provided in seven and eleven-passenger Concord coaches, or five-passenger Mountain Wagons. Evening entertainment was provided in the form of a large campfire with singing, storytelling, games, and fresh cooked popcorn. In later years dining tents were raised a foot above ground with wooden floors and support posts, with wainscoting along the walls. Capacity was about 80 guests and recreation tents were also featured nearby. Willow Park Camp “We spent our first night at Willow Park camp, which lays near a small stream, in a picturesque part of the forest of pine trees. There were 15 large tents and a dining tent and kitchen. Each tent was partitioned off in four compartments, with pine floor, and contained four beds, with the cleanest of blankets and comforts. A stove heated by wood fire, washstand with plenty of warm water and easy chairs made us as comfortable as anyone would desire to be. Out of doors a bright campfire and jolly company made the evenings long to be remembered. Each camp has cows and the table is supplied with plenty of fresh butter and milk and the best of everything that the market affords. There were 50 horses and 12 stage coaches carry us away on the next day’s journey. Many of the waitresses and guides are students from Montana State college who are spending their vacation in honorable service at the park.” [2Oct1902, Daily Notes, Canonsburg Pa.] Swan Lake Camp From E.H. Moorman’s autobiography, “In the early spring [1896] the Willow park Camp was dismantled and the moveable equipment hauled to Swan Lake, where the new camp of the Wylie Permanent Camping Company was established. A.W. Miles was then the President and General Manager of the company. He constructed a much better camp than the one at Willow Park, bought a much better type of tents, wainscoted the tent from about four feet from the board floors and bought many new tents and much camp equipment; also had better kitchen and dining-room equipment. He installed flush toilets in this camp.” Top Left: Willow Park Camp. Manz ColorType, Chicago.[Author Digital Collection] Top Right: Swan Lake Camp Souvenir/Office Tent [YNP #199718-232] Right: Swan Lake Camp. !910 Wylie brochure.[Author Collection] Bottom Right: Swan Lake Camp, Detroit Postcard #71637 [ Author Collection ] Bottom Left: Young lady seated in an antler chair at Swan Lake Camp in 1907. Gibbon Lunch Station Gibbon lunch station was located about the half-way point between the Swan Lake Camp and Old Faithful Geyser camp. It was located along the south side of the Gibbon river below Gibbon Falls. At that point the Mesa Road cut across the plateau to the Firehole River road. The coaches usually arrived around noon, leaving for Old Faithful after an hour and half lunch break. If one was lucky, they might see a bear or two scrounging around through the garbage bins. After 1908, the lunch station would have been available to those traveling through the west entrance with Wylie. Those guests arrived at 11am and left at noon, upon the arrivals of those from the north. (Shaw & Powell also had a lunch station nearby). Top Left: Gibbon Lunch Station, 1909 Konen-Archibald Album. [Author Digital Collection] Top Right: Departing Stages at Gibbon Camp. Tammen PC #9470 [Author Collection] Geyser Camp - Upper Geyser Basin The Geyser Camp was located toward the lower end of the Upper Geyser Basin, upon a hill near Daisy Geyer. It was the largest camp in the park and had a capacity of 140 guests, and was often used for 2-night stays in order to completely view the Old Faithful Geyser Basin and surrounding area. Water for the cook tent was obtained by a pipeline from the Punch Bowl Geyser. ​ A Visit to the CANVASS CITY Upper Geyser Basin, Wylie Camp. Rows and rows of tents on both sides of passage-ways, or as they are called, “Ways”—Pleasant Way, Rough Way, No Way, Tough Way, Simple Way, Narrow Way, Wrong Way, Right Way, Broadway, Forbidden Way. Going down Forbidden Way, where the girls live, the tents are named: Do Drop Inn, Seldom Inn, Do Come Inn, Sneak Inn, Rough House Inn, Noisy Inn, Paradise Inn. In walking through Forbidden Way, with the “come-hither look” in my eye, and throwing an x-ray on the different Inns, and handing out a few comments just to let them know I was there, a number of them appeared. An athletic girl, six feet, weight 210 pounds, from Rough House Inn. came out and gave me a look, expressing about the same kindly feeling as a Grizzly when you are trying to get friendly with her cubs. All at once she spoke, her voice sounding like the roar of a geyser: “Girls, shall we trough him?” I wasn’t long getting back to the protection of my wife. 1 tell you it’s not safe to go wandering around the Park alone. I asked someone what “troughing” meant. They said: “You see that trough over there? Well, it’s picking a person up, carrying them over and dropping them in, and the wafer is so much colder than the air that the air can’t freeze it,” [What Jim Bridger and I saw in Yellowstone National Park, 1830-1913," by Adams, Charles Francis, Published 1913, p12-13] Top Left: Landscape view of the Wylie Geyser Camp in 1908. [Shipler Photo #356, BYU] Top Right: Postcard view of the camp ca1915, when private automobiles were allowed into Yellowstone. [Haynes PC No. 233. ​ Bottom Left: One of the "Ways" in the Geyser Camp . [Real-Photo postcard, undated] Bottom Right: The Office and Souvenir tent at the Geyser Camp in 1915. [YNP #964] West Thumb Lunch Station In 1898 the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. was permitted to establish four night camps and two lunch stations in the park. One lunch station was at Gibbon Falls and the other West Thumb. It was located west of the West Thumb road junction, at about the midway point between Old Faithful and Lake camps. Unfortunately, the site lacked readily available water, which was about a mile away. It was also subject to dust from passing stagecoaches and wagons. For these reasons, the Wylie company requested that they be able to move their camp. The new camp was located to a point north of the soldier station in an close to the tourist cabins. It also began offering night camping facilities. Top Left: Undated glass slide view of some of the wood-sided tent cabins. FJ Haynes photo. [Author Digital Collection] Top Right: Log outbuildings at the Thumb camp, ca1917. [YNP #199718-232] Lake Camp The camp was located northeast of Lake Hotel, close to the lake shore. E.H. Moorman , described the Lake Camp as “beautiful. The tents formed a huge semi-circle with a camp-fire place at the opening. When the full moon shone across the Lake and practically into the camp, - it was a wonderful sight.” The camp lasted through 1916, and the following year became a part of the Yellowstone Park Camping Co., and eventually Lake Lodge. Top Left: 1917 view of the Old Faithful Camp. Postcard from the Yellowstone Park Camps Co., successors to the Wylie and Shaw & Powell companies. [Author Digital Collection] Top Right: Lake Camp Office and view of Yellowstone Lake in 1913. [ Author Digital Collection ] Bottom Left: Dance Hall tent at Lake Camp, [Shipler Photo #12505, BYU] Canyon Camp This camp was established by 1898 and was located on the east side of Cascade Creek, which comprised a deep ravine at that point. Ed. H. Moorman’s, long-time camps and Yellowstone Park Co . employee, mentioned in his autobiography that in 1899, “The old and first Canyon Camp site was a poor camp location. Water was obtained from Cascade Creek by means of a windlass - a heavy wire line from the bank to the creek on which a pail was sent down, filled with water, and then drawn to the top by means of winding about 100 feet. Many an hour did I spend filling the barrels.” In 1903-04, the steel arch Cascade Creek Bridge was erected farther upstream from the old, wooden, Crystal Falls Bridge, located near the Yellowstone River. The junction of the Norris and Lake roads were changed to conform to the new road over Cascade Creek. The new road from the bridge passed through the middle of the Wylie Camp, which was moved to an area near the current entryway to the Upper Falls parking lot. This camp was abandoned after the merger of the camping companies in 1917. Top Left: View of the old wood bridge over Cascade Cr. and the new steel arch bridge upstream. The 1st Wylie camp was located on a slight hill to right of the bridge. The 2nd camp was moved to an area a ways left of the bridge [Tammen PC #8395, Author Collection] Top Right: 2nd Canyon Camp in 1911, ordered with almost military precision.. [ Shipler Photo #12533, BYU ] Bottom Left: Coaches and stables at Canyon Camp, 1911. [Shipler Photo #12504, BYU] Sylvan Camp In 1912, A.W. Miles, manager of the Wylie Permanent Camping Company, worked out a deal with Tex Holm and park authorities to use the Sylvan Lake Lodge facilities that summer. The Wylie company established an office in Cody and at Holm Lodge to serve their guests desiring to travel through the east entrance. Holm Transportation Co. carried the Wylie guests by automobile from Cody to Holm Lodge where they spent their first night. In the morning Wylie coaches carried the travelers to Sylvan Lodge (Holm Lodge No.2) for a lunch stop before continuing onward to Yellowstone Lake. The following year Wylie built a new camp at the east entrance of the park near the soldier station and discontinued use of Sylvan Lodge and Holm Lodge, although Holm still provided transportation to and from Cody. After the 1915 season and Holm’s bankruptcy, “Kid” Wilson, longtime Holm employee, carried the Wylie guest from Cody to Sylvan Camp. In 1924, the camp became a new Sylvan Lodge with a comely log lodge, lasting for 10 seasons. [Information from “Holm on the Range,” by RGoss, Annals of Wyoming, Winter 2010] Tex Holm's Sylvan Lodge, atop Sylvan Pass near Sylvan Lake, 1911 [Buffalo Bill Historic Center, Holm Family Album] Excerpt from 1913 Wylie Brochure . . . Upon the arrival of the train at Cody, Wyo., at 12.00 noon, Wylie tourists are driven to the Irma Hotel for luncheon. At 1.30 p.m. automobiles leave Cody for Wylie Camp Cody, at east boundary of the Park. No matter what the traveler has seen elsewhere, at home or abroad, the afternoon ride marshalls an array of canyons, cliffs, mountain streams, lakes and forests that will hold him enraptured by their rugged majesty and unspoiled beauty . . . The route follows the river—now narrow and turbulent—to its confluence with Middle Creek and then turns westward up the latter stream. About 6.00 P.M. tourists cross the eastern boundary of the Park, pass the Soldiers’ Station and arrive at Wylie Camp Cody for dinner, lodging and breakfast. Leaving Camp Cody at 7.00 a.m., the road climbs gradually up the steep slopes of the Absaroka Range, winding and twisting to lessen the heavy grade and effects a passage at Sylvan Pass, over ten thousand feet in elevation. The descent on the westernslope of the range to the Park plateau, although circuitous, is easy and gradual. Sylvan Lake, half-hidden waterfalls, Turbid Lake and occasional glimpses of big game add zest to the late morning ride. At 12.00 noon tourists arrive at the Lake Camp on the main “loop” road. At 1.30 p.m. coaches leave camp for the Grand Canyon, sixteen miles distant. Riverside Camp The Riverside Camp, with tents, barns, stables, and outbuildings, was located a few miles inside of the west entrance to the park, along the Madison River, near to the Riverside Barns, Monida-Yellowstone ’s stable, coach and barn facilities. Both operations started in 1908, when rail travel entered the area courtesy the Oregon Short Line (Union Pacific RR). The Wylie camp shut down after the 1916 camp consolidations. “Before our arrival at Yellowstone station (West Yellowstone), we were met by Wylie coaches and taken to Riverside camp, a mile and a half distant. Our first picture of vamp life was a pleasant one, for thls camp was situated beside the Madison river, mirrored by pine trees and grassy hills. We were given an excellent breakfast, and started out again. Most of us travelled in three-seated vehicles with two horses, but there were a number of Concord coaches with four horses.” [The Albion Argus, Neb., 2Aug1912] Top Left: "Departing for trip through Park in Wylie Coaches, at Riverside Camp." cac1912. [Acmegraph PC #9477, Author Collection] Top Right: Riverside Camp [ Marist Collection #16003, Cannavino Library ] Bottom Left: Coaches leaving Riverside Camp, ca1911 [Utah State Historical Society] Roosevelt Camp Roosevelt Tent Camp was established by A.W Miles and the Wylie Permanent Camping Co. in 1906. A bathhouse was built at nearby Nymph Spring, which had been used since at least the 1870s as a bathing/soaking spring by early pioneers and explorers. The guest accommodations were wood-floored tents covered with blue and white candy-striped canvas and furnished with simple, rustic furniture. The camp could handle up to 125 guests. A communal dining tent served family-style meals. The area appealed to those who desired a more isolated area and catered to fisherman, wildlife enthusiasts, and horseback riders. Camp Roosevelt was originally named by the Wylie Camping Co. to honor President Theodore Roosevelt, who was rumored to have camped on the site during his camping trip in 1903. The actual camp site was located at the old Tower Soldier Station, about one and a half miles south of the camp. The camp was not a part of the standard route, buy could be reached by request from Mammoth or over Mt. Washburn from Canyon, at an additional rate. It is little mentioned in Wylie brochures. The camp continued on into the 1920s and later, becoming Roosevelt Lodge . Top Left: 1907 photo of Camp Roosevelt. There seems to have always been a bench around that tree, although it varied in form over the years. [Author Digital Collection] Top Right : Wylie Roosevelt Camp under construction, probably ca1906-07. [#41774 Milwaukee Public Museum] ​ Bottom Left : Wylie Permanent Camp at Roosevelt, ca1906-1907. [#41774 Milwaukee Public Museum] Bottom Right: Advertising stereoview of a typical Wylie Camp. The same photo also exists with a Swan Lake Camp sign - a bit of early photoshopping. [Underwood & Underwood, Keystone-Mast Collection] Lady Mac Margaret J. McCartney, known as "Lady Mac", worked for the camping companies in Yellowstone Park for more than 30 years. She was born September 13, 1864, and grew up in College Hill, Pennsylvania. She began her Yellowstone career in 1902, working for WW Wylie. The Pittsburg Press noted on June 8, 1902, that “Margaret McCartney of College Hill, left Wednesday for Yellowstone Park to be gone all summer.”After a break of five years, she returned to the Wylie Camping Company in 1907, now under ownership of A.W. Miles. She continued to work seasonally until 1934, holding a variety of positions including manager of Canyon Lodge and personnel officer for the Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Company, hiring most of the Park's housekeeping and wait staff. McCartney retired to California by at least 1940 and died at the age of 93 at the Presbyterian Rest Home in Glendale, California, on December 24, 1957. Top Left: Miss McCartney, "Lady Mac" Manager Canyon Lodge, 1924. [YNP #33571] The Final Years of the Wylie Camps Co. 1915 was a banner year for the camps and hotel operations as the Panama-Pacific Exposition was being held in San Francisco. Travelers from all over the country flocked to the event that summer. With railroad access to Yellowstone from both the UPRR, NPRR, and CB&Q RR, visitors could easily stop along the way to or from the coast to visit Wonderland. The Wylie company shared this business boon with Shaw & Powell, the Old Faithful Camping Co. (Hefferlin brothers of Livingston), and Tex Holm, all of whom had established permanent camps by this time. Business settled back to normal in 1916, with the major change being that private automobiles now shared the roads with horses and stagecoaches – a combination not mutually beneficial by any means. The following year the horses were permanently put out to pasture and the noisy smoke-belching autos took over the roadways. 1917 was a momentous year in other ways for the park concessioners. The Park Service/Interior decided to put an end to the various competing camps and transportation companies. Monopolies were created that would allow for simpler management by the NPS and with expectations that eliminating the competition would allow for a greater ability for the companies to earn and invest money into the improvement of their facilities and operation. Four types of coaches & carriages in use by the Wylie Camps Top: 3-Seat Carriage, 1915 [Shipler #16405, BYU] Bottom: 3-Seat Concord Coach, Wylie Permanent Camps. The W.W. Wylie era. [ Author Digital Collection ] Top: 4-Seat Carriage at Gardiner Northern Pacific Depot, W.W. Wylie era. [Courtesy Stuhr Museum] Bottom: Wylie Express Wagon, 1912. [ Author Digital Collection ] A New Reality in Yellowstone & End of the Stagecoach Era In 1917, the various transportation outfits were consolidated into the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. (YPTCo) under the direction of Harry Child, who already owned the hotel operations. He was force to give up his shares of the Wylie camps. 117 new White Motor Co. buses were ordered for the new season to replace the now-unemployed horse assemblage. The Wylie and Shaw & Powell companies were merged together into the Yellowstone Park Camping Co., with 51% of shares owned by AW Miles and the rest by Shaw & Powell . Transportation would be provided by YPTCo. The other camps companies were basically shuttered from the park. All the camps were closed except the former Shaw & Powell camp at Upper Basin (Old Faithful), the Lake Outlet Wylie camp, Canyon Shaw & Powell camp (current Uncle Tom’s Trail area), Tower (Roosevelt) Wylie camp, and the Riverside camp. The Riverside camp would soon be shut down and construction of a new lodge and tent cabins at Mammoth began in 1917. ​ It was the end of an era in Yellowstone and the cultural landscape would be changed forever. The tent camps were gradually transformed into more formal lodge operations. The tent houses were eventually converted into wood cabins, and rustic log lodges were erected at each site to provide for meals, recreation, entertainment, and quaint lobbies where guests could gather around a crackling fire to swap adventures and tell tall tales. The Wylie family moves on . . . William and Mary Wylie eventually retired to Pasadena CA. This pause in their business life was not to last for long. With urging by the newly-established National Park Service in 1917, the Wylie family resurrected the Wylie Camping Company in Zion NP and at the North Rim of Grand Canyon NP to serve the tourists that were only just beginning to discover these new Wonderlands of the Southwest. The Wylies of course faced the same financial limitations as they had in Yellowstone. They ultimately relinquished control of the Zion camp in 1923 and Grand Canyon after the 1927 season to the powerful monied-interests of the Union Pacific and the Utah Parks Co. Once again, retirement was short-lived. In 1928, Mary Ann (Wilson) Wylie, age 73, slipped away to be with her Maker. William Wylie, suffering from cancer, followed her to the grave on February 7, 1930, at about 82 years of age. Both are interred at Mountain View Cemetery, Alta Dena California. Ad for Zion Canyon and the Wylie Camp in June 1917, Salt Lake Tribu ne William W. Wylie at his registration office in the Wylie Camp in Zion Canyon, ca1917. Little remains of the permanent camps in Yellowstone, with the exception of Lake & OF Lodges. There are no brochures, monuments or plaques to note their former glory or existence. And yet, countless millions of visitors have strolled by or driven past these sites with no comprehension of their rich history. However, intrepid and knowledgeable explorers can still wander about and find traces of these historic sites and imagine themselves back in those days of yesteryear and perhaps visit the ghosts of former days.

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